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    AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
    Adelson, B. Comparing natural and abstract categories: a case study from computer science 1985 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 9, pp. 417-430 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{AB-1985001,
      author = {Adelson, Beth},
      title = {Comparing natural and abstract categories: a case study from computer science},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {9},
      pages = {417--430}
    }
    
    Ahn, W.-K., Kim, N.S., Lassaline, M.E. & Dennis, M.J. Causal status as a determinant of feature centrality 2000 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 41(4), pp. 361-416 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{AWK2000001,
      author = {Ahn, Woo-Kyoung and Kim, Nancy S. and Lassaline, Mary E. and Dennis, Martin J.},
      title = {Causal status as a determinant of feature centrality},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {41},
      number = {4},
      pages = {361--416}
    }
    
    Alberdi, E., Sleeman, D.H. & Korpi, M. Accommodating surprise in taxonomic tasks: The role of expertise 2000 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 24(1), pp. 53-91 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper reports a psychological study of human categorization that looked at the procedures used by expert scientists when dealing with puzzling items. Five professional botanists were asked to specify a category from a set of positive and negative instances. The target category in the study was defined by a feature that was unusual, hence situations of uncertainty and puzzlement were generated. Subjects were asked to think aloud while solving the tasks, and their verbal reports were analyzed. A number of problem solving strategies were identified, and subsequently integrated in a model of knowledge-guided inductive categorization. Our model proposes that expert knowledge influences the subjects' reasoning in more complex ways than suggested by earlier investigations of scientific reasoning. As in previous studies, domain knowledge influenced our subjects' hypothesis generation and testing; but, additionally, it played a central role when subjects revised their hypotheses.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AE-2000001,
      author = {Alberdi, E. and Sleeman, D. H. and Korpi, M.},
      title = {Accommodating surprise in taxonomic tasks: The role of expertise},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {24},
      number = {1},
      pages = {53--91}
    }
    
    Anderson, J.A., Silverstein, J.W., Ritz, S.A. & Jones, R.S. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES, CATEGORICAL PERCEPTION, AND PROBABILITY-LEARNING - SOME APPLICATIONS OF A NEURAL MODEL 1977 Psychological Review
    Vol. 84(5), pp. 413-451 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{AJA1977001,
      author = {Anderson, James A. and Silverstein, Jack W. and Ritz, Stephen A. and Jones, Randall S.},
      title = {DISTINCTIVE FEATURES, CATEGORICAL PERCEPTION, AND PROBABILITY-LEARNING - SOME APPLICATIONS OF A NEURAL MODEL},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {84},
      number = {5},
      pages = {413--451}
    }
    
    Anderson, J.R. THE ADAPTIVE NATURE OF HUMAN CATEGORIZATION 1991 Psychological Review
    Vol. 98(3), pp. 409-429 
    article  
    Abstract: A rational model of human categorization behavior is presented that assumes that categorization reflects the derivation of optimal estimates of the probability of unseen features of objects. A Bayesian analysis is performed of what optimal estimations would be if categories formed a disjoint partitioning of the object space and if features were independently displayed within a category. This Bayesian analysis is placed within an incremental categorization algorithm. The resulting rational model accounts for effects of central tendency of categories, effects of specific instances, learning of linearly nonseparable categories, effects of category labels, extraction of basic level categories, base-rate effects, probability matching in categorization, and trial-by-trial learning functions. Although the rational model considers just 1 level of categorization, it is shown how predictions can be enhanced by considering higher and lower levels. Considering prediction at the lower, individual level allows integration of this rational analysis of categorization with the earlier rational analysis of memory (Anderson & Milson, 1989).
    BibTeX:
    @article{AJR1991001,
      author = {Anderson, John R.},
      title = {THE ADAPTIVE NATURE OF HUMAN CATEGORIZATION},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {98},
      number = {3},
      pages = {409--429}
    }
    
    Anderson, J.R. A theory of the origins of human knowledge 1989 Artificial intelligence
    Vol. 40, pp. 313-351 
    article  
    Abstract: The PUPS theory and its ACT* predecessor are computational embodiments of psychology's effort to develop a theory of the origins of knowledge. The theories contain proposals for extraction of knowledge from the environment, a strength-based prioritization of knowledge, knowledge compilation mechanisms for forming use-specific versions of knowledge, and induction mechanisms for extending knowledge. PUPS differs from ACT* basically in its principles of induction which include analogy-based generalization, a discrimination mechanism, and principles of making causal inferences. The knowledge in these theories can be classified into the knowledge level, algorithm level, and implementation level. Knowledge at the knowledge level consists of information acquired from the environment and innate principles of induction and problem solving. Knowledge at the algorithm level consists of internal deductions, inductions, and compilation. Knowledge at the implementation level takes the form of setting strengths for the encoding of specific pieces of information
    BibTeX:
    @article{AJR1989001,
      author = {Anderson, John R.},
      title = {A theory of the origins of human knowledge},
      journal = {Artificial intelligence},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {40},
      pages = {313--351}
    }
    
    Armstrong, S.L., Gleitman, L.R. & Gleitman, H. What some concepts might not be 1983 Cognition
    Vol. 13, pp. 263-308 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ASL1983001,
      author = {Armstrong, Sharon Lee and Gleitman, Lila R. and Gleitman, Henry},
      title = {What some concepts might not be},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {13},
      pages = {263--308}
    }
    
    Ashby, F.G., Alfonso-Reese, L.A., Turken, U. & Waldron, E.M. A neuropsychological theory of multiple systems in category learning 1998 Psychological Review
    Vol. 105(3), pp. 442-481 
    article  
    Abstract: A neuropsychological theory is proposed that assumes category learning is a competition between separate verbal and implicit (i.e., procedural-learning-based) categorization systems. The theory assumes that the caudate nucleus is an important component of the implicit system and that the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices are critical to the verbal system. In addition to making predictions for normal human adults, the theory makes specific predictions for children, elderly people, and patients suffering from Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, major depression, amnesia, or lesions of the prefrontal cortex. Two separate formal descriptions of the theory are also provided. One describes trial-by-trial learning, and the other describes global dynamics. The theory is tested on published neuropsychological data and on category learning data with normal adults.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AFG1998001,
      author = {Ashby, F. Gregory and Alfonso-Reese, Leola A. and Turken, And U. and Waldron, Elliott M.},
      title = {A neuropsychological theory of multiple systems in category learning},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {105},
      number = {3},
      pages = {442--481}
    }
    
    Ashby, F.G. & Maddox, W.T. Human category learning 2005 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 56, pp. 149-178 
    article  
    Abstract: Much recent evidence suggests some dramatic differences in the way people learn perceptual categories, depending on exactly how the categories were constructed. Four different kinds of category-learning tasks are currently popular-rule-based tasks, information-integration tasks, prototype distortion tasks, and the weather prediction task. The cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging results obtained using these four tasks are qualitatively different. Success in rule-based (explicit reasoning) tasks depends on frontal-striatal circuits and requires working memory and executive attention. Success in information-integration tasks requires a form of procedural learning and is sensitive to the nature and timing of feedback. Prototype distortion tasks induce perceptual (visual cortical) learning. A variety of different strategies can lead to success in the weather prediction task. Collectively, results from these four tasks provide strong evidence that human category learning is mediated by multiple, qualitatively distinct systems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AEG2005001,
      author = {Ashby, F. Gregory and Maddox, W. Todd},
      title = {Human category learning},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {56},
      pages = {149--178}
    }
    
    Ashby, F.G. & O'Brien, J.B. Category learning and multiple memory systems 2005 Trends in Cognitive Sciences
    Vol. 9(2), pp. 83-89 
    article  
    Abstract: Categorization is a vitally important skill that people use every day. Early theories of category learning assumed a single learning system, but recent evidence suggests that human category learning may depend on many of the major memory systems that have been hypothesized by memory researchers. As different memory systems flourish under different conditions, an understanding of how categorization uses available memory systems will improve our understanding of a basic human skill, lead to better insights into the cognitive changes that result from a variety of neurological disorders, and suggest improvements in training procedures for complex categorization tasks.
    BibTeX:
    @article{AFG2005001,
      author = {Ashby, F. Gregory and O'Brien, J. B.},
      title = {Category learning and multiple memory systems},
      journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {83--89}
    }
    
    Atance, C.M. & O'neill, D.K. Episodic Future Thinking 2001 Trends in Cognitive Sciences
    Vol. 5(12), pp. 533-539 
    article  
    Abstract: Thinking about the future is an integral component of human cognition one that has been claimed to distinguish us from other species. Building on the construct of episodic memory, we introduce the concept of 'episodic future thinking': a projection of the self into the future to pre-experience an event. We argue that episodic future thinking has explanatory value when considering recent work in many areas of psychology: cognitive, social and personality, developmental, clinical and neuropsychology. Episodic future thinking can serve as a unifying concept, connecting aspects of diverse research findings and identifying key questions requiring further reflection and study.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Atance2001Episodicfuturethinking,
      author = {Atance, Cristina M. and O'neill, Daniela K.},
      title = {Episodic Future Thinking},
      journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {5},
      number = {12},
      pages = {533--539}
    }
    
    Baddeley, A. The Cognitive-Psychology of Everyday Life 1981 British Journal of Psychology
    Vol. 72, pp. 257-269 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BA-1981001,
      author = {Baddeley, A.},
      title = {The Cognitive-Psychology of Everyday Life},
      journal = {British Journal of Psychology},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {72},
      pages = {257--269}
    }
    
    Bailenson, J.N., Shum, M.S., Atran, S., Medin, D.L. & Coley, J.D. A bird's eye view: biological categorization and reasoning within and across cultures 2002 Cognition
    Vol. 84(1), pp. 1-53 
    article  
    Abstract: Many psychological studies of categorization and reasoning use undergraduates to make claims about human conceptualization. Generalizability of findings to other populations is often assumed but rarely tested. Even when comparative studies are conducted, it may be challenging to interpret differences. As a partial remedy, in the present studies we adopt a 'triangulation strategy' to evaluate the ways expertise and culturally different belief systems can lead to different ways of conceptualizing the biological world. We use three groups (US bird experts, US undergraduates, and ordinary Itza' Maya) and two sets of birds (North American and Central American). Categorization tasks show considerable similarity among the three groups' taxonomic sorts, but also systematic differences. Notably, US expert categorization is more similar to ltza' than to US novice categorization. The differences are magnified on inductive reasoning tasks where only undergraduates show patterns of judgment that are largely consistent with current models of category-based taxonomic inference. The Maya commonly employ causal and ecological reasoning rather than taxonomic reasoning. Experts use a mixture of strategies (including causal and ecological reasoning), only some of which current models explain. US and Itza' informants differed markedly when reasoning about passerines (songbirds), reflecting the somewhat different role that songbirds play in the two cultures. The results call into question the importance of similarity-based notions of typicality and central tendency in natural categorization and reasoning. These findings also show that relative expertise leads to a convergence of thought that transcends cultural boundaries and shared experiences. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BJN2002001,
      author = {Bailenson, Jeremy N. and Shum, Michael S. and Atran, Scott and Medin, Douglas L. and Coley, John D.},
      title = {A bird's eye view: biological categorization and reasoning within and across cultures},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {84},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--53}
    }
    
    Bargh, J.A. & Chartrand, T.L. The unbearable automaticity of being 1999 American Psychologist
    Vol. 54, pp. 462-479 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BJA1999001,
      author = {Bargh, John A. and Chartrand, Tanya L.},
      title = {The unbearable automaticity of being},
      journal = {American Psychologist},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {54},
      pages = {462--479}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L.W. Grounded Cognition 2008 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 59(1), pp. 617-645 
    article  
    Abstract: Grounded cognition rejects traditional views that cognition is computation on amodal symbols in a modular system, independent of the brain's modal systems for perception, action, and introspection. Instead, grounded cognition proposes that modal simulations, bodily states, and situated action underlie cognition. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence supporting this view is reviewed from research on perception, memory, knowledge, language, thought, social cognition, and development. Theories of grounded cognition are also reviewed, as are origins of the area and common misperceptions of it. Theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues are raised whose future treatment is likely to affect the growth and impact of grounded cognition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BLW2008001,
      author = {Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Grounded Cognition},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {59},
      number = {1},
      pages = {617--645}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L.W. Perceptual symbol systems 1999 Behavioral and Brain Sciences
    Vol. 22(4), pp. 577-660 
    article  
    Abstract: Prior to the twentieth century, theories of knowledge were inherently perceptual. Since then, developments in logic, statistics, and programming languages have inspired amodal theories that rest on principles fundamentally different from those underlying perception. In addition, perceptual approaches have become widely viewed as untenable because they are assumed to implement recording systems, not conceptual systems. A perceptual theory of knowledge is developed here in the context of current cognitive science and neuroscience. During perceptual experience, association areas in the brain capture bottom-up patterns of activation in sensory-motor areas. Later, in a top-down manner, association areas partially reactivate sensory-motor areas to implement perceptual symbols. The storage and reactivation of perceptual symbols operates at the level of perceptual components not at the level of holistic perceptual experiences. Through the use of selective attention, schematic representations of perceptual components are extracted from experience and stored in memory (e.g., individual memories of green, purr, hot). As memories of the same component become organized around a common frame, they implement a simulator that produces limitless simulations of the component (e.g., simulations of purr). Not only do such simulators develop for aspects of sensory experience, they also develop for aspects of proprioception (e.g., lift, run) and introspection (e.g., compare, memory, happy, hungry). Once established, these simulators implement a basic conceptual system that represents types, supports categorization, and produces categorical inferences. These simulators further support productivity, propositions, and abstract concepts, thereby implementing a fully functional conceptual system. Productivity results from integrating simulators combinatorially and recursively to produce complex simulations. Propositions result from binding simulators to perceived individuals to represent type-token relations. Abstract concepts are grounded in complex simulations of combined physical and introspective events. Thus, a perceptual theory of knowledge can implement a fully functional conceptual system while avoiding problems associated with amodal symbol systems. Implications for cognition, neuroscience, evolution, development, and artificial intelligence are explored.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BLW1999001,
      author = {Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Perceptual symbol systems},
      journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {22},
      number = {4},
      pages = {577--660}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L.W. Cognitive psychology: an overview for cognitive scientists 1992   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{BLW1992001,
      author = {Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Cognitive psychology: an overview for cognitive scientists},
      publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum},
      year = {1992}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L.W. Deriving categories to achieve goals 1991 Psychology of Learning and Motivation-Advances in Research and Theory
    Vol. 27, pp. 1-64 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BLW1991001,
      author = {Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Deriving categories to achieve goals},
      journal = {Psychology of Learning and Motivation-Advances in Research and Theory},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {27},
      pages = {1--64}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L.W. Ideals, central tendency, and frequency of instantiation as determinants of graded structure in categories 1985 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 11(4), pp. 629-654 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BLW1985001,
      author = {Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Ideals, central tendency, and frequency of instantiation as determinants of graded structure in categories},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {11},
      number = {4},
      pages = {629--654}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L.W. Ad hoc categories 1983 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 11(3), pp. 211-227 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BLW1983001,
      author = {Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Ad hoc categories},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {11},
      number = {3},
      pages = {211--227}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L.W., Niedenthal, P.M., Barbey, A.K. & Ruppert, J.A. Social embodiment 2003 Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol 43, pp. 43-92  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{BLW2003002,
      author = {Barsalou, Lawrence W. and Niedenthal, P. M. and Barbey, Aron K. and Ruppert, J. A.},
      title = {Social embodiment},
      booktitle = {Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol 43},
      publisher = {Academic Press Inc},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {43--92}
    }
    
    Barsalou, L.W., Simmons, W.K., Barbey, A.K. & Wilson, C.D. Grounding conceptual knowledge in modality-specific systems 2003 Trends in Cognitive Sciences
    Vol. 7(2), pp. 84-91 
    article  
    Abstract: The human conceptual system contains knowledge that supports all cognitive activities, including perception, memory, language and thought. According to most current theories, states in modality-specific systems for perception, action and emotion do not represent knowledge - rather, redescriptions of these states in amodal representational languages do. Increasingly, however, researchers report that re-enactments of states in modality-specific systems underlie conceptual processing. In behavioral experiments, perceptual and motor variables consistently produce effects in conceptual tasks. In brain imaging experiments, conceptual processing consistently activates modality-specific brain areas. Theoretical research shows how modality-specific re-enactments could produce basic conceptual functions, such as the type-token distinction, categorical inference, productivity, propositions and abstract concepts. Together these empirical results and theoretical analyses implicate modality-specific systems in the representation and use of conceptual knowledge.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BLW2003001,
      author = {Barsalou, Lawrence W. and Simmons, W. Kyle and Barbey, Aron K. and Wilson, Christine D.},
      title = {Grounding conceptual knowledge in modality-specific systems},
      journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      number = {2},
      pages = {84--91}
    }
    
    Bell, R.C., Vince, J. & Costigan, J. Which Vary More in Repertory Grid Data: Constructs or Elements? 2002 Journal of Constructivist Psychology
    Vol. 15(4), pp. 305-314 
    article  
    Abstract: Personal construct theory has a focus on constructs rather than elements, as can be clearly seen in the corollaries proposed by George Kelly. Yet, in the operationalization of his fundamental postulate, namely the repertory grid technique, there is an equal focus on both constructs and elements. Here we examine the relative contributions to variation in the grid data of both elements and constructs and use the intraclass correlation to examine this in several data sets. It is shown that in many instances, elements contribute more to the variation in grid data, irrespective of whether elements and constructs are supplied or elicited, or whether the ratings are made construct by construct or element by element. Implications of this for both the theory and practice are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]. Copyright of Journal of Constructivist Psychology is the property of Psychology Press (UK) and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts). PSYCHOLOGY. PERSONAL construct theory
    BibTeX:
    @article{BellVinceCostigan2002,
      author = {Bell, R. C. and Vince, J. and Costigan, J.},
      title = {Which Vary More in Repertory Grid Data: Constructs or Elements?},
      journal = {Journal of Constructivist Psychology},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {15},
      number = {4},
      pages = {305--314}
    }
    
    Berlin, B. Ethnobiological Classification: Principles of Categorization of Plants and Animals in Traditional Societies 1992 , pp. 335  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Berlin1992,
      author = {Berlin, Brent},
      title = {Ethnobiological Classification: Principles of Categorization of Plants and Animals in Traditional Societies},
      publisher = {Princeton University Press},
      year = {1992},
      pages = {335}
    }
    
    Berlin, B. & Kay, P. Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution 1969   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Berlin1969,
      author = {Berlin, Brent and Kay, Paul},
      title = {Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution},
      publisher = {University of California Press},
      year = {1969}
    }
    
    Boddy, J. & Weinberg, H. BRAIN POTENTIALS, PERCEPTUAL MECHANISMS AND SEMANTIC CATEGORIZATION 1981 Biological Psychology
    Vol. 12(1), pp. 43-61 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{BJ-1981001,
      author = {Boddy, John and Weinberg, Hal},
      title = {BRAIN POTENTIALS, PERCEPTUAL MECHANISMS AND SEMANTIC CATEGORIZATION},
      journal = {Biological Psychology},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {43--61}
    }
    
    Borghi, A.M., Parisi, D. & di Ferdinando, A. Action and hierarchical levels of categories: A connectionist perspective 2005 Cognitive Systems Research
    Vol. 6(2), pp. 99-110 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent views of categorization suggest that categories are action-based rather than arbitrary symbols. Three connectionist simulations explore the hierarchical organization of categories in the framework of an action-based theory of categorization. In the simulations an organism with a visual system and a two-segment arm has to reach different points in space depending on the object seen and on context. The context indicates whether to put the object in a superordinate or in a basic category. The results show that: ( a) superordinate categories are easier to learn than basic ones; ( b) the more similar the actions to perform with basic and superordinate categories, the easier to learn the task; ( c) violation of category boundaries leads to less good performance. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BAM2005001,
      author = {Borghi, A. M. and Parisi, D. and di Ferdinando, A.},
      title = {Action and hierarchical levels of categories: A connectionist perspective},
      journal = {Cognitive Systems Research},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {99--110}
    }
    
    Bowers, K.S. (Un)Conscious Influences in Everyday Life and Cognitive Research 1991 Behavioral and Brain Sciences
    Vol. 14(4), pp. 672 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Bowers1991,
      author = {Bowers, K. S.},
      title = {(Un)Conscious Influences in Everyday Life and Cognitive Research},
      journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {14},
      number = {4},
      pages = {672}
    }
    
    Braisby, N. Deference in categorisation: evidence for essentialism? 2001 Proceedings of the Twenty-third Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Many studies appear to show that categorization conforms to psychological essentialism (e.g., Gelman & Wellman, 1991). However, key implications of essentialism have not been scrutinized. These are that people?s categorizations should shift as their knowledge of micro-structural properties shift, and that people should defer in their categorizations to appropriate experts. Three studies are reported. The first shows that even gross changes in genetic structure do not radically shift categorizations of living kinds. The second and third reveal a pattern of conditional deference to experts, coupled with systematic deference to non-experts. It is argued that these results point towards only a partial role for essentialism in explaining categorization, and a continuing role for theories that emphasize the importance of appearance and/or functional properties.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{BN-2001001,
      author = {Braisby, Nick},
      title = {Deference in categorisation: evidence for essentialism?},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the Twenty-third Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society},
      publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum Associates},
      year = {2001}
    }
    
    Brown, K.W., Ryan, R.A. & Creswell, J.D. Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects 2007 Psychological Inquiry
    Vol. 18(4), pp. 211-237 
    article  
    Abstract: Interest in mindfulness and its enhancement has burgeoned in recent years. In this article, we discuss in detail the nature of mindfulness and its relation to other, established theories of attention and awareness in day-to-day life. We then examine theory and evidence for the role of mindfulness in curtailing negative functioning and enhancing positive outcomes in several important life domains, including mental health, physical health, behavioral regulation, and interpersonal relationships. The processes through which mindfulness is theorized to have its beneficial effects are then discussed, along with proposed directions for theoretical development and empirical research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BrownRyanCreswell2007,
      author = {Brown, Kirk Warren and Ryan, Richard A. and Creswell, J. David},
      title = {Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects},
      journal = {Psychological Inquiry},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {211--237}
    }
    
    Bruner, J.S. Beyond the information given: studies in the psychology of knowing 1973   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{BJS1973001,
      author = {Bruner, Jerome S.},
      title = {Beyond the information given: studies in the psychology of knowing},
      publisher = {Norton},
      year = {1973}
    }
    
    Bull, S. & McCalla, G. Modelling Cognitive Style in a Peer Help Network 2002 Instructional Science
    Vol. 30(6), pp. 497-528 
    article  
    Abstract: I-Help is a computer system that assists learners as they try to solve problems while learning a subject. I-Help achieves this by supporting a network of peers that help each other out. One component of I-Help selects appropriate peers to assist a student, and then sets up a one-on-one peer help session between the helper and the helpee. The matching of helper to helpee takes into account factors such as a potential helper's knowledge of the topic of the helpee's question; their availability and eagerness to help; and their general helpfulness. Recent work has developed a cognitive style component to supplement these attributes, which enables consideration also of the suitability of a helper's cognitive style for answering the helpee's question. This paper describes how modelling individuals' cognitive style can usefully supplement other user model data in a peer help network, and describes how this information is obtained in I-Help.
    BibTeX:
    @article{BS-2002001,
      author = {Bull, Susan and McCalla, Gordon},
      title = {Modelling Cognitive Style in a Peer Help Network},
      journal = {Instructional Science},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {30},
      number = {6},
      pages = {497--528}
    }
    
    Burack, O.R. & Lachman, M.E. The Effects of List-Making on Recall in Young and Elderly Adults 1996 Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
    Vol. 51(4), pp. P226-P233 
    article  
    Abstract: This study examined the effects of list-making, and specific aspects of list-making such as intent (whether one expects to refer back to one's list at rite ti,ne of recall) and organization, on memory performance in young and old adults. Young and old adults were randomly assigned to a list-making or a non-list-making condition. In both conditions, subjects performed two memory tasks in which they were presented with a word list followed by written recall and recognition tests. On one task, subjects were informed that they would not be allowed to refer to the list at the time of testing (internal-intent). On the other task, subjects were informed that they would be allowed to refer back to the list (external-intent), but actually were not allowed to. Planned comparisons found that list-making significantly improved older adults' performance on the recall tasks. Additionally, while the old performed significantly worse than the young in the non-list-making internal-intent recall task (the traditional memory test condition) these significant differences were not found on either of the [ist-making recall tasks. Both young and old list-makers who spontaneously organised their lists while studying the words recalled more items than subjects who did not organize their lists. These findings suggest future directions for both theoretical and applied research in the area of memory and aging.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Burack1996,
      author = {Burack, O. R. and Lachman, M. E.},
      title = {The Effects of List-Making on Recall in Young and Elderly Adults},
      journal = {Journals of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {51},
      number = {4},
      pages = {P226--P233}
    }
    
    Burnett, R.C., Medin, D.L., Ross, N.O. & Blok, S.V. Ideal is typical 2005 Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology
    Vol. 59(1), pp. 5-10 
    article  
    Abstract: A well-established finding in research on concepts and categories is that some members are rated as better or more typical examples than others. It is generally thought that typicality reflects centrality, that is, that typical examples are those that are similar to many other members of the category. This interpretation of typicality is based on studies in which participants had little knowledge about the relevant categories. In the present study, experienced fishermen were asked to give goodness-of-example ratings to familiar freshwater fish. These fishermen were of two cultural groups with somewhat different goals and ideals. Typicality was well predicted by fishes? desirability and poorly predicted by their centrality. Further, the two cultural groups differed in their typicality ratings in ways that corresponded to their different goals and ideals. For knowledgeable reasoners typicality in natural taxonomic categories appears based on ideals rather than on centrality. The psychology of concepts and categories has
    BibTeX:
    @article{BRC2005001,
      author = {Burnett, Russell C. and Medin, Douglas L. and Ross, Norbert O. and Blok, Sergey V.},
      title = {Ideal is typical},
      journal = {Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {59},
      number = {1},
      pages = {5--10}
    }
    
    Calvillo, D.P. & Revlin, R. The role of similarity in deductive categorical inference 2005 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
    Vol. 12(5), pp. 938-944 
    article  
    Abstract: The category inclusion rule specifies that categories inherit the properties of their superordinates. For example, given that all metals are pentavalent, it can be concluded that all iron is pentavalent. Sloman (1998) showed that people do not fully endorse conclusions that follow from the category inclusion rule. He claims that people rely on the similarity between the premise and the conclusion categories (metals and iron), rather than applying the category inclusion rule. By allowing reasoners to rate their certainty for category relations (e.g., iron is metal), as well as for conclusions, the present study shows that similarity has only an indirect effect on the certainty of conclusions: Reasoners are more certain that similar categories have a category inclusion relation, and this in turn affects the certainty of conclusions based on this relation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CDP2005001,
      author = {Calvillo, Dustin P. and Revlin, Russell},
      title = {The role of similarity in deductive categorical inference},
      journal = {Psychonomic Bulletin & Review},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {12},
      number = {5},
      pages = {938--944}
    }
    
    Caramazza, A. & Mahon, B.Z. The organization of conceptual knowledge: the evidence from category-specific semantic deficits 2003 Trends in Cognitive Sciences
    Vol. 7(8), pp. 354-361 
    article  
    Abstract: Questions about the organization of conceptual knowledge in the human brain can be addressed by studying patients with category-specific semantic deficits: disproportionate and even selective impairment of conceptual knowledge of one category of objects compared with other categories. Recently, consensus has emerged regarding the basic facts of category-specific semantic deficits: (1) the categories that can be disproportionately impaired or spared are 'animals', 'fruit/ vegetables', and 'artifacts'; and (2) category-specific semantic deficits are not associated with disproportionate deficits for a type or modality of knowledge. Together with findings in functional neuroimaging, these data indicate a complex organization of conceptual knowledge characterized by several independent dimensions of organization.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CA-2003001,
      author = {Caramazza, Alfonso and Mahon, Bradford Z.},
      title = {The organization of conceptual knowledge: the evidence from category-specific semantic deficits},
      journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      number = {8},
      pages = {354--361}
    }
    
    Carey, S. Conceptual Change in Childhood 1985 , pp. 226  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{CS-1985001,
      author = {Carey, Susan},
      title = {Conceptual Change in Childhood},
      publisher = {MIT Press},
      year = {1985},
      pages = {226}
    }
    
    Cavanaugh, J.C., Grady, J.G. & Perlmutter, M. Forgetting and Use of Memory Aids in 20 to 70 Year Olds Everyday Life 1983 International Journal of Aging & Human Development
    Vol. 17(2), pp. 113-122 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cavanaugh1983,
      author = {Cavanaugh, J. C. and Grady, J. G. and Perlmutter, M.},
      title = {Forgetting and Use of Memory Aids in 20 to 70 Year Olds Everyday Life},
      journal = {International Journal of Aging & Human Development},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {17},
      number = {2},
      pages = {113--122}
    }
    
    Chemlal, S. & Cordier, F. Structures conceptuelles, repr?sentation des objets et des relations entre les objets = Conceptual structures, representation of objects and relations between objects 2006 Revue Canadienne De Psychologie Experimentale = Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology
    Vol. 60(1), pp. 7-23 
    article  
    Abstract: This article provides an overview of psychological studies of object concepts, highlighting the more recent re-conceptualizations, and the latest developments in research in this field. These developments have tended to focus on the notion of context, as well as Oil the notion of causal relations between features. Our theoretical analysis Of this field is backed up by experimental illustrations. We complete with an examination of category-specific impairments studies, in the light of the evolution of concept theories.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CS-2006002,
      author = {Chemlal, Soulaimane and Cordier, Fran?oise},
      title = {Structures conceptuelles, repr?sentation des objets et des relations entre les objets = Conceptual structures, representation of objects and relations between objects},
      journal = {Revue Canadienne De Psychologie Experimentale = Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {60},
      number = {1},
      pages = {7--23}
    }
    
    Chen, C.F., Oakes, M. & Tait, J. Browsing personal images using episodic memory (Time plus location) 2006 Advances in Information Retrieval, pp. 362-372  incollection  
    Abstract: In this paper we consider episodic memory for system design in image retrieval. Time and location are the main factors in episodic memory, and these types of data were combined for image event clustering. We conducted a user studies to compare five image browsing systems using searching time and user satisfaction as criteria for success. Our results showed that the browser which clusters images based on time and location data combined was significantly better than four other more standard browsers. This suggests that episodic memory is potentially useful for improving personal image management.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{CCF2006001,
      author = {Chen, Chu Feng and Oakes, Michael and Tait, John},
      title = {Browsing personal images using episodic memory (Time plus location)},
      booktitle = {Advances in Information Retrieval},
      year = {2006},
      pages = {362--372}
    }
    
    Cheng, P.C.H. Electrifying diagrams for learning: Principles for complex representational systems 2002 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 26(6), pp. 685-736 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Cheng2002,
      author = {Cheng, P. C. H.},
      title = {Electrifying diagrams for learning: Principles for complex representational systems},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {26},
      number = {6},
      pages = {685--736}
    }
    
    Chrysikou, E.G. When shoes become hammers: Goal-derived categorization training enhances problem-solving performance 2006 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 32(4), pp. 935-942 
    article  
    Abstract: Problem-solving theories have not examined how solvers navigate their knowledge to interpret problem situations or to plan strategies toward goals. In this article. the author argues that success in problem solving depends on the solver's ability to construct goal-derived categories. namely categories that are formed ad hoc to serve goals during the instantiation of problem frames. Experiment 1 (N = 140) showed improved problem-solving performance after training to construct goal-derived categories. Experiment 2 (N = 80) demonstrated that effects of training in category construction can be obtained without participants being explicitly informed regarding the relevance of training to problem solving. These studies suggest that problem solving is a dynamic expression of goal-directed cognition and provide evidence for the involvement of categorization in problem-solving processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CEG2006001,
      author = {Chrysikou, Evangelia G.},
      title = {When shoes become hammers: Goal-derived categorization training enhances problem-solving performance},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {32},
      number = {4},
      pages = {935--942}
    }
    
    Chulef, A.S., Read, S.J. & Walsh, D.A. A hierarchical taxonomy of human goals 2001 Motivation and Emotion
    Vol. 25(3), pp. 191-232 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper presents a hierarchical taxonomy of human goals, based on similarity judgments of 135 goals gleaned from the literature. Women and men in 3 age groups-17-30, 25-62, and 65 and older-sorted the goals into conceptually similar groups. These were cluster analyzed and a taxonomy of 30 goal clusters was developed for each age group separately and for the total sample. The clusters were conceptually meaningful and consistent across the 3 samples. The broadest distinction in each sample was between interpersonal or social goals and intrapersonal or individual goals, with interpersonal goals divided into family related and more general social goals. Further the 30 clusters were organized into meaningful higher order clusters. The role of such a taxonomy in promoting theory development and research is discussed, as is its relationship to other organizations of human goals and to the Big Five structure of personality.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CAS2001001,
      author = {Chulef, A. S. and Read, S. J. and Walsh, D. A.},
      title = {A hierarchical taxonomy of human goals},
      journal = {Motivation and Emotion},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {191--232}
    }
    
    Clark, A. & Chalmers, D. The Extended Mind 1998 Analysis
    Vol. 58(1), pp. 7-19 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ClarkChalmers1998Extendedmind,
      author = {Clark, Andy and Chalmers, David},
      title = {The Extended Mind},
      journal = {Analysis},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {58},
      number = {1},
      pages = {7--19}
    }
    
    Cohen, H. & Lefebvre, C. Handbook of categorization in cognitive science 2005 , pp. 1087  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Cohen2005,
      author = {Cohen, Henri and Lefebvre, Claire},
      title = {Handbook of categorization in cognitive science},
      publisher = {Elsevier},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {1087}
    }
    
    Cohen, J. Weighted kappa: Nominal scale agreement provision for scaled disagreement or partial credit 1968 Psychological bulletin
    Vol. 70(4), pp. 213-220 
    article  
    Abstract: A previously described coefficient of agreement for nominal scales, kappa, treats all disagreements equally. A generalization to weighted kappa (Kw) is presented. The Kw provides for the incorpation of ratio-scaled degrees of disagreement (or agreement) to each of the cells of the k * k table of joint nominal scale assignments such that disagreements of varying gravity (or agreements of varying degree) are weighted accordingly. Although providing for partial credit, Kw is fully chance corrected. Its sampling characteristics and procedures for hypothesis testing and setting confidence limits are given. Under certain conditions, Kw equals product-moment r. The use of unequal weights for symmetrical cells makes Kw suitable as a measure of validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)
    BibTeX:
    @article{CJ-1968001,
      author = {Cohen, Jacob},
      title = {Weighted kappa: Nominal scale agreement provision for scaled disagreement or partial credit},
      journal = {Psychological bulletin},
      year = {1968},
      volume = {70},
      number = {4},
      pages = {213--220}
    }
    
    Cohen, J. A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales 1960 Educational and Psychological Measurement
    Vol. 20(1), pp. 37-46 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CJ-1960001,
      author = {Cohen, Jacob},
      title = {A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales},
      journal = {Educational and Psychological Measurement},
      year = {1960},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {37--46}
    }
    
    Collen, A., Wickens, D.D. & Daniele, L. INTERRELATIONSHIP OF TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES 1975 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Learning and Memory
    Vol. 1(5), pp. 629-633 
    article  
    Abstract: College students ... performed a sorting task with taxonomic categories. Sorting norms for both subject groups and hierarchical relations among the categories were determined and compared.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CA-1975001,
      author = {Collen, Arne and Wickens, Delos D. and Daniele, Laura},
      title = {INTERRELATIONSHIP OF TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Learning and Memory},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {1},
      number = {5},
      pages = {629--633}
    }
    
    Conklin, H.C. Folk Classification: A Topically Arranged Bibliography Of contemporary and Background References Through 1971 1972 , pp. 501  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Conklin1972,
      author = {Conklin, Harold C.},
      title = {Folk Classification: A Topically Arranged Bibliography Of contemporary and Background References Through 1971},
      publisher = {Dept. of Anthropology, Yale University},
      year = {1972},
      pages = {501}
    }
    
    Coronges, K.A., Stacy, A.W. & Valente, T.W. Structural Comparison of Cognitive Associative Networks in Two Populations 2007 Journal of Applied Social Psychology
    Vol. 37(9), pp. 2097-2129 
    article  
    Abstract: The cognitive associative structure of 2 populations was studied using network analysis of free-word associations. Structural differences in the associative networks were compared using measures of network centralization, size, density, clustering, and path length. These measures are closely aligned with cognitive theories describing the organization of knowledge and retrieval of concepts from memory. Size and centralization of semantic structures were larger for college students than for 7(th) graders, while density, clustering, and mean path length were similar. Findings presented reveal that subpopulations might have very different cognitive associative networks. This study suggests that graph theory and network analysis methods are useful in mapping differences in associative structures across groups.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Coronges2007CognitiveAssociationStructures,
      author = {Coronges, Kathryn A. and Stacy, Alan W. and Valente, Thomas W.},
      title = {Structural Comparison of Cognitive Associative Networks in Two Populations},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Social Psychology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {37},
      number = {9},
      pages = {2097--2129}
    }
    
    Corter, J.E. & Gluck, M.A. EXPLAINING BASIC CATEGORIES - FEATURE PREDICTABILITY AND INFORMATION 1992 Psychological Bulletin
    Vol. 111(2), pp. 291-303 
    article  
    Abstract: The category utility hypothesis holds that categories are useful because they can be used to predict the features of instances and that the categories that tend to survive and become preferred in a culture (basic-level categories) are those that best improve the category users' ability to perform this function. Starting from this hypothesis, a quantitative measure of the utility of a category is derived. Application to the special case of substitutive attributes is described. The measure is used successfully to predict the basic level in applications to data from hierarchies of natural categories and from hierarchies of artificial categories used in category-learning experiments. The relationship of the measure to previously proposed indicators of the basic level is discussed, as is its relation to certain concepts from information theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CJE1992001,
      author = {Corter, James E. and Gluck, Mark A.},
      title = {EXPLAINING BASIC CATEGORIES - FEATURE PREDICTABILITY AND INFORMATION},
      journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {111},
      number = {2},
      pages = {291--303}
    }
    
    Craik, F.I.M. & Lockhart, R.S. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research 1972 Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior
    Vol. 11(6), pp. 671-684 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Craik1972,
      author = {Craik, F. I. M. and Lockhart, R. S.},
      title = {Levels of processing: A framework for memory research},
      journal = {Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior},
      year = {1972},
      volume = {11},
      number = {6},
      pages = {671--684}
    }
    
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Graef, R. THE EXPERIENCE OF FREEDOM IN DAILY LIFE 1980 American Journal of Community Psychology
    Vol. 8(4), pp. 401-414 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Csikszentmihalyi1980,
      author = {Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Graef, R.},
      title = {THE EXPERIENCE OF FREEDOM IN DAILY LIFE},
      journal = {American Journal of Community Psychology},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {401--414}
    }
    
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. & LeFevre, J. Optimal experience in work and leisure 1989 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
    Vol. 56(5), pp. 815-822 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{CM-1989001,
      author = {Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and LeFevre, Judith},
      title = {Optimal experience in work and leisure},
      journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {56},
      number = {5},
      pages = {815--822}
    }
    
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Rathunde, K. The Measurement of Flow in Everyday Life - Toward a Theory of Emergent Motivation 1993 Nebraska Symposium on Motivation
    Vol. 40, pp. 57-97 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Csik1993,
      author = {Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Rathunde, Kevin},
      title = {The Measurement of Flow in Everyday Life - Toward a Theory of Emergent Motivation},
      journal = {Nebraska Symposium on Motivation},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {40},
      pages = {57--97}
    }
    
    Cummins Dellarosa, D. ROLE OF ANALOGICAL REASONING IN THE INDUCTION OF PROBLEM CATEGORIES 1992 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 18(5), pp. 1103-1124 
    article  
    Abstract: In 3 experiments, novices were required to answer questions while reading a series of problems. The questions required them either to analyze individual problem structures (intraproblem processing) or compare problem structures (analogical comparison processing) to derive answers. Ss who engaged in problem comparison processing were found to categorize and describe problems on the basis of problem structures, whereas those who engaged in intraproblem processing, or simply read the problems, categorized and described them on the basis of surface features. Analogical comparisons also facilitated selection and construction of equations relative to intraproblem processing. These results suggest that analogical comparison is an important component in the induction of problem categories.
    BibTeX:
    @article{CDD1992001,
      author = {Cummins Dellarosa, Denise},
      title = {ROLE OF ANALOGICAL REASONING IN THE INDUCTION OF PROBLEM CATEGORIES},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {18},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1103--1124}
    }
    
    Czerwinski, M., Gage, D.W., Gemmell, J., Catarci, T., Marshall, C.C., Perez-Quinones, M.A. & Skeels, M.M. Digital memories & ubiquitous computing 2005 The PIM Workshop: An NSF-Sponsored Invitational Workshop on Personal Information Management  inproceedings URL 
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{CM-2005001,
      author = {Czerwinski, Mary and Gage, Douglas W. and Gemmell, Jim and Catarci, Tiziana and Marshall, Catherine C. and Perez-Quinones, Manuel A. and Skeels, Meredith M.},
      title = {Digital memories & ubiquitous computing},
      booktitle = {The PIM Workshop: An NSF-Sponsored Invitational Workshop on Personal Information Management},
      year = {2005},
      url = {http://pim.ischool.washington.edu/breakouts.htm}
    }
    
    Czerwinski, M. & Horvitz, E. An investigation of memory for daily computing events 2002 Proceedings of HCI 2002, pp. 230-245  inproceedings  
    Abstract: In pursuit of computational tools for augmenting computer users? abilities to interleave multiple tasks, we examined computer users? ability to identify and recall computing events deemed to be important, both with and without supportive reminder tools. Memory for events occurring during computer sessions was studied both 24 hours after an initial taped session and again after a one-month period of time. Results show that memory for important computing events is fragile and that software tools could be used to augment users? memories of how they have spent their time while computing. In addition, we observed that approximately half of the events that users identified as important could be identified automatically with available computational methods, and an attempt was made to characterize the nature of the remaining events. Finally, in a probe of alternate designs for reminding systems, we found that users typically preferred to see snapshots of their computing events in a prototype reminder system, without audio, as opposed to a full video version of an event reminder system.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{CM-2002001,
      author = {Czerwinski, Mary and Horvitz, Eric},
      title = {An investigation of memory for daily computing events},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of HCI 2002},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {230--245}
    }
    
    Dallett, K.M. NUMBER OF CATEGORIES + CATEGORY INFORMATION IN FREE-RECALL 1964 Journal of Experimental Psychology
    Vol. 68(1), pp. 1-12 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{DKM1964001,
      author = {Dallett, Kent M.},
      title = {NUMBER OF CATEGORIES + CATEGORY INFORMATION IN FREE-RECALL},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology},
      year = {1964},
      volume = {68},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--12}
    }
    
    Damper, R.I. & Harnad, S.R. Neural network models of categorical perception 2000 Perception & Psychophysics
    Vol. 62(4), pp. 843-867 
    article  
    Abstract: Studies of the categorical perception (CP) of sensory continua have a long and rich history in psychophysics. In 1977, Macmillan, Kaplan, and Creelman introduced the use of signal detection theory to CP studies. Anderson and colleagues simultaneously proposed the first neural model for CP, yet this Line of research has been less well explored. In this paper, we assess the ability of neural-network models of CP to predict the psychophysical performance of real observers with speech sounds and artificial/novel stimuli. We show that a variety of neural mechanisms are capable of generating the characteristics of CP. Hence, CP may not be a special mode of perception but an emergent property of any sufficiently powerful general learning system.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Damper2000,
      author = {Damper, R. I. and Harnad, Stevan R.},
      title = {Neural network models of categorical perception},
      journal = {Perception & Psychophysics},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {62},
      number = {4},
      pages = {843--867}
    }
    
    Davies, G. & Thomson, D.M. Memory in context : context in memory 1988 , pp. 359  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Davies1988,
      author = {Davies, Graham and Thomson, Donald M},
      title = {Memory in context : context in memory},
      publisher = {J. Wiley},
      year = {1988},
      pages = {359}
    }
    
    De Boeck, P., Wilson, M. & Acton, G.S. A conceptual and psychometric framework for distinguishing categories and dimensions 2005 Psychological Review
    Vol. 112(1), pp. 129-158 
    article  
    Abstract: An important, sometimes controversial feature of all psychological phenomena is whether they are categorical or dimensional. A conceptual and psychometric framework is described for distinguishing whether the latent structure behind manifest categories (e.g., psychiatric diagnoses, attitude groups, or stages of development) is category-like or dimension-like. Being dimension-like requires (a) within-category heterogeneity and (b) between-category quantitative differences. Being category-like requires (a) within-category homogeneity and (b) between-category qualitative differences. The relation between this classification and abrupt versus smooth differences is discussed. Hybrid structures are possible. Being category-like is itself a matter of degree; the authors offer a formalized framework to determine this degree. Empirical applications to personality disorders, attitudes toward capital punishment, and stages of cognitive development illustrate the approach.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DBP2005001,
      author = {De Boeck, Paul and Wilson, Mark and Acton, G. Scott},
      title = {A conceptual and psychometric framework for distinguishing categories and dimensions},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {112},
      number = {1},
      pages = {129--158}
    }
    
    Demopoulos, W. & Marras, A. Language Learning and Concept Acquisition: Foundational Issues 1986 , pp. 208  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Demopoulos1986,
      author = {Demopoulos, William and Marras, Ausonio},
      title = {Language Learning and Concept Acquisition: Foundational Issues},
      publisher = {Ablex Pub. Corp},
      year = {1986},
      pages = {208}
    }
    
    Dempsey, D.J. & Neimeyer, R.A. Organization of personal knowledge: Convergent validity of implications grids and repertory grids as measures of system structure 1995 Journal of Constructivist Psychology
    Vol. 8(3), pp. 251-261 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dempsey1995,
      author = {Dempsey, D. J. and Neimeyer, R. A.},
      title = {Organization of personal knowledge: Convergent validity of implications grids and repertory grids as measures of system structure},
      journal = {Journal of Constructivist Psychology},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {251--261}
    }
    
    Diaz, M. & Ross, B.H. Sorting out categories: Incremental learning of category structure 2006 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
    Vol. 13(2), pp. 251-256 
    article  
    Abstract: Two experiments examine how inferences might promote unsupervised and incremental category learning. Many categories have members related through overall similarity (e.g., a family resemblance structure) rather than by a defining feature. However, when people are asked to sort category members in a category construction task, they often do so by partitioning on a single feature. Starting from an earlier result showing that pairwise inferences increase family resemblance sorting (Lassaline & Murphy, 1996), we examine how these inferences lead to learning the family resemblance structure. Results show that the category structure is learned incrementally. The pairwise inferences influence participants' weightings of feature pairs that were specifically asked about, which in turn affects their sorting. The sorting then allows further learning of the categorical structure. Thus, the inferences do not directly lead learners to the family resemblance structure, but they do provide a foundation to build on as the participants make additional judgments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DM-2006001,
      author = {Diaz, Michael and Ross, Brian H.},
      title = {Sorting out categories: Incremental learning of category structure},
      journal = {Psychonomic Bulletin & Review},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {251--256}
    }
    
    Diesendruck, G. Categories for names or names for categories? The interplay between domain-specific conceptual structure and language 2003 Language and Cognitive Processes
    Vol. 18(5-6), pp. 759-787 
    article  
    Abstract: Various claims have been made in the developmental literature about the relationship between language and categorisation in children. Drawing on the notion of the domain-specificity of cognition, the paper reviews evidence on the effect of language in the classification of and reasoning about categories from different domains. The review looks at the anthropological, infant classification, and preschool categorisation literature. Overall, the analyses suggest that the causal nature and inductive power of animal categories seem to be the least influenced by linguistic and cultural factors, of artifact categories the most, and of human categories somewhere in between these other two kinds. Some gaps on the evidence reviewed are noted and possible theoretical accounts of the emerging pattern are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DG-2003001,
      author = {Diesendruck, Gil},
      title = {Categories for names or names for categories? The interplay between domain-specific conceptual structure and language},
      journal = {Language and Cognitive Processes},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {18},
      number = {5-6},
      pages = {759--787}
    }
    
    Diesendruck, G. & Gelman, S.A. Domain differences in absolute judgments of category membership 1999 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
    Vol. 6(2), pp. 338-346 
    article  
    Abstract: There has been some debate about the correspondence between typicality gradients and category membership. The present study investigates the relationship between these two measures in the domains of animals and artifacts. Forty-two adults judged the degree of typicality or category membership of 293 animals and artifacts. The subjects' tendency for animals, but not for artifacts, was to make more absolute ratings on category membership (i.e., judging exemplars as definitely members or definitely not members of their respective category) than on typicality. More importantly, at almost every level of typicality, subjects were more likely to make absolute judgments of category membership for animals than for artifacts. These results indicate that people treat category membership of animals as relatively absolute (which best fits an essentialist model of categorization) and treat category membership of artifacts as relatively graded (which best fits a prototype model of categorization). These domain differences add crucial supporting evidence for claims about the domain-specificity of essentialism.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DG-1999001,
      author = {Diesendruck, Gil and Gelman, Susan A.},
      title = {Domain differences in absolute judgments of category membership},
      journal = {Psychonomic Bulletin & Review},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {6},
      number = {2},
      pages = {338--346}
    }
    
    Dinsmore, J. Mental Spaces from a Functional Perspective 1987 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 11(1), pp. 1-21 
    article  
    Abstract: In his book Mental Spaces, Fauconnier develops a powerful theory of human knowledge representation and linguistic processing that handles a variety of problems in linguistics and the philosophy of language in a simple, uniform, and intuitively plausible way. However, he has little to say about the structure or general role of mental spaces in cognition. The present paper proposes that mental spaces are a means of organizing knowledge in support of a general inference method, simulalive reasoning, found in various guises both in logic and in Artificial Intelligence. The structuring required to fulfill this role allows us to make a wide variety of predictions which seem to be borne out by evidence from natural language. In attributing a specific function to mental spaces, this paper suggests that the theory of mental spaces defines a potentially significant paradigm for knowledge representation in Artificial Intelligence.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Dinsmore1987001--MentalSpacesFunctionalPerspective,
      author = {Dinsmore, John},
      title = {Mental Spaces from a Functional Perspective},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--21}
    }
    
    Dodhia, R.M. & Dismukes, R.K. Interruptions create prospective memory tasks Applied Cognitive Psychology  article URL 
    Abstract: When the theory of prospective memory is brought to bear on the ubiquitous experience of failing to resume interrupted tasks, the cognitive reasons for these failures may be understood and addressed. We examine three features of interruptions that may account for these failures: (1) Interruptions often abruptly divert attention, which may prevent adequate encoding of an intention to resume and forming an implementation plan, (2) New task demands after an interruption's end reduce opportunity to interpret resumption cues, (3) The transition after an interruption to new ongoing task demands is not distinctive because it is defined conceptually, rather than by a single perceptual cue. Hypotheses based on these three features receive support from two experiments that respectively manipulate encoding and retrieval conditions. The data support our contention that interrupted tasks are a special case of prospective memory, and allow us to suggest practical ways of reducing vulnerability to resumption failure. Copyright ? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{DodhiaInterruptionsProspectiveMem,
      author = {Dodhia, Rahul M. and Dismukes, Robert K.},
      title = {Interruptions create prospective memory tasks},
      journal = {Applied Cognitive Psychology},
      url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/117926656/abstract}
    }
    
    Dourish, P., Lamping, J. & Rodden, T. Building bridges: Customization and mutual intelligibility in shared category management 1999 Proceedings of the international ACM SIGGROUP conference on Supporting group work , pp. 11-20  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{DP-1999001,
      author = {Dourish, Paul and Lamping, John and Rodden, Tom},
      title = {Building bridges: Customization and mutual intelligibility in shared category management},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the international ACM SIGGROUP conference on Supporting group work },
      publisher = {ACM Press},
      year = {1999},
      pages = {11--20}
    }
    
    Dumais, S.T. & Landauer, T.K. Using examples to describe categories 1983 Proceedings of CHI 1983, pp. 112-115  inproceedings  
    Abstract: The successful use of menu-based information retrieval systems depends critically on users understanding the category names and partitions used by system designers. Some of the problems in this endeavor are psychological and have to do with naming large and ill-defined categories so that users can understand their contents, and effectively partitioning large sets of objects. Systems of interest (like home information systems) often consist of new and frequently changing content in large and varied domains, and are particularly prone to these problems. We explored several ways in which one might name categories in one such domain (Yellow Page category headings) - category names, category names plus examples, and examples alone. We found that three examples alone were essentially as good a way to name these categories as either an expertly chosen name or a name plus examples. Examples provide a promising possibility both as a means of flexibly naming menu categories and as a methodological tool to study certain categorization problems.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{DST1983001,
      author = {Dumais, Susan T. and Landauer, Thomas K.},
      title = {Using examples to describe categories},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of CHI 1983},
      year = {1983},
      pages = {112--115}
    }
    
    Edwards, D. Categories are for talking: On the cognitive and discursive bases of categorization 1991 Theory & Psychology
    Vol. 1(4), pp. 515-542 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper_begins by drawing a distinction between cognitive and discursive approaches to linguistic categorization, and it is arguedd that cognitive approaches have ignored the prime importance of discourse. Rather than attempting to reject or refute the cognitive orientation in favour of a social alternative, it is argued that talk enlists cognition as a powerful element in the rhetoric of description and reality constructiofl. Important features of categorization, such as prototype structures, indefiniteness of membership, indexicality of applicati6n and contrastive organization are shown to make sense as features designed for the situated rhetoric of talk, rather than for displaying a personts abstracted understanding of the world. It is argued that cognitive theories, while providing important insights into semantic organi2ation, manage to suitain the explanatory primacy of perception and cognition onty through the use of methods that systematically remove from view the flex'ibilities and action orientation of talk, while using imaginations of situated talk as a basis for semantic analvsis.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ED-1991001,
      author = {Edwards, Derek},
      title = {Categories are for talking: On the cognitive and discursive bases of categorization},
      journal = {Theory & Psychology},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {1},
      number = {4},
      pages = {515--542}
    }
    
    Elio, R. & Anderson, J.R. THE EFFECTS OF CATEGORY GENERALIZATIONS AND INSTANCE SIMILARITY ON SCHEMA ABSTRACTION 1981 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Learning and Memory
    Vol. 7(6), pp. 397-417 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ER-1981001,
      author = {Elio, Ren?e and Anderson, John R.},
      title = {THE EFFECTS OF CATEGORY GENERALIZATIONS AND INSTANCE SIMILARITY ON SCHEMA ABSTRACTION},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Learning and Memory},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {7},
      number = {6},
      pages = {397--417}
    }
    
    Ell, S.W. & Ashby, F.G. The effects of category overlap on information-integration and rule-based category learning 2006 Perception & Psychophysics
    Vol. 68(6), pp. 1013-1026 
    article  
    Abstract: In three experiments, we investigated whether the amount of category overlap constrains the decision strategies used in category learning, and whether such constraints depend on the type of category structures used. Experiments 1 and 2 used a category-learning task requiring perceptual integration of information from multiple dimensions (an information-integration task) and Experiment 3 used a task requiring the application of an explicit strategy (a nile-based task). hi the information-integration task, participants used perceptual-integration strategies at moderate levels of category overlap, but explicit strategies at extreme levels of overlap-even when such strategies were suboptimal. In contrast, in the rule-based task, participants used explicit strategies, regardless of the level of category overlap. These data are consistent with a multiple systems view of category learning, and suggest that categorization strategy depends on the type of task that is used, and on the degree to which each stimulus is probabilistically associated with the contrasting categories.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ESW2006001,
      author = {Ell, Shawn W. and Ashby, F. Gregory},
      title = {The effects of category overlap on information-integration and rule-based category learning},
      journal = {Perception & Psychophysics},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {68},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1013--1026}
    }
    
    Ellis, J. & Kvavilashvili, L. Prospective Memory in 2000: Past, Present, and Future Directions 2000 Applied Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 14, pp. S1-S9 
    article  
    Abstract: During the past four years there has been an explosion of interest in prospective memory research, culminating recently in the success of the First International Conference on Prospective Memory (July, 2000). In this paper we take the opportunity to review progress in the area by identifying some key themes and issues that arose during the conference and that are exemplified in the papers contained in this special issue. Finally, we consider future directions for research and some of the key questions that we believe all researchers in this area will need to address. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ellis2000ProspectiveMemory.pdf,
      author = {Ellis, J. and Kvavilashvili, L.},
      title = {Prospective Memory in 2000: Past, Present, and Future Directions},
      journal = {Applied Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {14},
      pages = {S1--S9}
    }
    
    Erickson, M.A. & Kruschke, J.K. Rules and exemplars in category learning 1998 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 127(2), pp. 107-140 
    article  
    Abstract: Psychological theories of categorization generally focus on either rule-or exemplar-based explanations. We present 2 experiments that show evidence of both rule induction and exemplar encoding as well as a connectionist model, ATRIUM, that specifies a mechanism for combining rule- and exemplar-based representation. In 2 experiments participants learned to classify items, most of which followed a simple rule, although there were a few frequently occurring exceptions. Experiment 1 examined how people extrapolate beyond the range of training. Experiment 2 examined the effect of instance frequency on generalization. Categorization behavior was well described by the model, in which exemplar representation is used for both rule and exception processing. A key element in correctly modeling these results was capturing the interaction between the rule-and exemplar-based representations by using shifts of attention between rules and exemplars.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EMA1998001,
      author = {Erickson, Michael A. and Kruschke, John K.},
      title = {Rules and exemplars in category learning},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {127},
      number = {2},
      pages = {107--140}
    }
    
    Estes, W.K. Classification and cognition 1994   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Estes1994,
      author = {Estes, William K.},
      title = {Classification and cognition},
      publisher = {Oxford University Press},
      year = {1994}
    }
    
    Estes, W.K. MEMORY STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL-PROCESSES IN CATEGORY LEARNING 1986 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 115(2), pp. 155-174 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{EWK1986001,
      author = {Estes, William K.},
      title = {MEMORY STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL-PROCESSES IN CATEGORY LEARNING},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {115},
      number = {2},
      pages = {155--174}
    }
    
    Estes, Z. Domain differences in the structure of artifactual and natural categories 2003 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 31(2), pp. 199-214 
    article  
    Abstract: In three experiments, different methodologies, measures, and items were employed to address the question of whether, and to what extent, membership in a semantic category is all or none (i.e., absolute) or a matter of degree (i.e., graded). Resemblance theory claims that categorization is based on similarity, and because similarity is graded, category membership may also be graded. Psychological essentialism asserts that categorization is based on the presumption of the category essence. Because artifactual (e.g., FURNITURE) and natural (e.g., FRUIT) categories have different sorts of essences, artifacts and natural kinds may be categorized in qualitatively different manners. The results converged on the finding of a robust domain difference in category structure: Artifactual categories were more graded than natural categories. Furthermore, typicality reliably predicted absolute category membership, but failed to predict graded category membership. These results suggest that resemblance theory and psychological essentialism may provide a concerted account of representation and categorization across domains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{EZ-2003001,
      author = {Estes, Z.},
      title = {Domain differences in the structure of artifactual and natural categories},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {31},
      number = {2},
      pages = {199--214}
    }
    
    Evans, N.J. HUMAN PROCESSING OF NATURAL CATEGORIES 1982 Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science
    Vol. 19, pp. 80-83 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ENJ1982001,
      author = {Evans, Nancy J.},
      title = {HUMAN PROCESSING OF NATURAL CATEGORIES},
      journal = {Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {19},
      pages = {80--83}
    }
    
    Eysenck, M.W., Ellis, A.W., Hunt, E.B. & Johnson-Laird, P.N. The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology 1990 , pp. 390 p.  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Eysenck1990,
      author = {Eysenck, Michael W. and Ellis, Andrew W. and Hunt, Earl B. and Johnson-Laird, Philip N.},
      title = {The Blackwell Dictionary of Cognitive Psychology},
      publisher = {Blackwell Reference},
      year = {1990},
      pages = {390 p.}
    }
    
    Felcher, E.M., Malaviya, P. & McGill, A.L. The role of taxonomic and goal-derived product categorization in, within, and across category judgments 2001 Psychology & Marketing
    Vol. 18(8), pp. 865-887 
    article  
    Abstract: Consumers can face two types of judgment and choice situations: They may be considering products that are classified in a single product category, or products that may belong to several different product categories. This article compares these within- and across-category judgments on the basis of the distinction between taxonomic and goal-derived categorization. The first study examines how products that belong to taxonomic and goal-derived categories are represented in memory. The findings support the view that taxonomic categories differ from goal-derived categories in terms of the ease with which the features shared between members of the category are accessible and the type of features that are used to represent the members. In turn, these differences influence consumer beliefs, judgments, and choice sets when consumers make within- and across-category product comparisons. A second study examines how consumers' familiarity with consumption situations influences the construction of choice sets. Results indicate that as familiarity with consumption situations increases, consumers construct more narrowly defined, within-category choice sets, whereas in less-familiar situations consumers construct broader, across-category choice sets. The implication of these findings on marketing action is discussed. (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FEM2001001,
      author = {Felcher, E. Marla and Malaviya, Prashant and McGill, Ann L.},
      title = {The role of taxonomic and goal-derived product categorization in, within, and across category judgments},
      journal = {Psychology & Marketing},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {18},
      number = {8},
      pages = {865--887}
    }
    
    Feldon, D.F. The implications of research on expertise for curriculum and pedagogy 2007 Educational Psychology Review
    Vol. 19(2), pp. 91-110 
    article  
    Abstract: Instruction on problem solving in particular domains typically relies on explanations from experts about their strategies. However, research indicates that such self-reports often are incomplete or inaccurate (e.g., Chao & Salvendy, 1994; Cooke & Breedin, 1994). This article evaluates research on experts' cognition, the accuracy of experts' self-reports, and the efficacy of instruction based on experts' self-reports. Analysis of this evidence indicates that experts' free recall of strategies introduces errors and omissions into instructional materials that hinder student success. In contrast, when experts engage in structured knowledge elicitation techniques (e.g., cognitive task analysis), the resultant instruction is more effective. Based on these findings, the article provides a theoretical explanation of experts' self-report errors and discusses implications for the continued improvement of instructional design processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FDF2007001,
      author = {Feldon, David F.},
      title = {The implications of research on expertise for curriculum and pedagogy},
      journal = {Educational Psychology Review},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2},
      pages = {91--110}
    }
    
    Feldon, D.F. Erratum: The implications of research on expertise for curriculum and pedagogy 2007 Educational Psychology Review
    Vol. 19(2) 
    article  
    Abstract: Instruction on problem solving in particular domains typically relies on explanations from experts about their strategies. However, research indicates that such self-reports often are incomplete or inaccurate (e.g., Chao & Salvendy, 1994; Cooke & Breedin, 1994). This article evaluates research on experts' cognition, the accuracy of experts' self-reports, and the efficacy of instruction based on experts' self-reports. Analysis of this evidence indicates that experts' free recall of strategies introduces errors and omissions into instructional materials that hinder student success. In contrast, when experts engage in structured knowledge elicitation techniques (e.g., cognitive task analysis), the resultant instruction is more effective. Based on these findings, the article provides a theoretical explanation of experts' self-report errors and discusses implications for the continued improvement of instructional design processes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FDF2007002,
      author = {Feldon, David F.},
      title = {Erratum: The implications of research on expertise for curriculum and pedagogy},
      journal = {Educational Psychology Review},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2}
    }
    
    Ferbinteanu, J., Kennedy, P.J. & Shapiro, M.L. Episodic memory - From brain to mind 2006 Hippocampus
    Vol. 16(9), pp. 691-703 
    article  
    Abstract: Neuronal mechanisms of episodic memory, the conscious recollection of autobiographical events, are largely unknown because electrophysiological studies in humans are conducted only in exceptional circumstances. Unit recording studies in animals are thus crucial for understanding the neurophysiological substrate that enables people to remember their individual past. Two features of episodic memory-autonoetic consciousness, the self-aware ability to "travel through time", and one-trial learning, the acquisition of information in one occurrence of the event-raise important questions about the validity of animal models and the ability of unit recording studies to capture essential aspects of memory for episodes. We argue that autonoetic experience is a feature of human consciousness rather than an obligatory aspect of memory for episodes, and that episodic memory is reconstructive and thus its key features can be modeled in animal behavioral tasks that do not involve either autonoetic consciousness or one-trial learning. We propose that the most powerful strategy for investigating neurophysiological mechanisms of episodic memory entails recording unit activity in brain areas homologous to those required for episodic memory in humans (e.g., hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) as animals perform tasks with explicitly defined episodic-like aspects. Within this framework, empirical data suggest that the basic structure of episodic memory is a temporally extended representation that distinguishes the beginning from the end of an event. Future research is needed to fully understand how neural encodings of context, sequences of items/events, and goals are integrated within mnemonic representations of autobiographical events. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ferbinteanu2006,
      author = {Ferbinteanu, Janina and Kennedy, Pamela J. and Shapiro, Matthew L.},
      title = {Episodic memory - From brain to mind},
      journal = {Hippocampus},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {16},
      number = {9},
      pages = {691--703}
    }
    
    Fiske, S.T. & Taylor, S.E. Social cognition 1991 , pp. 717  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Fiske1991,
      author = {Fiske, Susan T. and Taylor, Shelley E.},
      title = {Social cognition},
      publisher = {McGraw-Hill},
      year = {1991},
      pages = {717},
      edition = {2nd ed.}
    }
    
    Flanagan, J.C. The critical incident technique 1954 Psychological Bulletin
    Vol. 51(4), pp. 327-358 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Flanagan1954,
      author = {Flanagan, John C.},
      title = {The critical incident technique},
      journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
      year = {1954},
      volume = {51},
      number = {4},
      pages = {327--358}
    }
    
    Fleiss, J.L., Cohen, J. & Everitt, B.S. Large sample standard errors of kappa and weighted kappa 1969 Psychological bulletin
    Vol. 72(5), pp. 323-327 
    article  
    Abstract: 2 statistics, kappa and weighted kappa, are available for measuring agreement between 2 raters on a nominal scale. Formulas for the standard errors of these 2 statistics are in error in the direction of overestimation, so that their use results in conservative significance tests and confidence intervals. Valid formulas for the approximate large-sample variances are given, and their calculation is illustrated using a numerical example. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)
    BibTeX:
    @article{FJL1969001,
      author = {Fleiss, Joseph L. and Cohen, Jacob and Everitt, B. S.},
      title = {Large sample standard errors of kappa and weighted kappa},
      journal = {Psychological bulletin},
      year = {1969},
      volume = {72},
      number = {5},
      pages = {323--327}
    }
    
    Fodor, J.A., Garrett, M.F., Walker, E.C.T. & Parkes, C.H. Against definitions 1980 Cognition
    Vol. 8(3), pp. 263-367 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FJA1980001,
      author = {Fodor, Jerry A. and Garrett, Merrill F. and Walker, Edward C. T. and Parkes, Cornelia H.},
      title = {Against definitions},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {263--367}
    }
    
    Freitas, A.L. & Higgins, E.T. Enjoying Goal-Directed Action: The Role of Regulatory Fit 2002 Psychological Science
    Vol. 13(1), pp. 1-6 
    article  
    Abstract: We propose that the fit between an action?s strategic orientation and the actor?s regulatory state can influence the amount of enjoyment the action provides. In two studies using different methods of manipulating regulatory states and of gauging action evaluations, high regulatory fit increased participants? anticipations of action enjoyability. In a third study, high regulatory fit increased participants? enjoyment of, perceived success at, and willingness to repeat a novel laboratory task, and these effects were independent of participants? actual success on the task. Across the three studies, participants in a regulatory state oriented toward accomplishment experienced eagerness-related actions more favorably than vigilance-related actions, whereas participants in a regulatory state oriented toward responsibility experienced vigilance-related actions more favorably than eagerness-related actions. These findings? implications for understanding task interest and motivation are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Freitas2002Regulatoryfit,
      author = {Freitas, Antonio L. and Higgins, E. Tory},
      title = {Enjoying Goal-Directed Action: The Role of Regulatory Fit},
      journal = {Psychological Science},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {13},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--6}
    }
    
    Frender, R. & Doubilet, P. MORE ON MEASURES OF CATEGORY CLUSTERING IN FREE-RECALL - ALTHOUGH PROBABLY NOT LAST WORD 1974 Psychological Bulletin
    Vol. 81(1), pp. 64-66 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{FR-1974001,
      author = {Frender, Robert and Doubilet, Peter},
      title = {MORE ON MEASURES OF CATEGORY CLUSTERING IN FREE-RECALL - ALTHOUGH PROBABLY NOT LAST WORD},
      journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {81},
      number = {1},
      pages = {64--66}
    }
    
    Fried, L.S. & Holyoak, K.J. INDUCTION OF CATEGORY DISTRIBUTIONS - A FRAMEWORK FOR CLASSIFICATION LEARNING 1984 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 10(2), pp. 234-257 
    article  
    Abstract: We present a framework for classification learning that assumes that learners use presented instances (whether labeled or unlabeled) to infer the density functions of category exemplars over a feature space and that subsequent classification decisions employ a relative likelihood decision rule based on these inferred density functions. A specific model based on this general framework, the category density model was proposed to account for the induction of normally distributed categories either with or without error correction or provision of labeled instances'. The model was implemented as a computer simulation. Results of five experiments indicated that people could learn category distributions not only without error correction, but without knowledge of the number of categories or even that there were categories to be learned. These and other findings dictated a more general learning model that integrated distributional representations based on both parametric descriptions and stored instances.
    BibTeX:
    @article{FL-1984001,
      author = {Fried, Lisbeth S. and Holyoak, Keith James},
      title = {INDUCTION OF CATEGORY DISTRIBUTIONS - A FRAMEWORK FOR CLASSIFICATION LEARNING},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {10},
      number = {2},
      pages = {234--257}
    }
    
    G?rdenfors, P. & Johansson, P. Cognition, Education, and Communication Technology 2005   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{G?rdenfors2005,
      author = {G?rdenfors, Peter and Johansson, Petter},
      title = {Cognition, Education, and Communication Technology},
      publisher = {L. Erlbaum Associates},
      year = {2005}
    }
    
    Gale, T.M., Laws, K.R. & Foley, K. Crowded and sparse domains in object recognition: Consequences for categorization and naming 2006 Brain and Cognition
    Vol. 60(2), pp. 139-145 
    article  
    Abstract: Some models of object recognition propose that items from structurally crowded categories (e.g., living things) permit faster access to superordinate semantic information than structurally dissimilar categories (e.g., nonliving things), but slower access to individual object information when naming items. We present four experiments that utilize the same matched stimuli: two examine superordinate categorization and two examine picture naming. Experiments 1 and 2 required participants to sort pictures into their appropriate superordinate categories and both revealed faster categorization for living than nonliving things. Nonetheless, the living thing superiority disappeared when the atypical categories of body parts and musical instruments were excluded. Experiment 3 examined naming latency and found no difference between living and nonliving things. This finding was replicated in Experiment 4 where the same items were presented in different formats (e.g., color and line-drawn versions). Taken as a whole, these experiments show that the ease with which people categorize items maps strongly onto the ease with which they name them. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GTM2006001,
      author = {Gale, Tim M. and Laws, Keith R. and Foley, Kerry},
      title = {Crowded and sparse domains in object recognition: Consequences for categorization and naming},
      journal = {Brain and Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {60},
      number = {2},
      pages = {139--145}
    }
    
    Gelman, S.A. & Markman, E.M. Categories and induction in young children 1986 Cognition
    Vol. 23(3), pp. 183-209 
    article  
    Abstract: One of the primary functions of natural kind terms (e.g., tiger, gold) is to support inductive inferences. People expect members of such categories to share important, unforeseen properties, such as internal organs and genetic structure. Moreover, inductions can be made without perceptual support: even when an object does not look much like other members of its category, and even when a property is unobservable. The present work addresses how expectations about natural kinds originate. Young children, with their usual reliance on perceptual appearances and only rudimentary scientific knowledge, might not induce new information within natural kind categories. To test this possibi- lity, category membership was pitted against perceptual similarity in an induc- tion task. For example, children had to decide whether a shark is more likely to breathe as a tropical fish does because both are fish, or as a dolphin does because they look alike. By at least age 4, children can use categories to support inductive inferences even when category membership conflicts with appear- ances. Moreover, these young children have partially separated out properties that support induction within a category (e.g., means of breathing) from those that are in fact determined by perceptual appearances (such as weight). Since we examined only natural kind categories, we do not know to what extent children have differentiated natural kinds from other sorts of categories. Chil- dren may start out assuming that categories named by language have the struc- ture of natural kinds and with development refine these expectations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GSA1986001,
      author = {Gelman, Susan A. and Markman, Ellen M.},
      title = {Categories and induction in young children},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {23},
      number = {3},
      pages = {183--209}
    }
    
    Gelman, S.A. & Wellman, H.M. Insides and essences: early understandings of the non-obvious 1991 Cognition
    Vol. 38(3), pp. 213-244 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{GSA1991001,
      author = {Gelman, Susan A. and Wellman, Henry M.},
      title = {Insides and essences: early understandings of the non-obvious},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {38},
      number = {3},
      pages = {213--244}
    }
    
    Gentry, M. & Herrmann, D.J. Memory Contrivances in Everyday Life 1990 Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
    Vol. 16(2), pp. 241-253 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gentry1990,
      author = {Gentry, M. and Herrmann, D. J.},
      title = {Memory Contrivances in Everyday Life},
      journal = {Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {16},
      number = {2},
      pages = {241--253}
    }
    
    Gibson, J.J. The theory of affordances 1977 Perceiving, acting, and knowing  incollection  
    Abstract: Introduces the the concept of affordances
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Gibson1977,
      author = {Gibson, James J.},
      title = {The theory of affordances},
      booktitle = {Perceiving, acting, and knowing},
      publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum},
      year = {1977}
    }
    
    Gluck, M.A. & Bower, G.H. FROM CONDITIONING TO CATEGORY LEARNING - AN ADAPTIVE NETWORK MODEL 1988 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 117(3), pp. 227-247 
    article  
    Abstract: We used adaptive network theory to extend the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) least mean squares (LMS) model of associative learning to phenomena of human learning and judgment. In three experiments subjects learned to categorize hypothetical patients with particular symptom patterns as having certain diseases. When one disease is far more likely than another, the model predicts that subjects will substantially overestimate the diagnosticity of the more valid symptom for the rare disease. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 provide clear support for this prediction in contradistinction to predictions from probability matching, exemplar retrieval, or simple prototype learning models. Experiment 3 contrasted the adaptive network model with one predicting pattern-probability matching when patients always had four symptoms (chosen from four opponent pairs) rather than the presence or absence of each of four symptoms, as in Experiment 1. The results again support the Rescorla-Wagner LMS learning rule as embedded within an adaptive network model.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GMA1988001,
      author = {Gluck, Mark A. and Bower, Gordon H.},
      title = {FROM CONDITIONING TO CATEGORY LEARNING - AN ADAPTIVE NETWORK MODEL},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {117},
      number = {3},
      pages = {227--247}
    }
    
    Glushko, R.J., Maglio, P.P., Matlock, T. & Barsalou, L.W. Categorization in the wild 2008 Trends in Cognitive Sciences
    Vol. 12(4), pp. 129-135 
    article  
    Abstract: In studying categorization, cognitive science has focused primarily on cultural categorization, ignoring individual and institutional categorization. Because recent technological developments have made individual and institutional classification systems much more available and powerful, our understanding of the cognitive and social mechanisms that produce these systems is increasingly important. Furthermore, key aspects of categorization that have received little previous attention emerge from considering diverse types of categorization together, such as the social factors that create stability in classification systems, and the interoperability that shared conceptual systems establish between agents. Finally, the profound impact of recent technological developments on classification systems indicates that basic categorization mechanisms are highly adaptive, producing new classification systems as the situations in which they operate change.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GlushkoMaglioMatlockEtAl2008,
      author = {Glushko, Robert J. and Maglio, Paul P. and Matlock, Teenie and Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Categorization in the wild},
      journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {129--135}
    }
    
    Goldstone, R.L. The Role of Similarity in Categorization: Providing a Groundwork 1994 Cognition
    Vol. 52(2), pp. 125-157 
    article  
    Abstract: The relation between similarity and categorization has recently come under scrutiny from several sectors. The issue provides an important inroad to questions about the contributions of high-level thought and lower-level perception in the development of people's concepts. Many psychological models base categorization on similarity, assuming that things belong in the same category because of their similarity. Empirical and in-principle arguments have recently raised objections to this connection, on the grounds that similarity is too unconstrained to provide an explanation of categorization, and similarity is not sufficiently sophisticated to ground most categories. Although these objections have merit, a reassessment of evidence indicates that similarity can be sufficiently constrained and sophisticated to provide at least a partial account of many categories. Principles are discussed for incorporating similarity into theories of category formation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GRL1994001,
      author = {Goldstone, Robert L.},
      title = {The Role of Similarity in Categorization: Providing a Groundwork},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {52},
      number = {2},
      pages = {125--157}
    }
    
    Goldstone, R.L. & Barsalou, L.W. Reuniting perception and conception 1998 Cognition
    Vol. 65(2-3), pp. 231-262 
    article  
    Abstract: Work in philosophy and psychology has argued for a dissociation between perceptually-based similarity and higher-level rules in conceptual thought. Although such a dissociation may be justified at times, our goal is to illustrate ways in which conceptual processing is grounded in perception, both for perceptual similarity and abstract rules. We discuss the advantages, power and influences of perceptually-based representations. First, many of the properties associated with amodal symbol systems can be achieved with perceptually-based systems as well (e.g. productivity). Second, relatively raw perceptual representations are powerful because they can implicitly represent properties in an analog fashion. Third, perception naturally provides impressions of overall similarity, exactly the type of similarity useful for establishing many common categories. Fourth, perceptual similarity is not static but becomes tuned over time to conceptual demands. Fifth, the original motivation or basis for sophisticated cognition is often less sophisticated perceptual similarity. Sixth, perceptual simulation occurs even in conceptual tasks that have no explicit perceptual demands. Parallels between perceptual and conceptual processes suggest that many mechanisms typically associated with abstract thought are also present in perception, and that perceptual processes provide useful mechanisms that may be co-opted by abstract thought.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GRL1998001,
      author = {Goldstone, Robert L. and Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {Reuniting perception and conception},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {65},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {231--262}
    }
    
    Goldstone, R.L., Lippa, Y. & Shiffrin, R.M. Altering object representations through category learning 2001 Cognition
    Vol. 78(1), pp. 27-43 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous research has shown that objects that are grouped together in the same category become more similar to each other and that objects that are grouped in different categories become increasingly dissimilar, as measured by similarity ratings and psychophysical discriminations. These findings are consistent with two theories of the influence of concept learning on similarity. By a Strategic Judgment Bias account, the categories associated with objects are explicitly used as cues for determining similarity, and objects that are categorized together are judged to be more similar because similarity is not only a function of the objects themselves, but also the objects' category labels. By a Changed Object Description account, category learning alters the description of the objects themselves, emphasizing properties that are relevant for categorization. A new method for distinguishing between these accounts is introduced which measures the difference between the similarity ratings of categorized objects to a neutral object. The results indicate both strategic biases based on category labels and genuine representational change, with the strategic bias affecting mostly objects belonging to different categories and the representational change affecting mostly objects belonging to the same category, (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GRL2001001,
      author = {Goldstone, Robert L. and Lippa, Yvonne and Shiffrin, Richard M.},
      title = {Altering object representations through category learning},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {78},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27--43}
    }
    
    Gonz?lez, V.M. & Mark, G. "Constant, constant, multi-tasking craziness": managing multiple working spheres 2004 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, pp. 113-120  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Most current designs of information technology are based on the notion of supporting distinct tasks such as document production, email usage, and voice communication. In this paper we present empirical results that suggest that people organize their work in terms of much larger and thematically connected units of work. We present results of fieldwork observation of information workers in three different roles: analysts, software developers, and managers. We discovered that all of these types of workers experience a high level of discontinuity in the execution of their activities. People average about three minutes on a task and somewhat more than two minutes using any electronic tool or paper document before switching tasks. We introduce the concept of working spheres to explain the inherent way in which individuals conceptualize and organize their basic units of work. People worked in an average of ten different working spheres. Working spheres are also fragmented; people spend about 12 minutes in a working sphere before they switch to another. We argue that design of information technology needs to support people's continual switching between working spheres.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Gonzalez2004Multitasking,
      author = {Gonz?lez, Victor M. and Mark, Gloria},
      title = {"Constant, constant, multi-tasking craziness": managing multiple working spheres},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems},
      publisher = {ACM Press},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {113--120}
    }
    
    Gonzalvo, P., Canas, J.J. & Bajo, M.T. Structural Representations in Knowledge Acquisition 1994 Journal of Educational Psychology
    Vol. 86(4), pp. 601-616 
    article  
    Abstract: Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and Pathfinder techniques for assessing changes in the structural representation (RP) of a knowledge (KN) domain as a function of learning were compared and evaluated. Relatedness ratings, collected from university students before and after they studied a textbook, were analyzed with both MDS and Pathfinder procedures. Relatedness ratings were collected from the students' instructors, and the similarity between the instructors' structural RPs and those of their students provided evidence of learning. A conceptual test captured the ability of the techniques to predict concept-to-concept learning. Students' networks and dimensional RPs varied depending on whether they had (a) already studied the textbook and (b) learned the material. Comparisons between student and expert similarity measures indicated that multidimensional scaling and graph theoretic approaches are valid techniques. MDS represented global properties of KN, whereas graph networks captured local conceptual relations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Gonzalvo1994StructuralRepresinKnwldgAcq,
      author = {Gonzalvo, P. and Canas, J. J. and Bajo, M. T.},
      title = {Structural Representations in Knowledge Acquisition},
      journal = {Journal of Educational Psychology},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {86},
      number = {4},
      pages = {601--616}
    }
    
    Goodnow, J.J. Some lifelong everyday forms of intelligent behavior: organizing and reorganizing 1986 Practical intelligence: nature and origins of competence in the everyday world, pp. 143-162  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{Goodnow1986,
      author = {Goodnow, Jacqueline J.},
      title = {Some lifelong everyday forms of intelligent behavior: organizing and reorganizing},
      booktitle = {Practical intelligence: nature and origins of competence in the everyday world},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {1986},
      pages = {143--162}
    }
    
    Gordon, P. EVALUATING THE SEMANTIC CATEGORIES HYPOTHESIS - THE CASE OF THE COUNT MASS DISTINCTION 1985 Cognition
    Vol. 20(3), pp. 209-242 
    article  
    Abstract: It is often claimed that grammatical categories are initially acquired via their semantic properties. In the case of the count/mass distinction, semantic corre- lations should predispose the child to acquire the countlmass subcategories as a distinction between names for objects vs. substances. This proposal is tested in three experiments. The first two experiments with 3- to 5-year-olds employ a word-learning paradigm in which semantic and syntactic cues are either in conflict, in accord or in isolation. Results demonstrate that syntactic cues are clearly the most effective and predominate over semantic cues as a basis for subcategorization. The third experiment with 2- to Syear-olds demonstrates that children do not miscategorize nouns whose semantic properties are either inappropriate or indeterminate. Thus, for example, they do not tend to misca- tegorize a term such as ?furniture? which is a mass noun yet denotes a class of objects. These results suggest that the count/mass distinction is not acquired via an objectlsubstance distinction although semantic properties of quantifica- tion are probably important for the acquisition process.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PG-1985001,
      author = {Gordon, Peter},
      title = {EVALUATING THE SEMANTIC CATEGORIES HYPOTHESIS - THE CASE OF THE COUNT MASS DISTINCTION},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {20},
      number = {3},
      pages = {209--242}
    }
    
    Greeno, J.G. Gibson's affordances 1994 Psychological Review
    Vol. 101(2), pp. 336-342 
    article  
    Abstract: Gibson developed an interactionist view of perception and action that focused on information that is available in the environment. He thereby rejected the still-prevalent framing assumption of factoring external-physical and internal-mental processes. The interactionist alternative, which focuses on processes of agent-situation interactions, is taken in ecological psychology as well as in recent research on conversational communication, research on complex, socially organized activity, and philosophical situation theory. The concepts of qffordance and ability are key ideas in an interactionist account. In situation theory, abilities in activity depend on attunements to constraints, and affordances for an agent can be understood as conditions in the environment for constraints to which the agent is attuned. This broad view of affordances includes affordances that are recognized as well as affordances that are perceived directly.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Greeno1994,
      author = {Greeno, James G.},
      title = {Gibson's affordances},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {101},
      number = {2},
      pages = {336--342}
    }
    
    Groeger, J.A. Memory and remembering : everyday memory in context 1997 , pp. vi, 378 p. :  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Groeger1997,
      author = {Groeger, John A},
      title = {Memory and remembering : everyday memory in context},
      publisher = {Longman},
      year = {1997},
      pages = {vi, 378 p. :}
    }
    
    Gruen, D.M. The role of external resources in the management of multiple activities 1996 , pp. 298 p. School: University of California, San Diego  phdthesis  
    Abstract: This dissertation describes observational studies of how people manage multiple activities and handle interruptions in everyday office settings. A number of methodologies were used, including interviews, office tours, videotaped observation of subjects as they worked, and retrospective protocols as taped episodes were reviewed with the subjects. The studies shed light on the structure and dynamics of everyday activities, the way people manage multiple activities and handle interruptions, and the role of external structures in that management. They also reveal inadequacies in the approach of traditional activity theory to delineating behavior. Together, the studies suggest that the management of everyday activities is a distributed process which relies heavily on the placement and manipulation of pre-existing, meaningful physical items. Traditional planning is often not possible due to the complex and situated nature of everyday activities. Instead, a distributed form of planning occurs in which spatial configurations come to represent the order in which activities should be performed. This planning relies on routines which configure the environment, and routines which insure that external structures will be encountered at appropriate times and the desired activities cued. Because of its reliance on external structures, activity management is susceptible to disorder due to conflicts between informational concerns and the physical constraints and affordances presented by a situation. The role of physical constraints and affordances in determining behavior increases during interruptions and when multiple activities are performed together. Cleanup and stabilization routines are employed to correct the problems this can cause. In addition, people develop routines to minimize the detrimental effects of interruptions they anticipate. The dissertation ends with a discussion of the implications of my research on the design of systems used in complex real-world settings.
    BibTeX:
    @phdthesis{GDM1996001,
      author = {Gruen, Daniel M.},
      title = {The role of external resources in the management of multiple activities},
      school = {University of California, San Diego},
      year = {1996},
      pages = {298 p. }
    }
    
    Gruenewald, P.J. & Lockhead, G.R. THE FREE-RECALL OF CATEGORY EXAMPLES 1980 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Learning and Memory
    Vol. 6(3), pp. 225-240 
    article  
    Abstract: People recalled the names of as many animals, birds, foods, or cold foods as they could in IS-min or 30-min sessions. In each task, the rate of item pro- production decreased with increasing time, and semantically related items were duction produced in spurts over time. The results are consistent with a proposed two-stage model in which people (a) search for semantic fields and (b) pro- produce whatever items are encountered when a field is located. These related duce words are the clusters observed by Bousfield and Sedgewick. However, Bousfield's exponential model describes the data less well than does a simple hyperbolic model based on the two-stage process. It is proposed that time between clusters increases hyperbolically in these tasks, reflecting the search for semantic fields, and that the time between items within clusters, and the number of items in each cluster, are independent of time in the task, reflect- reflecting the production of items in discovered fields. On these bases an algorithm ing is introduced that partitions clusters by the temporal patterning between words in the protocols. The temporally based algorithm provides a descrip- description of the data that highly correlates with the semantic structure as depicted tion by judges' ratings. These correlated temporal and semantic measures may reflect aspects of the search process and the structure of memory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{GPJ1980001,
      author = {Gruenewald, Paul J. and Lockhead, Gregory R.},
      title = {THE FREE-RECALL OF CATEGORY EXAMPLES},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Learning and Memory},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {225--240}
    }
    
    Guynn, M.J., McDaniel, M.A. & Einstein, G.O. Prospective Memory: When Reminders Fail 1998 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 26(2), pp. 287-298 
    article  
    Abstract: A frequent assumption in the area of prospective memory is that a reminder to do an activity in the future improves the likelihood of doing the activity. The results of ibm experiments indicated, however, that the most general version of this assumption is incorrect. Subjects were either reminded of a prospective memory task several times during a retention interval or not reminded of the prospective memory task. The most effective reminders referred both to the prospective memory target events and to the intended activity. Reminders that referred only to the target events did not improve prospective memory (relative to a no-reminder control). Reminders that referred only to the intended activity did improve prospective memory, but not to the level of reminders that referred both to the target events and to the intended activity. Instructions to imagine oneself performing the prospective memory task did not further improve prospective memory. Neither the delay between the prospective memory instructions and the prospective memory cover task nor the delay between a reminder and a prospective memory target event significantly influenced performance. The results, which are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications, support a new theory of prospective memory and suggest surprising conditions under which reminders fail to benefit prospective memory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Guynn1998Prosepectivememoryremindersfail,
      author = {Guynn, Melissa J. and McDaniel, Mark A. and Einstein, Gilles O.},
      title = {Prospective Memory: When Reminders Fail},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {26},
      number = {2},
      pages = {287--298}
    }
    
    Hacking, I. Aristotelian categories and cognitive domains 2001 Synthese
    Vol. 126(3), pp. 473-515 
    article  
    Abstract: This paper puts together an ancient and a recent approach to classificatory language, thought, and ontology. It includes on the one hand an interpretation of Aristotle's ten categories, with remarks on his first category, called (or translated as) substance in the Categories or What a thing is in the Topics. On the other hand is the idea of domain-specific cognitive abilities urged in contemporary developmental psychology. Each family of ideas can be used to understand the other. Neither the metaphysical nor the psychological approach is intrinsically more fundamental; they complement each other. The paper incidentally clarifies distinct uses of the word "category" in different disciplines, and also attempts to make explicit several notions of "domain". It also examines Aristotle's most exotic and least discussed categories, being-in-a-position (e.g., sitting) and having-(on) (e.g., armour). Finally the paper suggests a tentative connection between Fred Sommers' theory of types and Aristotle's first category.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HI-2001001,
      author = {Hacking, Ian},
      title = {Aristotelian categories and cognitive domains},
      journal = {Synthese},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {126},
      number = {3},
      pages = {473--515}
    }
    
    Hahn, U., Bailey, T.M. & Elvin, L.B.C. Effects of category diversity on learning, memory, and generalization 2005 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 33(2), pp. 289-302 
    article  
    Abstract: In this study, we examined the effect of within-category diversity on people's ability to learn perceptual categories, their inclination to generalize categories to novel items, and their ability to distinguish new items from old. After learning to distinguish a control category from an experimental category that was either clustered or diverse, participants performed a test of category generalization or old-new recognition. Diversity made learning more difficult, increased generalization to novel items outside the range of training items, and made it difficult to distinguish such novel items from familiar ones. Regression analyses using the generalized context model suggested that the results could be explained in terms of similarities between old and new items combined with a rescaling of the similarity space that varied according to the diversity of the training items. Participants who learned the diverse category were less sensitive to psychological distance than were the participants who learned a more clustered category.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HU-2005001,
      author = {Hahn, Ulrike and Bailey, Todd M. and Elvin, Lucy B. C.},
      title = {Effects of category diversity on learning, memory, and generalization},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {33},
      number = {2},
      pages = {289--302}
    }
    
    Hahn, U. & Chater, N. Similarity and rules: distinct? exhaustive? empirically distinguishable? 1998 Cognition
    Vol. 65(2-3), pp. 197-230 
    article  
    Abstract: The distinction between rule-based and similarity-based processes in cognition is of fundamental importance for cognitive science, and has been the focus of a large body of empirical research. However, intuitive uses of the distinction are subject to theoretical difficulties and their relation to empirical evidence is not clear. We propose a `core' distinction between rule- and similarity-based processes, in terms of the way representations of stored information are `matched' with the representation of a novel item. This explication captures the intuitively clear-cut cases of processes of each type, and resolves apparent problems with the rule/similarity distinction. Moreover, it provides a clear target for assessing the psychological and AI literatures. We show that many lines of psychological evidence are less conclusive than sometimes assumed, but suggest that converging lines of evidence may be persuasive. We then argue that the AI literature suggests that approaches which combine rules and similarity are an important new focus for empirical work.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HU-1998001,
      author = {Hahn, Ulrike and Chater, Nick},
      title = {Similarity and rules: distinct? exhaustive? empirically distinguishable?},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {65},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {197--230}
    }
    
    Hampton, J.A. Typicality, graded membership and vagueness Cognitive Science  article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HJA-------001,
      author = {Hampton, James A.},
      title = {Typicality, graded membership and vagueness},
      journal = {Cognitive Science}
    }
    
    Hampton, J.A. & Cannon, I. Category-based induction: An effect of conclusion typicality 2004 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 32(2), pp. 235-243 
    article  
    Abstract: Category-based induction involves the willingness of a thinker to project some newly learned property of one or more classes of objects to another class on the basis of their shared membership in a common superordinate category. Previous research has established that the perceived strength of arguments of the form "Class A has Property P; therefore, Class B has Property P" is influenced by the similarity of A to B and by the typicality or representativeness of A in a shared category, superordinate to both A and B. (The nature of P is also crucial, but we do not examine it in this study.) There is, however, no prior evidence that the relation between B and the category is influential. Three experiments were designed to test whether the typicality of B in the superordinate category also has an effect on inductive argument strength. By using multiple regression (Experiment 1) and an experimental design (Experiment 3), an effect of conclusion typicality was found, so that people are more willing to project properties to more typical conclusions. Experiment 2 ruled out conclusion famaliarity as a potential confounding variable. The results are interpreted in the light of current models of category-based induction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HJA2004001,
      author = {Hampton, James A. and Cannon, Iben},
      title = {Category-based induction: An effect of conclusion typicality},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {32},
      number = {2},
      pages = {235--243}
    }
    
    Hampton, J.A., Dubois, D. & Yeh, W.-c. Effects of classification context on categorization in natural categories 2006 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 34(7), pp. 1431-1443 
    article  
    Abstract: The patterns of classification of borderline instances of eight common taxonomic categories were examined under three different instructional conditions to test two predictions: first, that lack of a specified context contributes to vagueness in categorization, and second, that altering the purpose of classification can lead to greater or lesser dependence on similarity in classification. The instructional conditions contrasted purely pragmatic with more technical/quasi-legal contexts as purposes for classification, and these were compared with a no-context control. The measures of category vagueness were between-subjects disagreement and within-subjects consistency, and the measures of similarity-based categorization were category breadth and the correlation of instance categorization probability with mean rated typicality, independently measured in a neutral context. Contrary to predictions, none of the measures of vagueness, reliability, category breadth, or correlation with typicality were generally affected by the instructional setting as a function of pragmatic versus technical purposes. Only one subcondition, in which a situational context was implied in addition to a purposive context, produced a significant change in categorization. Further experiments demonstrated that the effect of context was not increased when participants talked their way through the task, and that a technical context did not elicit more all-or-none categorization than did a pragmatic context. These findings place an important boundary condition on the effects of instructional context on conceptual categorization.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HJA2006001,
      author = {Hampton, James A. and Dubois, Daniele and Yeh, Wen-chi},
      title = {Effects of classification context on categorization in natural categories},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {34},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1431--1443}
    }
    
    Hanson, P.P. Information, language, and cognition 1990   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Hanson1990,
      author = {Hanson, Philip P.},
      title = {Information, language, and cognition},
      publisher = {University of British Columbia Press},
      year = {1990}
    }
    
    Harnad, S.R. Categorical Perception: The Groundwork of Cognition 1987 , pp. 599  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Harnad1987,
      author = {Harnad, Stevan R.},
      title = {Categorical Perception: The Groundwork of Cognition},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {1987},
      pages = {599}
    }
    
    Hartley, J. Notetaking in non-academic settings: a review 2002 Applied Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 16(5), pp. 559-574 
    article  
    Abstract: There is considerable research on notetaking in academic settings but relatively little of it in non-academic ones. This paper reviews the effects of notetaking in legal situations, counselling and interviewing, and assesses the usefulness of notetaking as a memory aid for older people and as a prospective memory device for brain-injured persons. The results suggest that: notetaking has no significant effect on recall in real-life jury situations; there is some evidence that notetaking by counsellors in counselling sessions might be harmful for clients; there is some evidence that notetaking in interviews can reduce bias in decision making; there is some evidence that notetaking is helpful for older persons; and that too little research has been conducted on the use of notetaking as a device for aiding the prospective memory for brain-injured persons to reach any firm conclusions. The general limitations of the research are reviewed and implications for future work considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hartley2002NotE-taking,
      author = {Hartley, James},
      title = {Notetaking in non-academic settings: a review},
      journal = {Applied Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {16},
      number = {5},
      pages = {559--574}
    }
    
    Heider, E.R. Universals in color naming and memory 1972 Journal of experimental psychology
    Vol. 93(1), pp. 10-20 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HER1972001,
      author = {Heider, Eleanor Rosch},
      title = {Universals in color naming and memory},
      journal = {Journal of experimental psychology},
      year = {1972},
      volume = {93},
      number = {1},
      pages = {10--20}
    }
    
    Heider, E.R. "Focal" color areas and the development of color names 1971 Developmental psychology
    Vol. 4(3), pp. 447-455 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HER1971001,
      author = {Heider, Eleanor Rosch},
      title = {"Focal" color areas and the development of color names},
      journal = {Developmental psychology},
      year = {1971},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {447--455}
    }
    
    Heider, E.R. & Olivier, D.C. The structure of the color space in naming and memory for two languages 1972 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 3, pp. 337-345 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HER1972002,
      author = {Heider, Eleanor Rosch and Olivier, D. C.},
      title = {The structure of the color space in naming and memory for two languages},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1972},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {337--345}
    }
    
    Heit, E. MODELS OF THE EFFECTS OF PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ON CATEGORY LEARNING 1994 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 20(6), pp. 1264-1282 
    article  
    Abstract: When people learn about a new category, they are influenced by prior knowledge of other categories. In 5 experiments, subjects made categorization judgments after observing descriptions of persons from a location referred to as City W. In these experiments, prior knowledge as well as observations within City W were manipulated. The integration, weighting, and distortion models of categorization explain prior knowledge effects in different ways. The integration model, which assumes that categorization is influenced by prior examples from other categories, predicted the results of the experiments. It was found that the effect of prior knowledge was independent of the observed proportion of category membership in City W, that the prior knowledge effect was diminished with more observations, and that learning about City W affected subjects' judgments about the general population. The weighting and distortion models could not account for all of the results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HE-1994001,
      author = {Heit, Evan},
      title = {MODELS OF THE EFFECTS OF PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ON CATEGORY LEARNING},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {20},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1264--1282}
    }
    
    Henry, J.D., Macleod, M.S., Phillips, L.H. & Crawford, J.R. A Meta-Analytic Review of Prospective Memory and Aging 2004 Psychology and Aging
    Vol. 19(1), pp. 27-39 
    article  
    Abstract: A meta-analysis of prospective memory (PM) studies revealed that in laboratory settings younger participants outperform older participants on tests of both time- and event-based PM (rs = -.39 and -.34, respectively). Event-based PM tasks that impose higher levels of controlled strategic demand are associated with significantly larger age effects than event-based PM tasks that are supported by relatively more automatic processes (rs = -.40 vs. -.14, respectively). However, contrary to the prevailing view in the literature, retrospective memory as measured by free recall is associated with significantly greater age-related decline (r = -.52) than PM, and older participants perform substantially better than their younger counterparts in naturalistic PM studies (rs = .35 and .52 for event- and time-based PM, respectively).
    BibTeX:
    @article{Henry2004,
      author = {Henry, J. D. and Macleod, M. S. and Phillips, L. H. and Crawford, J. R.},
      title = {A Meta-Analytic Review of Prospective Memory and Aging},
      journal = {Psychology and Aging},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {19},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27--39}
    }
    
    Higgins, E.T., Bargh, J.A. & Lombardi, W. NATURE OF PRIMING EFFECTS ON CATEGORIZATION 1985 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 11(1), pp. 59-69 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HET1985001,
      author = {Higgins, E. Tory and Bargh, John A. and Lombardi, Wendy},
      title = {NATURE OF PRIMING EFFECTS ON CATEGORIZATION},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {59--69}
    }
    
    Hintzman, D.L. SCHEMA ABSTRACTION IN A MULTIPLE-TRACE MEMORY MODEL 1986 Psychological Review
    Vol. 93(4), pp. 411-428 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HDL1986001,
      author = {Hintzman, Douglas L.},
      title = {SCHEMA ABSTRACTION IN A MULTIPLE-TRACE MEMORY MODEL},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {93},
      number = {4},
      pages = {411--428}
    }
    
    Hirtle, S.C. & Jonides, J. Evidence of hierarchies in cognitive maps 1985 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 13(3), pp. 208-271 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Hirtle1985,
      author = {Hirtle, S. C. and Jonides, John},
      title = {Evidence of hierarchies in cognitive maps},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {208--271}
    }
    
    Hodgkinson, G.P. & Healey, M.P. Cognition in Organizations 2008 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 59(1), pp. 387-417 
    article  
    Abstract: This article reviews major developments from 2000 to early 2007 in the psychological analysis of cognition in organizations. Our review, the first in this series to survey cognitive theory and research spanning the entire field of industrial and organizational psychology, considers theoretical, empirical, and methodological advances across 10 substantive domains of application. Two major traditions, the human factors and organizational traditions, have dominated cognitively oriented research in this field. Our central message is that the technological and human systems underpinning contemporary organizational forms are evolving in ways that demand greater cooperation among researchers across both traditions. Such cooperation is necessary in order to gain theoretical insights of sufficient depth and complexity to refine the explanation and prediction of behavior in organizations and derive psychologically sound solutions to the unprecedented information-processing burdens confronting the twenty-first century workforce.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HGP2008001,
      author = {Hodgkinson, Gerard P. and Healey, Mark P.},
      title = {Cognition in Organizations},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {59},
      number = {1},
      pages = {387--417}
    }
    
    Hoffman, A.B. & Murphy, G.L. Category dimensionality and feature knowledge: When more features are learned as easily as fewer 2006 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 32(2), pp. 301-315 
    article  
    Abstract: Three experiments compared the learning of lower-dimensional family resemblance categories (4 dimensions) with the learning of higher-dimensional ones (8 dimensions). Category-learning models incorporating error-driven learning, hypothesis testing, or limited capacity attention predict that additional dimensions should either increase learning difficulty or decrease learning of individual features. Contrary to these predictions, the experiments showed no slower learning of high-dimensional categories; instead, subjects learned more features from high-dimensional categories than from low-dimensional categories. This result obtained both in standard learning with feedback and in noncontingent, observational learning. These results show that rather than interfering with learning, categories with more dimensions cause individuals to learn more. The authors contrast the learning of family resemblance categories with learning in classical conditioning and probability learning paradigms, in which competition among features is well documented.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HAB2006001,
      author = {Hoffman, Aaron B. and Murphy, Gregory L.},
      title = {Category dimensionality and feature knowledge: When more features are learned as easily as fewer},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {32},
      number = {2},
      pages = {301--315}
    }
    
    Holyoak, K.J. & Morrison, R.G. The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning 2005 , pp. 858  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Holyoak2005,
      author = {Holyoak, Keith James and Morrison, Robert G.},
      title = {The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {858}
    }
    
    Homa, D. ON THE NATURE OF CATEGORIES 1984 Psychology of Learning and Motivation-Advances in Research and Theory
    Vol. 18, pp. 49-94 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HD-1984001,
      author = {Homa, Donald},
      title = {ON THE NATURE OF CATEGORIES},
      journal = {Psychology of Learning and Motivation-Advances in Research and Theory},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {18},
      pages = {49--94}
    }
    
    Homa, D., Sterling, S. & Trepel, L. LIMITATIONS OF EXEMPLAR-BASED GENERALIZATION AND THE ABSTRACTION OF CATEGORICAL INFORMATION 1981 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Learning and Memory
    Vol. 7(6), pp. 418-439 
    article  
    Abstract: An evaluation of exemplar-based models of generalization was provided for ill-defined categories in a category abstraction paradigm. Subjects initially classified defined 35 high-level distortions into three categories, defined by 5, 10, and 20 different patterns, followed by a transfer test administered immediately and after 1 wk. The transfer patterns included old, new, prototype, and unrelated exemplars, of which the new patterns were at one of five levels of similarity to a particular training (old) stimulus. In both experiments, increases in category size and old-new similarity facilitated transfer performance. However, the effectiveness of new old-new similarity was strongly attenuated by increases in category size and delay of the transfer test. It was concluded that examplar-based generalization may be effective only under conditions of minimal category experience and immediacy of test; with continued category experience, performance on the prototype determines classification accuracy.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HD-1981001,
      author = {Homa, Donald and Sterling, Sharon and Trepel, Lawrence},
      title = {LIMITATIONS OF EXEMPLAR-BASED GENERALIZATION AND THE ABSTRACTION OF CATEGORICAL INFORMATION},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Learning and Memory},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {7},
      number = {6},
      pages = {418--439}
    }
    
    Homa, D. & Vosburgh, R. CATEGORY BREADTH AND ABSTRACTION OF PROTOTYPICAL INFORMATION 1976 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Learning and Memory
    Vol. 2(3), pp. 322-330 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{HD-1986001,
      author = {Homa, Donald and Vosburgh, Richard},
      title = {CATEGORY BREADTH AND ABSTRACTION OF PROTOTYPICAL INFORMATION},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Learning and Memory},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {2},
      number = {3},
      pages = {322--330}
    }
    
    Hornbaek, K. & Frokjaer, E. Evaluating User Interfaces With Metaphors of Human Thinking 2002 Universal access: Theoretical perspectives, practice, and experience: ERCIM international workshop on user interfaces for all, no. 7, pp. 486-507  inproceedings  
    Abstract: Inspection techniques are a useful tool for identifying potential usability problems and for integrating at an early stage evaluation with design processes. Most inspection techniques, however, do not consider users' thinking and may only be used for a limited range of devices and use contexts. We present an inspection technique based on five metaphors of essential aspects of human thinking. The aspects considered are habit; the stream of thought; awareness and associations; the relation between utterances and thought; and knowing. The proposed inspection technique makes users' thinking the centre of evaluation and is readily applicable to new devices and non-traditional use contexts. Initial experience with the technique suggests that it is usable in discussing and evaluating user interfaces.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Hornbaek2002,
      author = {Hornbaek, K. and Frokjaer, E.},
      title = {Evaluating User Interfaces With Metaphors of Human Thinking},
      booktitle = {Universal access: Theoretical perspectives, practice, and experience: ERCIM international workshop on user interfaces for all, no. 7},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {486--507}
    }
    
    Horvitz, E. & Apacible, J. Learning and reasoning about interruption 2003 Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces, pp. 20-27  inproceedings  
    Abstract: We present methods for inferring the cost of interrupting users based on multiple streams of events including information generated by interactions with computing devices, visual and acoustical analyses, and data drawn from online calendars. Following a review of prior work on techniques for deliberating about the cost of interruption associated with notifications, we introduce methods for learning models from data that can be used to compute the expected cost of interruption for a user. We describe the Interruption Workbench, a set of event-capture and modeling tools. Finally, we review experiments that characterize the accuracy of the models for predicting interruption cost and discuss research directions.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{Horvitz2003Interruption,
      author = {Horvitz, Eric and Apacible, Johnson},
      title = {Learning and reasoning about interruption},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Multimodal interfaces},
      publisher = {ACM Press},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {20--27}
    }
    
    Hubert, L.J. A general formula for the variance of Cohen's weighted kappa 1978 Psychological bulletin
    Vol. 85(1), pp. 183-184 
    article  
    Abstract: Suggests that J. Cohen's weighted kappa (see record 1969-00069-001) is actually a bilinear permutation statistic and the needed variance term can be obtained under the assumption that the contingency table categorizing the rater responses has fixed marginal frequencies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)
    BibTeX:
    @article{HLJ1978001,
      author = {Hubert, Lawrence J.},
      title = {A general formula for the variance of Cohen's weighted kappa},
      journal = {Psychological bulletin},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {85},
      number = {1},
      pages = {183--184}
    }
    
    Huggett, M., Hoos, H. & Rensink, R. Cognitive Principles for Information Management: the Principles of Mnemonic Associative Knowledge (P-Mak) 2007 Minds and Machines
    Vol. 17(4), pp. 445-485 
    article  
    Abstract: Information management systems improve the retention of information in large collections. As such they act as memory prostheses, implying an ideal basis in human memory models. Since humans process information by association, and situate it in the context of space and time, systems should maximize their effectiveness by mimicking these functions. Since human attentional capacity is limited, systems should scaffold cognitive efforts in a comprehensible manner. We propose the Principles of Mnemonic Associative Knowledge (P-MAK), which describes a framework for semantically identifying, organizing, and retrieving information, and for encoding episodic events by time and stimuli. Inspired by prominent human memory models, we propose associative networks as a preferred representation. Networks are ideal for their parsimony, flexibility, and ease of inspection. Networks also possess topological properties-such as clusters, hubs, and the small world-that aid analysis and navigation in an information space. Our cognitive perspective addresses fundamental problems faced by information management systems, in particular the retrieval of related items and the representation of context. We present evidence from neuroscience and memory research in support of this approach, and discuss the implications of systems design within the constraints of P-MAK's principles, using text documents as an illustrative semantic domain.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Huggett2007InfoMgmtCognitivePrinciples,
      author = {Huggett, Michael and Hoos, Holger and Rensink, Ron},
      title = {Cognitive Principles for Information Management: the Principles of Mnemonic Associative Knowledge (P-Mak)},
      journal = {Minds and Machines},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {17},
      number = {4},
      pages = {445--485}
    }
    
    Huitt, W. Maslow's hierarchy of needs 2004 Educational Psychology Interactive  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{HW-2004001,
      author = {Huitt, W.},
      title = {Maslow's hierarchy of needs},
      journal = {Educational Psychology Interactive},
      year = {2004},
      url = {http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/regsys/maslow.html}
    }
    
    Hutchins, E. Cognition in the wild 1995 , pp. 381  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{HE-1995001,
      author = {Hutchins, Edwin},
      title = {Cognition in the wild},
      publisher = {MIT Press},
      year = {1995},
      pages = {381}
    }
    
    Huttenlocher, J., Hedges, L.V. & Vevea, J.L. Why do categories affect stimulus judgment? 2000 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 129(2), pp. 220-241 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors tested a model of category effects on stimulus judgment. The model holds that the goal of stimulus judgment is to achieve high accuracy. For this reason, people place inexactly represented stimuli in the context of prior information, captured in categories, combining inexact fine-grain stimulus values with prior (category) information. This process can be likened to a Bayesian statistical procedure designed to maximize the average accuracy of estimation. If people follow the proposed procedure to maximize accuracy, their estimates should be affected by the distribution of instances in a category. In the present experiments, participants reproduced one-dimensional stimuli. Different prior distributions were presented. The experiments verified that people's stimulus estimates are affected by variations in a prior distribution in such a manner as to increase the accuracy of their stimulus reproductions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{HJ-2000001,
      author = {Huttenlocher, Janellen and Hedges, Larry V. and Vevea, Jack L.},
      title = {Why do categories affect stimulus judgment?},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {129},
      number = {2},
      pages = {220--241}
    }
    
    Ingling, N.W. CATEGORIZATION - MECHANISM FOR RAPID INFORMATION PROCESSING 1972 Journal of Experimental Psychology
    Vol. 94(3), pp. 239-243 
    article  
    Abstract: It is hypothesized that under certain conditions 5s are able to encode stimuli by category immediately, without first making a more complete identification, and that such encoding can produce a relative increase in the rate of processing. Results of an experiment support the hypothesis by indicating that 5s can respond to a category task more quickly when they are not required to know the specific identity of symbols than when they are required to know the identity. Tests for confounding effects of general physical features were not significant in ? the design used.
    BibTeX:
    @article{INW1972001,
      author = {Ingling, Nancy W.},
      title = {CATEGORIZATION - MECHANISM FOR RAPID INFORMATION PROCESSING},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology},
      year = {1972},
      volume = {94},
      number = {3},
      pages = {239--243}
    }
    
    Johansen, M.K. & Kruschke, J.K. Category representation for classification and feature inference 2005 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 31(6), pp. 1433-1458 
    article  
    Abstract: This research's purpose was to contrast the representations resulting from learning of the same categories by either classifying instances or inferring instance features. Prior inference learning research, particularly T. Yamauchi and A. B. Markman (1998), has suggested that feature inference learning fosters prototype representation, whereas classification learning encourages exemplar representation. Experiment I supported this hypothesis. Averaged and individual participant data from transfer after inference training were better fit by a prototype than by an exemplar model. However, Experiment 2. with contrasting inference learning conditions, indicated that the prototype model was mimicking a set of label-based bidirectional rules, as determined by the inference learning task demands in Experiment 1. Only the set of rules model accounted for all the inference learning conditions in these experiments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JMK2005001,
      author = {Johansen, Mark K. and Kruschke, John K.},
      title = {Category representation for classification and feature inference},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {31},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1433--1458}
    }
    
    Johnson, K.E. Impact of varying levels of expertise on decisions of category typicality 2001 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 29(7), pp. 1036-1050 
    article  
    Abstract: Experts on domains of basic level object categories possess extensive knowledge of features used to both individuate and categorize groups, of similar members. Two studies were conducted to determine the impact of high knowledge on intermediate and advanced experts' typicality decisions for basic and subordinate level category exemplars, and to investigate whether the pattern of influence of factors (in particular, central tendency and subjective familiarity) remained fixed throughout the continuum of expertise. Example goodness increased as a function of the level of specificity of the category for which typicality was rated. Subjective familiarity was the principal determinant of typicality for individuals with high knowledge, whereas central tendency was related to typicality when knowledge was not particularly high. Advanced and intermediate experts produced similar ratings of typicality, indicating that individuals' decisions of typicality do not change markedly once intermediate levels of competency have been attained. The incorporation of knowledge effects into models of semantic memory, as well as, interactions among knowledge, psychological factors, and enviromnental factors in determining typicality, are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JKE2001001,
      author = {Johnson, Kathy E.},
      title = {Impact of varying levels of expertise on decisions of category typicality},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {29},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1036--1050}
    }
    
    Johnson, K.E. & Mervis, C.B. Effects of varying levels of expertise on the basic level of categorization 1997 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 126(3), pp. 248-277 
    article  
    Abstract: Six experiments were conducted on the effects of expertise on basic-level categorization. Individuals with varying levels of knowledge about songbirds generated lists of attributes, named objects, identified and discriminated among object silhouettes, verified category membership at 4 hierarchical levels, and visually identified songbirds primed either by species-specific, related, or unrelated birdsong. Results indicated that the original basic level never lost its privileged status. Expertise increased access to categorical information at the subordinate level for intermediate experts and at both the subordinate and sub-subordinate levels for advanced experts, causing these sublevels to function as basic. Throughout the continuum of expertise, conceptual knowledge interacted with perception. Accordingly, experts attended to different and more subtle perceptual features than novices.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JKE1997001,
      author = {Johnson, Kathy E. and Mervis, Carolyn B.},
      title = {Effects of varying levels of expertise on the basic level of categorization},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {126},
      number = {3},
      pages = {248--277}
    }
    
    Johnson, M.K. & Hasher, L. Human learning and memory 1987 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 38, pp. 631-668 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{johnsonhasher1987humanlearningmemory,
      author = {Johnson, Marcia K. and Hasher, Lynn},
      title = {Human learning and memory},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {38},
      pages = {631--668}
    }
    
    Johnson-Laird, P.N. The mental representation of the meaning of words 1987 Cognition
    Vol. 25(1-2), pp. 189-211 
    article  
    Abstract: Five phenomena concerning the meanings of words are outlined in this paper. They concern (1) our limited introspective access to the nature of lexical representations; (2) the existence of lexical entries that make accessible the sense of a word; (3) the effects of context on the interpretation of words; (4) the systematic gaps in the acquisition of lexical knowledge; and (5) the existence of different semantic types of open-class word. These phenomena are used as the basis for a psychological theory of meaning of words.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JLP1987001,
      author = {Johnson-Laird, Philip N.},
      title = {The mental representation of the meaning of words},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {25},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {189--211}
    }
    
    Johnson-Laird, P.N. Mental models in cognitive science 1980 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 4, pp. 71-115 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{JLP1980001,
      author = {Johnson-Laird, Philip N.},
      title = {Mental models in cognitive science},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {4},
      pages = {71--115}
    }
    
    Jones, G.V. IDENTIFYING BASIC CATEGORIES 1983 Psychological Bulletin
    Vol. 94(3), pp. 423-428 
    article  
    Abstract: Categories that are at a level of abstraction allowing optimal differentiation have been termed basic. Such categories appear to enjoy a general advantage in ease of cognitive processing over other, nonbasic categories. This article compares two quantitative procedures for determining whether a category is basic. The first, predicated on the notion of cue validity, can be shown to be unsuitable. The second, predicated on the notion of category-feature collocation, appears to be an appropriate measure of intercategory differentiation. Cue validity is defined as the probability with which the possessor of a given feature is a member of a particular category. The collocation measure, on the other hand, represents (in the present context) the product of cue validity and a second factor. This second factor is the converse of cue validity: the probability with which a member of a given category possesses a particular feature. Basic categories are identified as those for which relatively large numbers of features yield maximal category-feature collocations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JGV1983001,
      author = {Jones, Gregory V.},
      title = {IDENTIFYING BASIC CATEGORIES},
      journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {94},
      number = {3},
      pages = {423--428}
    }
    
    Jones, P.H. & Nemeth, C.P. Cognitive Artifacts in Complex Work 2005 Ambient Intelligence for Scientific Discovery: Foundations, Theories, and Systems, pp. 152-183  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{JPH2005001,
      author = {Jones, P. H. and Nemeth, Christopher P.},
      title = {Cognitive Artifacts in Complex Work},
      booktitle = {Ambient Intelligence for Scientific Discovery: Foundations, Theories, and Systems},
      publisher = {Springer},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {152--183}
    }
    
    Jones, W.P. & Anderson, J.R. Short- and long-term memory retrieval: A comparison of the effects of information load and relatedness 1987 Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
    Vol. 116(2), pp. 137-153 
    article  
    Abstract: The separate applications of the Sternberg and fact-retrieval paradigms promote a view that short- and long-term memory are functionally distinct. However, effects of information load and relatedness, observed in both paradigms, support a more unified approach to memory retrieval. The two experiments of this article allow for direct comparison of these effects as observed in a fact-retrieval task, a Sternberg task, and a hybrid precuing task. These experiments are motivated by an associative approach in which performance in all tasks is seen to depend upon a parallel search driven by spreading activation. Decision-time data are explained in an indirect-pathway model with two important features: (a) Pretrial activation levels of areas in memory can vary to reflect differences between short-term and long-term retrieval; and (b) for related material, decisions can be based upon indirect pathways that connect the elements of a test probe through preexperimental associations in memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved). fact retrieval vs Sternberg vs precued designs & set size in memory retrieval tasks, decision times, 18-28 yr olds, implications for indirect pathway model of long & short term memory. Human Information Storage. Long Term Memory. Short Term Memory. Cognitive Processes
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jones1987MemoryShortLong,
      author = {Jones, William P. and Anderson, John R.},
      title = {Short- and long-term memory retrieval: A comparison of the effects of information load and relatedness},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology: General},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {116},
      number = {2},
      pages = {137--153}
    }
    
    Jonides, J., Lewis, R.L., Nee, D.E., Lustig, C.A., Berman, M.G. & Moore, K.S. The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory 2008 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 59, pp. 193-224 
    article  
    Abstract: The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the "mind") of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, with special attention to questions of capacity and how-or whether-short-term memory can be separated from long-term memory. Second, we ask how the components of that architecture enact processes of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Third, we describe the debate over the reason about forgetting from short-term memory, whether interference or decay is the cause. We close with a conceptual model tracing the representation of a single item through a short-term memory task, describing the biological mechanisms that might support psychological processes on a moment-by-moment basis as an item is encoded, maintained over a delay with some forgetting, and ultimately retrieved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Jonides2008Shorttermmemory,
      author = {Jonides, John and Lewis, Richard L. and Nee, Derek Evan and Lustig, Cindy A. and Berman, Marc G. and Moore, Katherine Sledge},
      title = {The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {59},
      pages = {193--224}
    }
    
    Juslin, P., Jones, S., Olsson, H. & Winman, A. Cue abstraction and exemplar memory in categorization 2003 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 29(5), pp. 924-941 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article, the authors compare 3 generic models of the cognitive processes in a categorization task. The cue abstraction model implies abstraction in training of explicit cue-criterion relations that are mentally integrated to form a judgment, the lexicographic heuristic uses only the most valid cue, and the exemplar-based model relies on retrieval of exemplars. The results from 2 experiments showed that, in lieu of the lexicographic heuristic, most participants spontaneously integrate cues. In contrast to single-system views, exemplar memory appeared to dominate when the feedback was poor, but when the feedback was rich enough to allow the participants to discern the task structure, it was exploited for abstraction of explicit cue-criterion relations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{JP-2003001,
      author = {Juslin, Peter and Jones, Sari and Olsson, Henrik and Winman, Anders},
      title = {Cue abstraction and exemplar memory in categorization},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {29},
      number = {5},
      pages = {924--941}
    }
    
    Kahneman, D. & Miller, D.T. Norm theory: comparing reality to its alternatives 1986 Psychological Review
    Vol. 93(2), pp. 136-153 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KD-1986001,
      author = {Kahneman, Daniel and Miller, Dale T.},
      title = {Norm theory: comparing reality to its alternatives},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {93},
      number = {2},
      pages = {136--153}
    }
    
    Karmiloff-Smith, A. & Inhelder, B. If you want to get ahead, get a theory 1974-1975 Cognition
    Vol. 3(3), pp. 195-212 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KSA1974001,
      author = {Karmiloff-Smith, Annette and Inhelder, B?rbel},
      title = {If you want to get ahead, get a theory},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1974-1975},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {195--212}
    }
    
    Keil, F.C. Categorisation, causation, and the limits of understanding 2003 Language and Cognitive Processes
    Vol. 18(5-6), pp. 663-692 
    article  
    Abstract: Although recent work has emphasised the importance of naive theories to categorisation, there has been little work examining the grain of analysis at which causal information normally influences categorisation. That level of analysis may often go unappreciated because of an "illusion of explanatory depth", in which people think they mentally represent causal explanatory relations in far more detail than they really do. Naive theories therefore might seem to be irrelevant to categorisation, or perhaps they only involve noting the presence of unknown essences. I argue instead that adults and children alike effectively track high-level causal patterns, often outside awareness, and that this ability is essential to categorisation. Three examples of such pattern-tracking are described. The shallowness of our explanatory understandings may be further supported by a reliance on the division of cognitive labour that occurs in all cultures, a reliance that arises from well-developed abilities to cluster knowledge in the minds of others.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KFC2003001,
      author = {Keil, Frank C.},
      title = {Categorisation, causation, and the limits of understanding},
      journal = {Language and Cognitive Processes},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {18},
      number = {5-6},
      pages = {663--692}
    }
    
    Keil, F.C. Concepts, Kinds, and Cognitive Development 1989   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{KFC1989001,
      author = {Keil, Frank C.},
      title = {Concepts, Kinds, and Cognitive Development},
      publisher = {MIT Press},
      year = {1989}
    }
    
    Keil, F.C. Conceptual development and category structure 1987 Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{KFC1987001,
      author = {Keil, Frank C.},
      title = {Conceptual development and category structure},
      booktitle = {Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {1987}
    }
    
    Keil, F.C., Carter Smith, W., Simons, D.J. & Levin, D.T. Two dogmas of conceptual empiricism: implications for hybrid models of the structure of knowledge 1998 Cognition
    Vol. 65(2-3), pp. 103-135 
    article  
    Abstract: Concepts seem to consist of both an associative component based on tabulations of feature typicality and similarity judgments and an explanatory component based on rules and causal principles. However, there is much controversy about how each component functions in concept acquisition and use. Here we consider two assumptions, or dogmas, that embody this controversy and underlie much of the current cognitive science research on concepts. Dogma 1: Novel information is first processed via similarity judgments and only later is influenced by explanatory components. Dogma 2: Children initially have only a similarity-based component for learning concepts; the explanatory component develops on the foundation of this earlier component. We present both empirical and theoretical arguments that these dogmas are unfounded, particularly with respect to real world concepts; we contend that the dogmas arise from a particular species of empiricism that inhibits progress in the study of conceptual structure; and finally, we advocate the retention of a hybrid model of the structure of knowledge despite our rejection of these dogmas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KFC1998001,
      author = {Keil, Frank C. and Carter Smith, W. and Simons, Daniel J. and Levin, Daniel T.},
      title = {Two dogmas of conceptual empiricism: implications for hybrid models of the structure of knowledge},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {65},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {103--135}
    }
    
    Keri, S. The cognitive neuroscience of category learning 2003 Brain Research Reviews
    Vol. 43(1), pp. 85-109 
    article  
    Abstract: Recently, a multidisciplinary approach has provided new insights into the mechanisms of category learning. In this article, results from theoretical modeling, experimental psychology, clinical neuropsychology, functional neuroimaging, and single-cell studies are reviewed. Although the results are not conclusive, some general principles have emerged. Areas localized in the sensory neocortex are responsible for the perceptual representation of category exemplars, whereas lateral and anterior prefrontal structures are necessary for the encoding of category boundaries and abstract rules. The prefrontal cortex may influence categorical representation in the sensory neocortex via top-down control. The neostriatum is important in stimulus-response mapping, and the orbitofrontal cortex/ventral striatum are related to stimulus-reward associations accompanying category learning. Many category learning tasks can be performed implicitly. In conclusion, category learning paradigms provide a unique opportunity to investigate cognitive processes such as perception, memory, and attention in a systematic and interactive manner. Category learning tasks are suitable for mapping damaged brain systems in clinical populations. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KS-2003002,
      author = {Keri, S.},
      title = {The cognitive neuroscience of category learning},
      journal = {Brain Research Reviews},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {43},
      number = {1},
      pages = {85--109}
    }
    
    Kirsh, D. A few thoughts on cognitive overload 2000 Intellectica
    Vol. 30, pp. 19-51 
    article  
    Abstract: This article addresses three main questions: What causes cognitive overload in the workplace? What analytical framework should be used to understand how agents interact with their work environments? How can environments be restructured to improve the cognitive workflow of agents? Four primary causes of overload are identified: too much information supply, too much information demand, constant multi-tasking and interruption, and inadequate workplace infrastructure to help reduce the need for planning, monitoring, reminding, reclassifying information, etc? The first step in reducing the cognitive impact of these causes is to enrich classical frameworks for understanding work environments, such as Newell and Simon?s notion of a task environment, by recognizing that our actual workplace is a superposition of many specific environments activity spaces which we slip between. Each has its own cost structure arising from the tools and resources available, including the cognitive strategies and interpretational frameworks of individual agents. These cognitive factors are significant, affecting how easy or difficult it is to perform an action, such as finding a specific paper in a ?messy? desk. A few simple examples show how work environments can be redesigned and how restructuring can alter the cost structure of activity spaces. Keywords: cognitive workflow, information overload, task environment, activity space, problem solving.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KD-2000001,
      author = {Kirsh, David},
      title = {A few thoughts on cognitive overload},
      journal = {Intellectica},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {30},
      pages = {19--51}
    }
    
    Kirsh, D. The Intelligent Use of Space 1995 Artificial Intelligence
    Vol. 73(1-2), pp. 31-68 
    article  
    Abstract: The objective of this essay is to provide the beginning of a principled classification of some of the ways space is intelligently used. Studies of planning have typically focused on the temporal ordering of action, leaving as unaddressed, questions of where to lay down instruments, ingredients, work-in-progress, and the like. But, in having a body, we are spatially located creatures: we must always be facing some direction, have only certain objects in view, be within reach of certain others. How we manage the spatial arrangement of items around us, is not an afterthought; it is an integral part of the way we think, plan and behave. The proposed classification has three main categories: spatial arrangements that simplify choice; spatial arrangements that simplify perception; and spatial dynamics that simplify internal computation. The data for such a classification is drawn from videos of cooking, assembly and packing, everyday observations in supermarkets, workshops and playrooms, and experimental studies of subjects playing Tetris, the computer game. This study, therefore, focusses on interactive processes in the medium and short term: on how agents set up their workplace for particular tasks, and how they continuously manage that workplace.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KD-1995001,
      author = {Kirsh, David},
      title = {The Intelligent Use of Space},
      journal = {Artificial Intelligence},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {73},
      number = {1-2},
      pages = {31--68}
    }
    
    Kirsh, D. & Maglio, P. On distinguishing epistemic from pragmatic action 1994 Cognitive science
    Vol. 18(4), pp. 513-549 
    article  
    Abstract: pragmatic actions bring an agent closer to a physical goal epistemic actions' role is to improve the ease, speed, or reliability of mental computation. "Their work arose from the observation that agents sometimes engage in actions that seem unnecessary or which appear to more them further from a physical goal. Epistemic actions are performed to make explicit information that would otherwise be hidden or difficult to compute. Many of the actions subjects performed with the documents and other items in their offices had a similar quality; they were not necessary for the physical accomplishment of the tasks at hand, but had value in their ability to remind, inform, or represent information that was needed by the subjects." (GDM1996001, 65)
    BibTeX:
    @article{KirshMaglio1994EpistemicPragmaticaction,
      author = {Kirsh, David and Maglio, Paul},
      title = {On distinguishing epistemic from pragmatic action},
      journal = {Cognitive science},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {18},
      number = {4},
      pages = {513--549}
    }
    
    Komatsu, L.K. Recent views of conceptual structure 1992 Psychological Bulletin
    Vol. 112(3), pp. 500-526 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KLK1992001,
      author = {Komatsu, Lloyd K.},
      title = {Recent views of conceptual structure},
      journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {112},
      number = {3},
      pages = {500--526}
    }
    
    Koriat, A., Goldsmith, M. & Pansky, A. Toward a psychology of memory accuracy 2000 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 51, pp. 481-537 
    article  
    Abstract: There has been unprecedented interest in recent years in questions pertaining to accuracy and distortion in memory. This interest, catalyzed in part by real-life problems, marks a significant departure from the quantity-oriented approach that has characterized much of traditional memory research. We outline a correspondence metaphor of memory underlying accuracy-oriented research, and show how the features of this metaphor are manifested across the disparate bodies of research reviewed here. These include work in the Gestalt tradition, spatial memory, memory for gist, schema theory, source monitoring, fluency misattributions, false recall and recognition, postevent misinformation, false memories, eyewitness research, and autobiographical memory. In examining the dynamics of memory accuracy, we highlight the importance of metacognitive monitoring and control processes. We end by discussing some of the methodological, theoretical, and metatheoretical issues inherent in accuracy-oriented research, attempting...keywords: memory correspondence; false memory; memory distortion; memory illusions; memory metaphors
    BibTeX:
    @article{KoriatGoldsmithPansky2003,
      author = {Koriat, Asher and Goldsmith, Morris and Pansky, Ainat},
      title = {Toward a psychology of memory accuracy},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {51},
      pages = {481-537}
    }
    
    Kruschke, J.K. Alcove: an exemplar-based connectionist model of category learning 1992 Psychological Review
    Vol. 99(1), pp. 22-44 
    article  
    Abstract: ALCOVE (attention learning covering map) is a connectionist model of category learning that incorporates an exemplar-based representation (Medin & Schaffer, 1978; Nosofsky, 1986) with error-driven learning (Gluck & Bower, 1988; Rumelhart, Hinton, & Williams, 1986). ALCOVE selectively attends to relevant stimulus dimensions, is sensitive to correlated dimensions, can account for a form of base-rate neglect, does not suffer catastrophic forgetting, and can exhibit 3-stage (U-shaped) learning of high-frequency exceptions to rules, whereas such effects are not easily accounted for by models using other combinations of representation and learning method.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KJK1992001,
      author = {Kruschke, John K.},
      title = {Alcove: an exemplar-based connectionist model of category learning},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1992},
      volume = {99},
      number = {1},
      pages = {22--44}
    }
    
    Kubovy, M. & Healy, A.F. DECISION RULE IN PROBABILISTIC CATEGORIZATION - WHAT IT IS AND HOW IT IS LEARNED 1977 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 106(4), pp. 427-446 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KM-1977001,
      author = {Kubovy, Michael and Healy, Alice F.},
      title = {DECISION RULE IN PROBABILISTIC CATEGORIZATION - WHAT IT IS AND HOW IT IS LEARNED},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {106},
      number = {4},
      pages = {427--446}
    }
    
    Kuhn, G., Amlani, A.A. & Rensink, R.A. Towards a science of magic 2008 Trends in Cognitive Science
    Vol. 12(9), pp. 349-354 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent research has shown interactions between the process of keeping information 'online' in working memory, and the processes that select relevant information for a response. In particular, our ability to select stimuli in the environment can be modulated by whether the stimuli match the current contents of working memory. Guidance of selection from working memory occurs automatically, even when it is detrimental to performance. Neurophysiological data, from functional brain imaging, indicate that the interaction between working memory and attention is based on neuronal mechanisms distinct from the processes mediating 'bottom-up' priming effects from implicit memory. We discuss the importance of 'top-down' influences from working memory on the 'early' deployment of attention and on the processes that gate visual information into awareness.
    BibTeX:
    @article{KuhnAmlaniRensink2008,
      author = {Kuhn, Gustav and Amlani, Alym A. and Rensink, Ronald A.},
      title = {Towards a science of magic},
      journal = {Trends in Cognitive Science},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {12},
      number = {9},
      pages = {349--354}
    }
    
    Kunda, Z. & Nisbett, R.E. The Psychometrics of Everyday Life 1986 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 18(2), pp. 195-224 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{KZ-1986001,
      author = {Kunda, Z. and Nisbett, R. E.},
      title = {The Psychometrics of Everyday Life},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {18},
      number = {2},
      pages = {195--224}
    }
    
    Laeng, B., Zarrinpar, A. & Kosslyn, S.M. Do separate processes identify objects as exemplars versus members of basic-level categories? Evidence from hemispheric specialization 2003 Brain and Cognition
    Vol. 53(1), pp. 15-27 
    article  
    Abstract: When an object is identified as a specific exemplar, is it analyzed differently than when it is identified at the basic level? On the basis of a previous theory, we predicted that the left hemisphere (LH) is specialized for classifying objects at the basic level and the right hemisphere (RH) is specialized for classifying objects as specific exemplars. To test this prediction, participants were asked to view, lateralized pictures of animals, artifacts, and faces of famous people; immediately after each picture was presented, a label was read aloud by the computer, and the participants decided whether the label was correct for that picture. A label could name the object at either the basic level (e.g., bird) or as an exemplar (e.g., robin). As predicted, we found that basic-level labels were matched faster when pictures were presented in the right visual field (and hence encoded initially in the LH), whereas exemplar labels were matched faster when pictures were presented in the left visual field (and hence encoded initially in the RH). (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LB-2003001,
      author = {Laeng, Bruno and Zarrinpar, Amir and Kosslyn, Stephen Michael},
      title = {Do separate processes identify objects as exemplars versus members of basic-level categories? Evidence from hemispheric specialization},
      journal = {Brain and Cognition},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {53},
      number = {1},
      pages = {15--27}
    }
    
    Lakoff, G. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind 1987   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Lakoff1987,
      author = {Lakoff, George},
      title = {Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind},
      publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1987}
    }
    
    Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. Metaphors We Live By 1980 , pp. 242  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Lakoff1980,
      author = {Lakoff, George and Johnson, Mark},
      title = {Metaphors We Live By},
      publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
      year = {1980},
      pages = {242}
    }
    
    Lamberts, K. Information-accumulation theory of speeded categorization 2000 Psychological Review
    Vol. 107(2), pp. 227-260 
    article  
    Abstract: A process model of perceptual categorization is presented, in which it is assumed that the earliest stages of categorization involve gradual accumulation of information about object features. The model provides a joint account of categorization choice proportions and response times by assuming that the probability that the information-accumulation process stops at a given time after stimulus presentation is a function of the stimulus information that has been acquired. The model provides an accurate account of categorization response times for integral-dimension stimuli and for separable-dimension stimuli, and it also explains effects of response deadlines and exemplar frequency.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LK-2000001,
      author = {Lamberts, Koen},
      title = {Information-accumulation theory of speeded categorization},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {107},
      number = {2},
      pages = {227--260}
    }
    
    Lamberts, K. Categorization under time pressure 1995 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 124(2), pp. 161-180 
    article  
    Abstract: Categorization of complex stimuli under time pressure was investigated in 3 experiments. Participants carried out standard binary classification tasks. In the transfer stage, different response deadlines were imposed. Results showed that response deadlines affected the applied level of generalization and the dimensional weight distribution. At short deadlines, participants generalized more than at longer deadlines. Dimensional weights were influenced heavily by perceptual salience at shorter deadlines, whereas they depended primarily on the formal category structure in conditions without a deadline. A formal model that extends the generalized context model of categorization with a time-dependent similarity concept is proposed to account for these results. That model provides a parsimonious and accurate account of the data from the 3 experiments.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LK-1995001,
      author = {Lamberts, Koen},
      title = {Categorization under time pressure},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {124},
      number = {2},
      pages = {161--180}
    }
    
    Lamberts, K. & Shanks, D.R. Knowledge, concepts, and categories 1997 , pp. xiii, 464 p.  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Lamberts1997,
      author = {Lamberts, Koen and Shanks, David R.},
      title = {Knowledge, concepts, and categories},
      publisher = {MIT Press},
      year = {1997},
      pages = {xiii, 464 p.},
      edition = {1st MIT Press ed}
    }
    
    Landau, B. Will the real grandmother please stand up? The psychological reality of dual meaning representations 1982 Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
    Vol. 11(1), pp. 47-62 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LANDAU1982,
      author = {Landau, Barbara},
      title = {Will the real grandmother please stand up? The psychological reality of dual meaning representations},
      journal = {Journal of Psycholinguistic Research},
      year = {1982},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {47--62}
    }
    
    Lansdale, M.W., Oliff, L. & Baguley, T.S. Quantifying precision and availability of location memory in everyday pictures and some implications for picture database design 2005 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Applied
    Vol. 11(2), pp. 67-83 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is quantified by 2 parameters: a probability that memory is available and a measure of its precision. Availability is determined by controlled attentional processes, whereas precision is mostly governed by picture composition beyond the viewer's control. Additionally, participants' confidence judgments were good predictors of availability but were insensitive to precision. This research suggests that databases using location memory are feasible. The implications of these findings for database design and for further research and development are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LMW2005001,
      author = {Lansdale, Mark W. and Oliff, Lynda and Baguley, Thom S.},
      title = {Quantifying precision and availability of location memory in everyday pictures and some implications for picture database design},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Applied},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {67--83}
    }
    
    Larkin, J.H. & Simon, H.A. Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words 1987 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 11(1), pp. 65-100 
    article  
    Abstract: We distinguish diagrammatic from sentential paper-and-pencil representations of information by developing alternative models of information-processing systems that are informationally equivalent and that can be characterized as sentential or diagrammatic. Sentential representations are sequential, like the propositions in a text. Diagrammatic representations are indexed by location in a plane. Diagrammatic representations also typically display information that is only implicit in sentential representations and that therefore has to be computed, sometimes at great cost, to make it explicit for use. We then contrast the computational efficiency of these representations for solving several illustrative problems in mathematics and physics. When two representations are informationally equivalent, their computational efficiency depends on the information-processing operators that act on them. Two sets of operators may differ in their capabilities for recognizing patterns, in the inferences they can carry out directly, and in their control strategies (in particular, the control of search). Diagrammatic and sentential representations support operators that differ in all of these respects. Operators working on one representation may recognize features readily or make inferences directly that are difficult to realize in the other representation. Most important, however, are differences in the efficiency of search for information and in the explicitness of information. In the representations we call diagrammatic, information is organized by location, and often much of the information needed to make an inference is present and explicit at a single location. In addition, cues to the next logical step in the problem may be present at an adjacent location. Therefore problem solving can proceed through a smooth traversal of the diagram, and may require very little search or computation of elements that had been implicit.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LarkinSimon1987DiagramTenThousandWords,
      author = {Larkin, Jill H. and Simon, Herbert A.},
      title = {Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {65--100}
    }
    
    Lave, J. Cognition in practice : mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life 1988 , pp. xv, 214 p. ;  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{LJ-1988001,
      author = {Lave, Jean},
      title = {Cognition in practice : mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {1988},
      pages = {xv, 214 p. ;}
    }
    
    Levy, D.K. Concepts, language, and privacy: An argument "vaguely Viennese in provenance" 2003 Language and Cognitive Processes
    Vol. 18(5-6), pp. 693-723 
    article  
    Abstract: I consider two notable recent philosophical theories of concepts (Fodor and Peacocke) in relation to some challenges set by Wittgenstein in his notorious private language argument. The challenge is formulated in terms of contraints on the explanation of the relation between thought and language. I try to show how these theories of concepts relate to constraints that arise from this challenge. I also relate the challenge to a recent contribution in the debate about narrow and broad content. In so doing I try to illuminate how this philosophical debate bears on some issues in cognitive psychology. In particular, I suggest it bears on nativism about concepts, the relation between an adequate notion of public language and thought, and the idea that concepts are "in" mentalese, a Language of Thought. Accommodating these considerations requires increasing the consideration of linguistic evidence and the linguistic character of concepts in laboratory research if distinctively human thought is to be explained.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LDK2003001,
      author = {Levy, D. K.},
      title = {Concepts, language, and privacy: An argument "vaguely Viennese in provenance"},
      journal = {Language and Cognitive Processes},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {18},
      number = {5-6},
      pages = {693--723}
    }
    
    Lin, E.L. & Murphy, G.L. Thematic relations in adults' concepts 2001 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 130(1), pp. 3-28 
    article  
    Abstract: Concepts can be organized by their members' similarities, forming a kind (e.g., animal), or by their external relations within scenes or events (e.g., cake and candles). This latter type of relation, known as the thematic relation, is frequently found to be the basis of children's but not adults' classification. However, 10 experiments found that when thematic relations are meaningful and salient, they have significant influence on adults' category construction (sorting), inductive reasoning, and verification of category membership. The authors conclude that concepts function closely with knowledge of scenes and events and that this knowledge has a role in adults' conceptual representations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LEL2001001,
      author = {Lin, E. L. and Murphy, Gregory L.},
      title = {Thematic relations in adults' concepts},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {130},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3--28}
    }
    
    Little, D.R., Lewandowsky, S. & Heit, E. Ad hoc category restructuring 2006 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 34(7), pp. 1398-1413 
    article  
    Abstract: Participants learned to classify seemingly arbitrary words into categories that also corresponded to ad hoc categories (see, e.g., Barsalou, 1983). By adapting experimental mechanisms previously used to study knowledge restructuring in perceptual categorization, we provide a novel account of how experimental and preexperimental knowledge interact. Participants were told of the existence of the ad hoc categories either at the beginning or the end of training. When the ad hoc labels were revealed at the end of training, participants switched from categorization based on experimental learning to categorization based on preexperimental knowledge in some, but not all, circumstances. Important mediators of the extent of that switch were the amount of performance error experienced during prior learning and whether or not prior knowledge was in conflict with experimental learning. We present a computational model of the trade-off between preexperimental knowledge and experimental learning that accounts for the main results.
    BibTeX:
    @article{LDR2006001,
      author = {Little, D. R. and Lewandowsky, S. and Heit, Evan},
      title = {Ad hoc category restructuring},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {34},
      number = {7},
      pages = {1398--1413}
    }
    
    Loftus, E.F. SPREADING ACTIVATION WITHIN SEMANTIC CATEGORIES - COMMENTS ON ROSCHS COGNITIVE REPRESENTATIONS OF SEMANTIC CATEGORIES 1975 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 104(3), pp. 234-240 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LEF1975001,
      author = {Loftus, Elizabeth F.},
      title = {SPREADING ACTIVATION WITHIN SEMANTIC CATEGORIES - COMMENTS ON ROSCHS COGNITIVE REPRESENTATIONS OF SEMANTIC CATEGORIES},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {104},
      number = {3},
      pages = {234--240}
    }
    
    London, M., Crandall, R. & Seals, G.W. The contribution of job and leisure satisfaction to quality of life 1977 Journal of Applied Psychology
    Vol. 62(3), pp. 328-334 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{LM-1977002,
      author = {London, Manuel and Crandall, Rick and Seals, Gary W.},
      title = {The contribution of job and leisure satisfaction to quality of life},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Psychology},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {62},
      number = {3},
      pages = {328--334}
    }
    
    Luria, A.R. Cognitive development: Its cultural and social foundations 1976   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{LAR1976001,
      author = {Luria, A. R.},
      title = {Cognitive development: Its cultural and social foundations},
      publisher = {Harvard University Press},
      year = {1976}
    }
    
    Macmillan, N.A., Kaplan, H.L. & Creelman, C.D. PSYCHOPHYSICS OF CATEGORICAL PERCEPTION 1977 Psychological Review
    Vol. 84(5), pp. 452-471 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MNA1977001,
      author = {Macmillan, Neil A. and Kaplan, Howard L. and Creelman, C. Douglas},
      title = {PSYCHOPHYSICS OF CATEGORICAL PERCEPTION},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {84},
      number = {5},
      pages = {452--471}
    }
    
    Malt, B.C. Water is not H2O 1994 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 27, pp. 41-70 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MBC1994001,
      author = {Malt, Barbara C.},
      title = {Water is not H2O},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {27},
      pages = {41--70}
    }
    
    Malt, B.C., Ross, B.H. & Murphy, G.L. PREDICTING FEATURES FOR MEMBERS OF NATURAL CATEGORIES WHEN CATEGORIZATION IS UNCERTAIN 1995 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 21(3), pp. 646-661 
    article  
    Abstract: An important function of concepts is to allow the prediction of unseen features. A Bayesian account of feature prediction suggests that people will consider all the categories an object could belong to when they judge the likelihood that the object has a feature. The judgment and decision literature suggests that they may instead use a simpler heuristic in which they consider only the most likely category. In 3 experiments, no evidence was found that participants took into account alternative categories as well as the most likely one when they judged feature probabilities for familiar objects in meaningful contexts. These results, in conjunction with those of Murphy and Ross (1994), suggest that although people may consider alternative categories in certain limited situations, they often do nor. Reasons for why the use of alternative categories may be relatively rare are discussed, and conditions under which people may take alternative categories into account are outlined.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MBC1995001,
      author = {Malt, Barbara C. and Ross, Brian H. and Murphy, Gregory L.},
      title = {PREDICTING FEATURES FOR MEMBERS OF NATURAL CATEGORIES WHEN CATEGORIZATION IS UNCERTAIN},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {21},
      number = {3},
      pages = {646--661}
    }
    
    Malt, B.C., Sloman, S.A., Gennari, S., Shi, M. & Wang, Y. Knowing versus naming: Similarity and the linguistic categorization of artifacts 1999 Journal of Memory and Language
    Vol. 40(2), pp. 230-262 
    article  
    Abstract: We argue that it is important to distinguish between categorization as object recognition and as naming because the relation between the two may not be as straightforward as has often been assumed. We present data from speakers of English, Chinese, and Spanish that support this contention. Speakers of the three languages show substantially different patterns of naming for a set of 60 common containers, but they see the similarities among the objects in much the same way. The observed patterns of naming therefore cannot arise only from the similarities that speakers of the three languages see among the objects. We also offer suggestions about how complexity in naming may arise, and the data provide some evidence consistent with these suggestions. Exploring how artifacts are named vs "known" may provide new insights into artifact categorization. (C) 1999 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MBC1999001,
      author = {Malt, Barbara C. and Sloman, Steven A. and Gennari, Silvia and Shi, Meiyi and Wang, Yuang},
      title = {Knowing versus naming: Similarity and the linguistic categorization of artifacts},
      journal = {Journal of Memory and Language},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {40},
      number = {2},
      pages = {230--262}
    }
    
    Mancuso, J.C. & Shaw, M.L.G. Cognition and personal structure : computer access and analysis 1988 , pp. vi, 341 p. :  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Mancuso1988,
      author = {Mancuso, James C and Shaw, Mildred L. G},
      title = {Cognition and personal structure : computer access and analysis},
      publisher = {Praeger},
      year = {1988},
      pages = {vi, 341 p. :}
    }
    
    Mandler, J.M. & Bauer, P.J. THE CRADLE OF CATEGORIZATION - IS THE BASIC LEVEL BASIC 1988 Cognitive Development
    Vol. 3(3), pp. 247-264 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MJM1988001,
      author = {Mandler, J. M. and Bauer, P. J.},
      title = {THE CRADLE OF CATEGORIZATION - IS THE BASIC LEVEL BASIC},
      journal = {Cognitive Development},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {247--264}
    }
    
    Margolis, E. How to acquire a concept 1998 Mind & Language
    Vol. 13(3), pp. 347-369 
    article  
    Abstract: In this paper, I develop a novel account of concept acquisition for an atomistic theory of concepts. Conceptual atomism is rarely explored in cognitive science because of the feeling that atomistic treatments of concepts are inherently nativistic. My model illustrates, on the contrary, that atomism does not preclude the learning of a concept.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ME-1998001,
      author = {Margolis, Eric},
      title = {How to acquire a concept},
      journal = {Mind & Language},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {347--369}
    }
    
    Margolis, E. & Laurence, S. Concepts: Core Readings 1999   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Margolis1999,
      author = {Margolis, Eric and Laurence, Stephen},
      title = {Concepts: Core Readings},
      publisher = {MIT Press},
      year = {1999}
    }
    
    Markman, A.B. & Dietrich, E. In Defense of Representation 2000 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 40(2), pp. 138-171 
    article  
    Abstract: The computational paradigm, which has dominated psychology and artificial intelligence since the cognitive revolution, has been a source of intense debate. Recently, several cognitive scientists have argued against this paradigm, not by objecting to computation, but rather by objecting to the notion of representation. Our analysis of these objections reveals that it is not the notion of representation per se that is causing the problem, but rather specific properties of representations as they are used in various psychological theories. Our analysis suggests that all theorists accept the idea that cognitive processing involves internal information-carrying states that mediate cognitive processing. These mediating states are a superordinate category of representations. We discuss five properties that can he added to mediating states and examine their importance in various cognitive models. Finally, three methodological lessons are drawn from our analysis and discussion. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Markman2000Defenseofrepresentation,
      author = {Markman, A. B. and Dietrich, E.},
      title = {In Defense of Representation},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {40},
      number = {2},
      pages = {138--171}
    }
    
    Markman, A.B. & Gentner, D. Thinking 2001 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 52, pp. 223-247 
    article  
    Abstract: Reasoning processes allow the human cognitive system to go beyond the information readily available in the environment. This review focuses on the processes of human thinking, including deductive reasoning, induction, mental simulation, and analogy. We survey recent trends across several areas, including categorization, mental models, cognitive development, and decision making. Our chief organizing principle is the contrast between traditional approaches that focus on abstract logical reasoning and a number of current approaches that posit domain-specific, knowledge-intensive cognition. We suggest that some instances of domain-specific cognition result from domain-general processes operating on domain-specific representations. Another theme is the link between reasoning and learning. We suggest that learning typically occurs as a byproduct of reasoning, rather than as an end in itself.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MAB2001001,
      author = {Markman, Arthur B. and Gentner, D.},
      title = {Thinking},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {52},
      pages = {223--247}
    }
    
    Markman, A.B. & Ross, B.H. Category use and category learning 2003 Psychological Bulletin
    Vol. 129(4), pp. 592-613 
    article  
    Abstract: Categorization models based on laboratory research focus on a narrower range of explanatory constructs than appears necessary for explaining the structure of natural categories. This mismatch is caused by the reliance on classification as the basis of laboratory studies. Category representations are formed in the process of interacting with category members. Thus, laboratory studies must explore a range of category uses. The authors review the effects of a variety of category uses on category learning. First, there is an extensive discussion contrasting classification with a predictive inference task that is formally equivalent to classification but leads to a very different pattern of learning. Then, research on the effects of problem solving, communication, and combining inference and classification is reviewed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MAB2003001,
      author = {Markman, Arthur B. and Ross, Brian H.},
      title = {Category use and category learning},
      journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {129},
      number = {4},
      pages = {592--613}
    }
    
    Markman, A.B. & Stilwell, C.H. Role-governed categories 2001 Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence
    Vol. 13(4), pp. 329-358 
    article  
    Abstract: Theories of categorization have typically focused on the internal structure of categories. This paper is concerned with the external structure of categories. In particular, it is suggested that many categories specify the relational role that is played by category members. To support this claim, the paper distinguishes between traditional feature-based categories, relational categories (which specify a relational structure) and role-governed categories (which specify that an item plays a particular role within a relational structure). After discussing the relationship among these types of categories, the implications of this view for the study of category learning and category use are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MAB2001002,
      author = {Markman, Arthur B. and Stilwell, C. Hunt},
      title = {Role-governed categories},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {13},
      number = {4},
      pages = {329--358}
    }
    
    Markman, A.B. & Wisniewski, E.J. Similar and different: The differentiation of basic-level categories 1997 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 23(1), pp. 54-70 
    article  
    Abstract: Categories in the middle level of a taxonomic hierarchy tend to be highly differentiated in that they have both high levels of within-category similarity and low levels of between-category similarity. Research on similarity reveals a distinction between pairs of categories that are seen as dissimilar because they have few commonalities and pairs that are seen as dissimilar because they have many psychologically relevant alignable differences. The authors suggest that the low between-category similarity proposed for neighboring basic-level categories is actually a matter of having many psychologically relevant differences. In contrast, the low between-category similarity of superordinates is a result of their having few commonalities. The authors evaluate this claim in 4 experiments using a variety of natural stimuli and converging measures. The data support the importance of alignable differences for distinguishing between pairs of basic-level categories.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MAB1997001,
      author = {Markman, Arthur B. and Wisniewski, Edward J.},
      title = {Similar and different: The differentiation of basic-level categories},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {23},
      number = {1},
      pages = {54--70}
    }
    
    Marsh, R.L., Hicks, J.L. & Cook, G.I. On the relationship between effort toward an ongoing task and cue detection in event-based prospective memory 2005 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 31(1), pp. 68-75 
    article  
    Abstract: In recent theories of event-based prospective memory, researchers have debated what degree of resources are necessary to identify a cue as related to a previously established intention. In order to simulate natural variations in attention, the authors manipulated effort toward an ongoing cognitive task in which intention-related cues were embedded in 3 experiments. High effort toward the ongoing task resulted in decreased prospective memory only when the cognitive processing required to identify the cue was similar to the cognitive processing required to complete the ongoing activity. When the required processing was different for the 2 tasks, cue detection was not affected by manipulated effort, despite there being an overall cost to decision latencies in the ongoing tasks from possessing the intention. Resource allocation policies and factors that affect them are proposed to account for ongoing vs. prospective memory task performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Marsh2005ProspectiveMemoryandAttention.pdf,
      author = {Marsh, Richard L. and Hicks, Jason L. and Cook, Gabriel I.},
      title = {On the relationship between effort toward an ongoing task and cue detection in event-based prospective memory},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {31},
      number = {1},
      pages = {68--75}
    }
    
    Marsh, R.L., Hicks, J.L. & Landau, J.D. An Investigation of Everyday Prospective Memory 1998 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 26(4), pp. 633-643 
    article  
    Abstract: Prospective memory, remembering to carry out one's planned activities, was investigated using a naturalistic paradigm. Three experiments, with a total of 405 participants, were conducted. The goal was to demonstrate that the cognitive processing underlying successful everyday prospective remembering involves components other than mere "memory" Those components are probably best represented as individual differences in various cognitive capacities. More specifically, metamemory, attentional capacities, and planning processes that reprioritize intentions according to the. demands of everyday life may determine how people actually accomplish the plans they establish for themselves. The results of these experiments suggest that researchers interested in the topic will have to contend with a multidimensional set of factors before any comprehensive understanding of prospective remembering can be realized.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MarshHicksLandau1998,
      author = {Marsh, Richard L. and Hicks, Jason L. and Landau, Joshua D.},
      title = {An Investigation of Everyday Prospective Memory},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {26},
      number = {4},
      pages = {633--643}
    }
    
    Martin, R.C. & Caramazza, A. CLASSIFICATION IN WELL-DEFINED AND ILL-DEFINED CATEGORIES - EVIDENCE FOR COMMON PROCESSING STRATEGIES 1980 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 109(3), pp. 320-353 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MRC1980001,
      author = {Martin, Randi C. and Caramazza, Alfonso},
      title = {CLASSIFICATION IN WELL-DEFINED AND ILL-DEFINED CATEGORIES - EVIDENCE FOR COMMON PROCESSING STRATEGIES},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {109},
      number = {3},
      pages = {320--353}
    }
    
    McDaniel, M.A. & Einstein, G.O. Strategic and automatic processes in prospective memory retrieval: a multiprocess framework 2000 Applied Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 14(7), pp. S127-S144 
    article  
    Abstract: Prospective memory situations involve forming intentions and then realizing those intentions at some appropriate time in the future. An interesting feature of most prospective remembering is that recollection of the intended action occurs without an explicit request to attempt retrieval, and we present two views on how this type of remembering can be accomplished. One could strategically monitor the environment for the presence of the target event, or one could rely on anticipated environmental conditions more or less automatically reinstating the intended action. We present data supporting both views and argue that people use multiple approaches for solving the problem of retrieving an intention (prospective memory) after a delay. Moreover, we suggest that the extent to which prospective remembering is supported by relatively automatic processes (versus strategic resource-demanding monitoring) and the probability with which prospective memory is likely to be successful when relying on automatic processes varies as a function of the characteristics of the prospective memory task, target cue, ongoing task, and individual. We argue that the complexity of the empirical findings can best be understood by appealing to this multiprocess view of prospective memory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{McDanielEinstein2000ProspMemoryStrategicAutomaticMultiprocess,
      author = {McDaniel, Mark A. and Einstein, Gilles O.},
      title = {Strategic and automatic processes in prospective memory retrieval: a multiprocess framework},
      journal = {Applied Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {14},
      number = {7},
      pages = {S127--S144}
    }
    
    Medin, D.L. Concepts and conceptual structure 1989 American Psychologist
    Vol. 44(12), pp. 1469-1481 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MDL1989001,
      author = {Medin, Douglas L.},
      title = {Concepts and conceptual structure},
      journal = {American Psychologist},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {44},
      number = {12},
      pages = {1469--1481}
    }
    
    Medin, D.L., Altom, M.W. & Murphy, T.D. GIVEN VERSUS INDUCED CATEGORY REPRESENTATIONS - USE OF PROTOTYPE AND EXEMPLAR INFORMATION IN CLASSIFICATION 1984 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 10(3), pp. 333-352 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MDL1984001,
      author = {Medin, Douglas L. and Altom, Mark W. and Murphy, Timothy D.},
      title = {GIVEN VERSUS INDUCED CATEGORY REPRESENTATIONS - USE OF PROTOTYPE AND EXEMPLAR INFORMATION IN CLASSIFICATION},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {333--352}
    }
    
    Medin, D.L. & Atran, S. The native mind: Biological categorization and reasoning in development and across cultures 2004 Psychological Review
    Vol. 111(4), pp. 960-983 
    article  
    Abstract: This article describes cross-cultural and developmental research on folk biology: that is, the study of how people conceptualize living kinds. The combination of a conceptual module for biology and cross-cultural comparison brings a new perspective to theories of categorization and reasoning. From the standpoint of cognitive psychology, the authors find that results gathered from standard populations in industrialized societies often fail to generalize to humanity at large. For example, similarity-driven typicality and diversity effects either are not found or pattern differently when one moves beyond undergraduates. From the perspective of folk biology, standard populations may yield misleading results because they represent examples of especially impoverished experience with nature. Certain phenomena are robust across populations, consistent with notions of a core module.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MDL2004001,
      author = {Medin, Douglas L. and Atran, Scott},
      title = {The native mind: Biological categorization and reasoning in development and across cultures},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {111},
      number = {4},
      pages = {960--983}
    }
    
    Medin, D.L., Lynch, E.B., Coley, J.D. & Atran, S. Categorization and reasoning among tree experts: Do All roads lead to Rome? 1997 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 32(1), pp. 49-96 
    article  
    Abstract: To what degree do conceptual systems reflect universal patterns of featural covariation in the world (similarity) or universal organizing principles of mind, and to what degree do they reflect specific goals, theories, and beliefs of the categorizer? This question was addressed in experiments concerned with categorization and reasoning among different types of tree experts (e.g., taxonomists, landscape workers, parks maintenance personnel). The results show an intriguing pattern of similarities and differences. Differences in sorting between taxonomists and maintenance workers reflect differences in weighting of morphological features. Landscape workers, in contrast, sort trees into goal-derived categories based on utilitarian concerns. These sorting patterns carry over into category-based reasoning for the taxonomists and maintenance personnel but not the landscape workers. These generalizations interact with taxonomic rank and suggest that the genus (or folk generic) level is relatively and in some cases absolutely privileged. Implications of these Endings for theories of categorization are discussed. (C) 1997 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MDL1997001,
      author = {Medin, Douglas L. and Lynch, Elizabeth B. and Coley, John D. and Atran, Scott},
      title = {Categorization and reasoning among tree experts: Do All roads lead to Rome?},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {32},
      number = {1},
      pages = {49--96}
    }
    
    Medin, D.L., Lynch, E.B. & Solomon, K.O. Are there kinds of concepts? 2000 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 51, pp. 121-147 
    article  
    Abstract: Past research on concepts has focused almost exclusively on noun-object concepts. This paper discusses recent research demonstrating that useful distinctions may be made among kinds of concepts, including both object and nonobject concepts. We discuss three types of criteria, based on structure, process, and content, that may be used to distinguish among kinds of concepts. The paper then reviews a number of possible candidates for kinds based on the discussed criteria.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MDL2000001,
      author = {Medin, Douglas L. and Lynch, Elizabeth B. and Solomon, Karen O.},
      title = {Are there kinds of concepts?},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {51},
      pages = {121--147}
    }
    
    Medin, D.L., Ross, N.O., Atran, S., Burnett, R.C. & Blok, S.V. Categorization and reasoning in relation to culture and expertise 2002 Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, pp. 1-41  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{MDL2002001,
      author = {Medin, Douglas L. and Ross, Norbert O. and Atran, Scott and Burnett, Russell C. and Blok, Sergey V.},
      title = {Categorization and reasoning in relation to culture and expertise},
      booktitle = {Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory},
      publisher = {Academic Press Inc},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {1--41}
    }
    
    Medin, D.L. & Schaffer, M.M. Context theory of classification learning 1978 Psychological review
    Vol. 85, pp. 207-238 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MDL1978001,
      author = {Medin, Douglas L. and Schaffer, M. M.},
      title = {Context theory of classification learning},
      journal = {Psychological review},
      year = {1978},
      volume = {85},
      pages = {207--238}
    }
    
    Medin, D.L. & Smith, E.E. Concepts and concept formation 1984 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 35, pp. 113-138 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MDL1984002,
      author = {Medin, Douglas L. and Smith, Edward E.},
      title = {Concepts and concept formation},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {35},
      pages = {113--138}
    }
    
    Medin, D.L. & Wattenmaker, W.D. FAMILY RESEMBLANCE, CONCEPTUAL COHESIVENESS, AND CATEGORY CONSTRUCTION 1987 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 19(2), pp. 242-279 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MDL1987001,
      author = {Medin, Douglas L. and Wattenmaker, William D.},
      title = {FAMILY RESEMBLANCE, CONCEPTUAL COHESIVENESS, AND CATEGORY CONSTRUCTION},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {19},
      number = {2},
      pages = {242--279}
    }
    
    Meier, B., Zimmermann, T. & Perrig, W. Retrieval experience in prospective memory: Strategic monitoring and spontaneous retrieval 2006 Memory
    Vol. 14(7), pp. 872-889 
    article  
    Abstract: According to the multi-process model of prospective memory (McDaniel & Einstein, 2000), performance in a prospective memory task may be due to spontaneous retrieval processes or due to strategic monitoring. Spontaneous retrieval is typically accompanied by a pop up experience and strategic monitoring by a search experience. In this study we report two experiments with young adults in which we systematically investigated whether retrieval experience differed across experimental conditions. In Experiment 1 some prospective memory targets were preceded by associated primes. We expected that presenting primes would enhance performance by an automatic activation of the intention and hence lead to an increase in pop up experiences. In Experiment 2 half of the participants received instructions containing information about the specific context in which the prospective memory task would occur, whereas the other half of the participants received no such information. We expected that specific context instructions would enhance performance by legitimate anticipation of the prospective memory task and hence would lead to an increase in search experiences. The results confirmed these expectations. They indicate that the assessment of retrieval experience can provide valuable insights into the processes underlying prospective memory performance. They also suggest that retrieval experience can vary systematically across experimental situations as predicted by the multi-process model.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Meier2006MemorY-monitoringvsretrieval,
      author = {Meier, Beat and Zimmermann, Thomas and Perrig, Walter},
      title = {Retrieval experience in prospective memory: Strategic monitoring and spontaneous retrieval},
      journal = {Memory},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {14},
      number = {7},
      pages = {872--889}
    }
    
    Mervis, C.B. & Pani, J.R. Acquisition of Basic Object Categories 1980 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 12(4), pp. 496-522 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCB1980001,
      author = {Mervis, Carolyn B. and Pani, John R.},
      title = {Acquisition of Basic Object Categories},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {12},
      number = {4},
      pages = {496--522}
    }
    
    Mervis, C.B. & Rosch, E.H. Categorization of natural objects 1981 Annual review of Psychology
    Vol. 32, pp. 89-115 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MCB1981001,
      author = {Mervis, Carolyn B. and Rosch, Eleanor H.},
      title = {Categorization of natural objects},
      journal = {Annual review of Psychology},
      year = {1981},
      volume = {32},
      pages = {89--115}
    }
    
    Millikan, R.G. A common structure for concepts of individuals, stuffs, and real kinds: More Mama, more milk, and more mouse 1998 Behavioral and Brain Sciences
    Vol. 21(1), pp. 55-100 
    article  
    Abstract: Concepts are highly theoretical entities. One cannot study them empirically without committing oneself to substantial preliminary assumptions. Among the competing theories of concepts and categorization developed by psychologists in the last thirty years, the implicit theoretical assumption that what falls under a concept is determined by description ("descriptionism") has never been seriously challenged. I present a nondescriptionist theory of our most basic concepts, "substances," which include (1) stuffs (gold, milk), (2) real kinds (cat, chair), and (3) individuals (Mama, Bill Clinton, the Empire State Building). On the basis of something important that all three have in common, our earliest and most basic concepts of substances are identical in structure. The membership of the category "cat," like that of "Mama," is a natural unit in nature, to which the concept "cat" does something like pointing, and continues to point despite large changes in the properties the thinker represents the unit as having. For example, large changes can occur in the way a child identifies cats and the things it is willing to call "cat" without affecting the extension of its word "cat." The difficulty is to cash in the metaphor of "pointing" in this context. Having substance concepts need not depend on knowing words, but language interacts with substance concepts, completely transforming the conceptual repertoire. I will discuss how public language plays a crucial role in both the acquisition of substance concepts and their completed structure.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MRG1998001,
      author = {Millikan, Ruth Garrett},
      title = {A common structure for concepts of individuals, stuffs, and real kinds: More Mama, more milk, and more mouse},
      journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {21},
      number = {1},
      pages = {55--100}
    }
    
    Minda, J.P. & Ross, B.H. Learning categories by making predictions: An investigation of indirect category learning 2004 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 32(8), pp. 1355-1368 
    article  
    Abstract: Categories are learned in many ways, but studies of category learning have generally focused on classification learning. This focus may limit the understanding of categorization processes. Two experiments were conducted in which participants learned categories of animals by predicting how much food each animal would eat. We refer to this as indirect category learning, because the task and the feedback were not directly related to category membership, yet category learning was necessary for good performance in the task. In the first experiment, we compared the performance of participants who learned the categories indirectly with the performance of participants who first learned to classify the objects. In the second experiment, we replicated the basic findings and examined attention to different features during the learning task. In both experiments, participants who learned in the prediction-only condition displayed a broader distribution of attention than participants who learned in the classification-and-prediction condition did. Some participants in the prediction-only group learned the family resemblance structure of the categories, even when a perfect criterial attribute was present. In contrast, participants who first learned to classify the objects tended to learn the criterial attribute.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MJP2004001,
      author = {Minda, John Paul and Ross, Brian H.},
      title = {Learning categories by making predictions: An investigation of indirect category learning},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {32},
      number = {8},
      pages = {1355--1368}
    }
    
    Minda, J.P. & Smith, J.D. Comparing prototype-based and exemplar-based accounts of category learning and attentional allocation 2002 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 28(2), pp. 275-292 
    article  
    Abstract: Exemplar theory was motivated by research that often used D. L. Medin and M. M. Schaffer's (1978) 5/4 stimulus set. The exemplar model has seemed to fit categorization data from this stimulus set better than a prototype model can. Moreover, the exemplar model alone predicts a qualitative aspect of performance that participants sometimes show. In 2 experiments, the authors reexamined these findings. In both experiments, a prototype model fit participants' performance profiles better than an exemplar model did when comparable prototype and exemplar models were used. Moreover, even when participants showed the qualitative aspect of performance, the exemplar model explained it by making implausible assumptions about human attention and effort in categorization tasks. An independent assay of participants' attentional strategies suggested that the description the exemplar model offers in such cases is incorrect. A review of 30 uses of the 5/4 stimulus set in the literature reinforces this suggestion.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MJP2002001,
      author = {Minda, John Paul and Smith, J. David},
      title = {Comparing prototype-based and exemplar-based accounts of category learning and attentional allocation},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {28},
      number = {2},
      pages = {275--292}
    }
    
    Minda, J.P. & Smith, J.D. Prototypes in category learning: The effects of category size, category structure, and stimulus complexity 2001 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 27(3), pp. 775-799 
    article  
    Abstract: Although research in categorization has sometimes been motivated by prototype theory, recent studies have favored exemplar theory. However, some of these studies focused on small, poorly differentiated categories composed of simple, 4-dimensional stimuli. Some analyzed the aggregate data of entire groups. Some compared powerful multiplicative exemplar models to less powerful additive prototype models. Here, comparable prototype and exemplar models were fit to individual-participant data in 4 experiments that sampled category sets varying in size, level of category structure, and stimulus complexity (dimensionality). The prototype model always fit the observed data better than the exemplar model did. Prototype-based processes seemed especially relevant when participants learned categories that were larger or contained more complex stimuli.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MJP2001001,
      author = {Minda, John Paul and Smith, J. David},
      title = {Prototypes in category learning: The effects of category size, category structure, and stimulus complexity},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      number = {3},
      pages = {775--799}
    }
    
    Moore, P. Information Problem-Solving - a Wider View of Library Skills 1995 Contemporary Educational Psychology
    Vol. 20(1), pp. 1-31 
    article  
    Abstract: In an age of abundant information on almost every topic, it is increasingly important that students learn how to locate, select, evaluate, and integrate information from various sources. The study reported here examined the cognitive and metacognitive demands of the initial stages of gathering information for elementary school research assignments. It paid attention to interactions between areas of knowledge and the metacognitive skills underlying the task. The efforts of 23 Grade 6 students were recorded on videotape while they participated in individual think aloud/concurrent interviews. Retrospective interviews were used to illuminate those aspects of the task which were not amenable to thinking aloud. Results support the view that information retrieval and use in libraries is essentially a problem-solving task that requires various forms of knowledge to be applied very flexibly and in concert. Students of all abilities were found to have wide-ranging metacognitive knowledge, but overall, they had insufficient general and tactical knowledge to facilitate the use of alternative action paths when a favored approach failed. Implications for future library skills tuition are discussed. (C) 1995 Academic Press, Inc.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moore1995,
      author = {Moore, P.},
      title = {Information Problem-Solving - a Wider View of Library Skills},
      journal = {Contemporary Educational Psychology},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {20},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--31}
    }
    
    Moss, J., Kotovsky, K. & Cagan, J. The Role of Functionality in the Mental Representations of Engineering Students: Some Differences in the Early Stages of Expertise 2006 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 30(1), pp. 65-93 
    article  
    Abstract: As engineers gain experience and become experts in their domain, the structure and content of their knowledge changes. Two studies are presented that examine differences in knowledge representation among freshman and senior engineering students. The first study examines recall of mechanical devices and chunking of components, and the second examines whether seniors represent devices in a more abstract functional manner than do freshmen. The most prominent differences between these 2 groups involve their representation of the functioning of groups of electromechanical components and how these groups of components interact to produce device behavior. Seniors are better able to construct coherent representations of devices by focusing on the function of sets of components in the device. The findings from these studies highlight some ways in which the structure and content of mental representations of design knowledge differ during the early stages of expertise acquisition.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Moss2006CognitiveReprsEngineeringExpertise,
      author = {Moss, J. and Kotovsky, K. and Cagan, J.},
      title = {The Role of Functionality in the Mental Representations of Engineering Students: Some Differences in the Early Stages of Expertise},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {30},
      number = {1},
      pages = {65--93}
    }
    
    Mumford, M.D., Schultz, R.A. & Van Doom, J.R. Performance in planning: Processes, requirements, and errors 2001 Review of general psychology
    Vol. 5(3), pp. 213-240 
    article  
    Abstract: Planning is not only an aspect of our day-to-day lives, it represents a critical aspect of performance on many high-level tasks. Although few of us would dispute the need for planning, the psychology of planning remains relatively undeveloped. With this point in mind, the intent in the present article was to review the available literature on planning. The authors begin by examining alternative models of planning and delineating their implications for performance. Subsequently, the findings obtained in various studies of planning are reviewed with respect to 8 key questions ranging from when planning is useful to how errors in planning should be minimized. The implications of current answers to these questions are discussed in terms of research needs and development of a more comprehensive theoretical understanding of performance in planning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Mumford2001Planning,
      author = {Mumford, Michael D. and Schultz, Rosemary A. and Van Doom, Judy R.},
      title = {Performance in planning: Processes, requirements, and errors},
      journal = {Review of general psychology},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {5},
      number = {3},
      pages = {213--240}
    }
    
    Murphy, G.L. Ecological validity and the study of concepts 2003 Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol 43, pp. 1-41  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{MGL2003001,
      author = {Murphy, Gregory L.},
      title = {Ecological validity and the study of concepts},
      booktitle = {Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol 43},
      publisher = {Academic Press Inc},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {1--41}
    }
    
    Murphy, G.L. The downside of categories 2003 Trends in Cognitive Sciences
    Vol. 7(12), pp. 513-514 
    article  
    Abstract: One of the primary uses of categories is to draw inferences about novel objects based on their category membership. In a recent study, Lagnado and Shanks show that people make different inferences about an object depending on whether they first categorize the object at a general or specific level. Indeed, their inference changes even though they have been given no information about the object. This finding reveals limitations of category-based induction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MGL2003002,
      author = {Murphy, Gregory L.},
      title = {The downside of categories},
      journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      number = {12},
      pages = {513--514}
    }
    
    Murphy, G.L. The Big Book of Concepts 2002 , pp. 555  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Murphy2002,
      author = {Murphy, Gregory L.},
      title = {The Big Book of Concepts},
      publisher = {MIT Press},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {555}
    }
    
    Murphy, G.L. Causes of taxonomic sorting by adults: A test of the thematic-to-taxonomic shift 2001 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
    Vol. 8(4), pp. 834-839 
    article  
    Abstract: The tendency among adults to sort items into taxonomic and thematic categories was examined in two experiments. Past demonstrations of adults' preference for taxonomic categories have usually not used stimuli with a salient thematic organization. The stimuli in Experiment 1 could be divided into three equal-size categories either thematically or taxonomically. Under two sets of instructions, the majority of the college-student subjects sorted thematically. In Experiment 2, a subset of the stimuli was changed so that those within it were strongly taxonomically organized. Subjects then preferred to sort the remaining items taxonomically as well. The two experiments explain why many past sorting studies have yielded a taxonomic preference in adults and provide further evidence against a global change from thematic to taxonomic preference with development.
    BibTeX:
    @article{MGL2001001,
      author = {Murphy, Gregory L.},
      title = {Causes of taxonomic sorting by adults: A test of the thematic-to-taxonomic shift},
      journal = {Psychonomic Bulletin & Review},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {8},
      number = {4},
      pages = {834--839}
    }
    
    Murphy, G.L. & Brownell, H.H. CATEGORY DIFFERENTIATION IN OBJECT RECOGNITION - TYPICALITY CONSTRAINTS ON THE BASIC CATEGORY ADVANTAGE 1985 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 11(1), pp. 70-84 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MGL1985001,
      author = {Murphy, Gregory L. and Brownell, Hiram H.},
      title = {CATEGORY DIFFERENTIATION IN OBJECT RECOGNITION - TYPICALITY CONSTRAINTS ON THE BASIC CATEGORY ADVANTAGE},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {11},
      number = {1},
      pages = {70--84}
    }
    
    Murphy, G.L. & Medin, D.L. The role of theories in conceptual coherence 1985 Psychological Review
    Vol. 92(3), pp. 289-316 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MGL1985002,
      author = {Murphy, Gregory L. and Medin, Douglas L.},
      title = {The role of theories in conceptual coherence},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {92},
      number = {3},
      pages = {289--316}
    }
    
    Murphy, G.L. & Wisniewski, E.J. CATEGORIZING OBJECTS IN ISOLATION AND IN SCENES - WHAT A SUPERORDINATE IS GOOD FOR 1989 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 15(4), pp. 572-586 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MGL1989001,
      author = {Murphy, Gregory L. and Wisniewski, Edward J.},
      title = {CATEGORIZING OBJECTS IN ISOLATION AND IN SCENES - WHAT A SUPERORDINATE IS GOOD FOR},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {15},
      number = {4},
      pages = {572--586}
    }
    
    Murphy, G.L. & Wright, J.C. Changes in Conceptual Structure With Expertise - Differences Between Real-World Experts and Novices 1984 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 10(1), pp. 144-155 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{MGL1984001,
      author = {Murphy, Gregory L. and Wright, Jack C.},
      title = {Changes in Conceptual Structure With Expertise - Differences Between Real-World Experts and Novices},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {144--155}
    }
    
    Murphy, G.L. & Wright, J.C. Changes in conceptual structure with expertise: Differences between real-world experts and novices 1984 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition
    Vol. 10(1), pp. 144-155 
    article  
    Abstract: Four groups of Ss who varied in clinical expertise (12 practicing clinical psychologists, 21 experienced and 24 beginning child counselors, and 20 novice undergraduates) listed the typical features of 3 diagnostic categories. Both the richness of the categories, as measured by the number of attributes listed, and the level of interrater agreement increased systematically with expertise. Surprisingly, however, category distinctiveness decreased as expertise increased--experts' categories contained many features shared by 2 or more categories, whereas novices' categories contained virtually no overlapping attributes. In a 2nd study with 45 novices and 15 experienced counselors, independent ratings of feature distinctiveness revealed that the attributes that experts added to their categories were relatively nondistinctive. The authors examine possible reasons for the discrepancy between these findings and those obtained in laboratory concept-learning tasks and discuss the conditions under which increasing expertise may lead one to focus on the shared, rather than on the distinctive, features of objects in a given domain. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved) Author Keywords: clinical expertise, diversity of diagnostic attributes &; categories generated &; level of interrater agreement, practicing clinical psychologists vs experienced vs novice child counselors
    BibTeX:
    @article{MurphyWright1984ConceptualStructChangewExpertise,
      author = {Murphy, Gregory L. and Wright, Jack C.},
      title = {Changes in conceptual structure with expertise: Differences between real-world experts and novices},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {144--155}
    }
    
    Nadel, L. Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science 2003 , pp. 4 vol.  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Nadel2003,
      author = {Nadel, Lynn},
      title = {Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science},
      publisher = {Nature Pub. Group},
      year = {2003},
      pages = {4 vol.}
    }
    
    Neisser, U. Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization: Papers from the First Emory Cognition Project Conference, held Oct. 11-12, 1984 1987 , pp. 317  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Neisser1987,
      author = {Neisser, Ulric},
      title = {Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization: Papers from the First Emory Cognition Project Conference, held Oct. 11-12, 1984},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {1987},
      pages = {317}
    }
    
    Nisbett, R.E. & Wilson, T.D. Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes 1977 Psychological Review
    Vol. 84(3), pp. 231-259 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{NRE1977001,
      author = {Nisbett, Richard E. and Wilson, Timothy D.},
      title = {Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {84},
      number = {3},
      pages = {231--259}
    }
    
    Nolan, R. Distiguishing perceptual from conceptual categories 1994 Philosophy and the cognitive sciences: proceedings of the 16th International Wittgenstein Symposium, pp. 221-231  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{NR-1994001,
      author = {Nolan, Rita},
      title = {Distiguishing perceptual from conceptual categories},
      booktitle = {Philosophy and the cognitive sciences: proceedings of the 16th International Wittgenstein Symposium},
      publisher = {H?lder-Pichler-Tempsky},
      year = {1994},
      pages = {221--231}
    }
    
    Norman, D.A. Affordances, conventions, and design 1999 Interactions
    Vol. 6(3), pp. 38-42 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Norman1999,
      author = {Norman, Donald A.},
      title = {Affordances, conventions, and design},
      journal = {Interactions},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {6},
      number = {3},
      pages = {38--42}
    }
    
    North, A.C. & Hargreaves, D.J. The Musical Milieu: Studies of Listening in Everyday Life 1997 Psychologist
    Vol. 10(7), pp. 309-312 
    article  
    Abstract: One of the main features of our music listening in the modern world is that it occurs in the context of other activities such as driving, eating, or doing the housework. Consequently a complete explanation of music listening behaviour must account for the potential interaction between music and the listening situation. This paper reviews research concerning the relationship between music and the listening situation, and is divided into two main sections. The first considers how the listening situation can influence musical preference: this is explained in terms of arousal and the preference for prototypes model. The second section considers how music can influence behaviour in the listening situation and concentrates on consumer behaviour and the efficiency of task performance.
    BibTeX:
    @article{North1997MusicEverdayLife,
      author = {North, A. C. and Hargreaves, D. J.},
      title = {The Musical Milieu: Studies of Listening in Everyday Life},
      journal = {Psychologist},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {10},
      number = {7},
      pages = {309--312}
    }
    
    Nosofsky, R.M. SIMILARITY, FREQUENCY, AND CATEGORY REPRESENTATIONS 1988 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 14(1), pp. 54-65 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{NRM1988001,
      author = {Nosofsky, Robert M.},
      title = {SIMILARITY, FREQUENCY, AND CATEGORY REPRESENTATIONS},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1988},
      volume = {14},
      number = {1},
      pages = {54--65}
    }
    
    Nosofsky, R.M. ATTENTION, SIMILARITY, AND THE IDENTIFICATION-CATEGORIZATION RELATIONSHIP 1986 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 115(1), pp. 39-57 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{NRM1986001,
      author = {Nosofsky, Robert M.},
      title = {ATTENTION, SIMILARITY, AND THE IDENTIFICATION-CATEGORIZATION RELATIONSHIP},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {115},
      number = {1},
      pages = {39--57}
    }
    
    Nosofsky, R.M. Choice, similarity, and the context theory of classification 1984 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 10(1), pp. 104-114 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{NRM1984001,
      author = {Nosofsky, Robert M.},
      title = {Choice, similarity, and the context theory of classification},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {104--114}
    }
    
    Nosofsky, R.M. & Palmeri, T.J. An exemplar-based random walk model of speeded classification 1997 Psychological Review
    Vol. 104(2), pp. 266-300 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors propose and test an exemplar-based random walk model for predicting response times in tasks of speeded, multidimensional perceptual classification. The model combines elements of R. M. Nosofsky's (1986) generalized context model of categorization and G. D. Logan's (1988) instance-based model of automaticity. In the model, exemplars race among one another to be retrieved from memory, with rates determined by their similarity to test items. The retrieved exemplars provide incremental information that enters into a random walk process for making classification decisions. The model predicts correctly effects of within- and between-categories similarity, individual-object familiarity, and extended practice an classification response times. It also builds bridges between the domains of categorization and automaticity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{NRM1997001,
      author = {Nosofsky, Robert M. and Palmeri, Thomas J.},
      title = {An exemplar-based random walk model of speeded classification},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {104},
      number = {2},
      pages = {266--300}
    }
    
    Nosofsky, R.M., Shin, H.J. & Clark, S.E. RULES AND EXEMPLARS IN CATEGORIZATION, IDENTIFICATION, AND RECOGNITION 1989 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 15(2), pp. 282-304 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{NRM1989001,
      author = {Nosofsky, Robert M. and Shin, Hyun Jung and Clark, Steven E.},
      title = {RULES AND EXEMPLARS IN CATEGORIZATION, IDENTIFICATION, AND RECOGNITION},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {15},
      number = {2},
      pages = {282--304}
    }
    
    Novick, L.R. Representaional transfer in problem solving 1990 Psychological science
    Vol. 1(2), pp. 128-132 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Novick1990,
      author = {Novick, L. R.},
      title = {Representaional transfer in problem solving},
      journal = {Psychological science},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {1},
      number = {2},
      pages = {128--132}
    }
    
    Novick, L.R., Hurley, S.M. & Francis, M. Evidence for abstract, schematic knowledge of three spatial diagram representations 1999 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 27(2), pp. 288-308 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Novick1999,
      author = {Novick, L. R. and Hurley, S. M. and Francis, M.},
      title = {Evidence for abstract, schematic knowledge of three spatial diagram representations},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {27},
      number = {2},
      pages = {288--308}
    }
    
    Oden, G.C. Concept, knowledge, and thought 1987 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 38, pp. 203-227 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{OGC1987001,
      author = {Oden, Gregg C.},
      title = {Concept, knowledge, and thought},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {1987},
      volume = {38},
      pages = {203--227}
    }
    
    Osherson, D.N., Wilkie, O., Smith, E.E., Lopez, A. & Shafir, E. CATEGORY-BASED INDUCTION 1990 Psychological Review
    Vol. 97(2), pp. 185-200 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{ODN1990001,
      author = {Osherson, Daniel N. and Wilkie, Ormond and Smith, Edward E. and Lopez, Alejandro and Shafir, Eldar},
      title = {CATEGORY-BASED INDUCTION},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {97},
      number = {2},
      pages = {185--200}
    }
    
    Ostrom, V. Artisanship and artifacts 1980 Public Administration Review
    Vol. 40, pp. 309-317 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ostrom1980,
      author = {Ostrom, Vincent},
      title = {Artisanship and artifacts},
      journal = {Public Administration Review},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {40},
      pages = {309--317}
    }
    
    Ouellette, J.A. & Wood, W. Habit and Intention in Everyday Life: the Multiple Processes by Which Past Behavior Predicts Future Behavior 1998 Psychological Bulletin
    Vol. 124(1), pp. 54-74 
    article  
    Abstract: Past behavior guides future responses through 2 processes. Well-practiced behaviors in constant contexts recur because the processing that initiates and controls their performance becomes automatic. Frequency of past behavior then reflects habit strength and has a direct effect on future performance. Alternately, when behaviors are not well learned or when they are performed in unstable or difficult contexts, conscious decision making is likely to be necessary to initiate and carry out the behavior. Under these conditions, past behavior (along with attitudes and subjective norms) may contribute to intentions, and behavior is guided by intentions, These relations between past behavior and future behavior are substantiated in a meta-analytic synthesis of prior research on behavior prediction and in a primary research investigation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{OJA1998001,
      author = {Ouellette, J. A. and Wood, W.},
      title = {Habit and Intention in Everyday Life: the Multiple Processes by Which Past Behavior Predicts Future Behavior},
      journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {124},
      number = {1},
      pages = {54--74}
    }
    
    Packer, M.J. & Goicoechea, J. Sociocultural and Constructivist Theories of Learning: Ontology, Not Just Epistemology 2000 Educational Psychologist
    Vol. 35(4), pp. 227-241 
    article  
    Abstract: There is something of a controversy taking place over how best to theorize human learning. This article joins the debate over the relation between sociocultural and constructivist perspectives on learning. These 2 perspectives differ not just in their conceptions of knowledge (epistemological assumptions) but also in their assumptions about the known world and the knowing human (ontological assumptions). Articulated in this article are 6 themes of a nondualist ontology seen at work in the sociocultural perspective, and suggested is a reconciliation of the 2. This article proposes that learning involves becoming a member of a community, constructing knowledge at various levels of expertise as a participant, but also taking a stand on the culture of one's community in an effort to take up and overcome the estrangement and division that are consequences of participation. Learning entails transformation both of the person and of the social world. This article explores the implications of this view of learning for thinking about schooling and for the conduct of educational research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Packer2000,
      author = {Packer, M. J. and Goicoechea, J.},
      title = {Sociocultural and Constructivist Theories of Learning: Ontology, Not Just Epistemology},
      journal = {Educational Psychologist},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {35},
      number = {4},
      pages = {227--241}
    }
    
    Palmeri, T.J. & Nosofsky, R.M. RECOGNITION MEMORY FOR EXCEPTIONS TO THE CATEGORY RULE 1995 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 21(3), pp. 548-568 
    article  
    Abstract: Experiments-were conducted to demonstrate the utility of a rule-plus-exception model for extending current exemplar-based views of categorization and recognition memory. According to the model, exemplars that are exceptions to category rules have a special status in memory relative to other old items. In each of 4 experiments, participants first learned to categorize items organized into 2 ill-defined categories and then made old-new recognition judgments. Although the categories afforded no perfect rules, a variety of imperfect rules could be formed combined with memorization of exceptions to those rules. In each experiment, superior recognition of exceptions to imperfect logical rules was found. In addition, participants demonstrated better memory for old exemplars than new ones. A mixed model, which assumed a combination of rule-plus-exception processing and residual exemplar storage, provided good quantitative accounts of the data.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PTJ1995001,
      author = {Palmeri, Thomas J. and Nosofsky, Robert M.},
      title = {RECOGNITION MEMORY FOR EXCEPTIONS TO THE CATEGORY RULE},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {21},
      number = {3},
      pages = {548--568}
    }
    
    Pansky, A. & Koriat, A. The basic-level convergence effect in memory distortions 2004 Psychological Science
    Vol. 15(1), pp. 52-59 
    article  
    Abstract: Whereas most previous findings suggest that memory may become more abstract over time, so that memory for gist outlasts verbatim memory, there are findings suggesting that abstract information may sometimes be instantiated in more specific terms. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that retained information tends to converge at an, intermediate level of abstractness-the basic level. In two experiments, we found bidirectional, symmetrical shifts in the memory for story material: Participants presented with either subordinate terms (e.g., sports car) or superordinate terms (e.g., vehicle) tended to falsely report basic-level terms (e.g., car) instead. This pattern emerged for both recall and recognition memory tests, at both immediate and delayed testing, and under free and forced reporting. The results suggest that the basic level, which has been considered cognitively optimal for perception, categorization, and communication, is also the preferred level for retaining episodic information in memory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PA-2004002,
      author = {Pansky, Aimat and Koriat, Asher},
      title = {The basic-level convergence effect in memory distortions},
      journal = {Psychological Science},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {15},
      number = {1},
      pages = {52--59}
    }
    
    Parducci, A. CATEGORY JUDGMENT - A RANGE-FREQUENCY MODEL 1965 Psychological Review
    Vol. 72(6), pp. 407-418 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{PA-1965001,
      author = {Parducci, Allen},
      title = {CATEGORY JUDGMENT - A RANGE-FREQUENCY MODEL},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1965},
      volume = {72},
      number = {6},
      pages = {407--418}
    }
    
    Park, B. & Judd, C.M. Rethinking the link between categorization and prejudice within the social cognition perspective 2005 Personality and Social Psychology Review
    Vol. 9(2), pp. 108-130 
    article  
    Abstract: For the past 40 years, social psychological research on stereotyping and prejudice in the United States has been dominated by the social cognition perspective, which has emphasized the important role of basic categorization processes in intergroup dynamics. An inadvertent consequence of this approach has been a disproportionate focus on social categorization as a causal factor in intergroup animosity and, accordingly, an emphasis on approaches that minimize category distinctions as the solution to intergroup conflict. Though recognizing the crucial function of categorization, we question existing support for the hypothesis that the perception of strong group differences necessarily results in greater intergroup bias. Given that it is neither feasible nor ultimately desirable to imagine that social categories can be eliminated, we suggest that a more useful approach is one that promotes intergroup harmony even while recognizing and valuing the distinctions that define our social world.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Park2005,
      author = {Park, B. and Judd, C. M.},
      title = {Rethinking the link between categorization and prejudice within the social cognition perspective},
      journal = {Personality and Social Psychology Review},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {9},
      number = {2},
      pages = {108--130}
    }
    
    Patalano, A.L., Chin-Parker, S. & Ross, B.H. The importance of being coherent: Category coherence, cross-classification, and reasoning 2006 Journal of Memory and Language
    Vol. 54(3), pp. 407-424 
    article  
    Abstract: Category-based inference is crucial for using past experiences to make sense of new ones. One challenge to inference of this kind is that most entities in the world belong to multiple categories (e.g., a jogger, a professor, and a vegetarian). We tested the hypothesis that the degree of coherence of a category-the degree to which category features go together in light of prior knowledge-influences the extent to which one category will be used over another in property inference. The first two experiments demonstrate that when multiple social categories are available, high coherence categories are selected and used as the basis of inference more often than less coherent ones. The second two experiments provide evidence that ease of category-based explanation of properties is a viable account for coherence differences. We conclude that degree of coherence meaningfully applies to natural social categories, and is an important influence on category use in reasoning. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PAL2006001,
      author = {Patalano, Andrea L. and Chin-Parker, Seth and Ross, Brian H.},
      title = {The importance of being coherent: Category coherence, cross-classification, and reasoning},
      journal = {Journal of Memory and Language},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {54},
      number = {3},
      pages = {407--424}
    }
    
    Pea, R.D. The social and technological dimensions of scaffolding and related theoretical concepts for learning, education, and human activity 2004 The Journal of the Learning Sciences
    Vol. 13(3), pp. 423-451 
    article  
    Abstract: Commentary. No abstract.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Pea2004Cognitivescaffolding,
      author = {Pea, R. D.},
      title = {The social and technological dimensions of scaffolding and related theoretical concepts for learning, education, and human activity},
      journal = {The Journal of the Learning Sciences},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {13},
      number = {3},
      pages = {423--451}
    }
    
    Peirsman, Y. & Geeraerts, D. Metonymy as a prototypical category 2006 Cognitive Linguistics
    Vol. 17(3), pp. 269-316 
    article  
    Abstract: A definition of metonymy that has gained some popularity in Cognitive Linguistics contrasts metonymical semantic shifts within a domain or domain matrix with metaphorical shifts that cross domain boundaries. In the past few years, however, this definition of metonymy has become subject to more and more criticism, in the sense that it relies too much on the vague notions of domains or domain matrices to be fully reliable. In this article, we address this problem by focusing on a nonunitary, prototypical definition of contiguity (the concept that used to be seen as the defining feature of metonymy before Cognitive Linguistics introduced domains and domain matrices). On the basis of the traditional pre-structuralist literature on metonymy, we identify a large number of typical metonymical patterns, and show that they can be classified in terms of the type of contiguity they are motivated by. We argue that metonymies, starting from spatial part-whole contiguity as the core of the category, can be plotted against three dimensions: strength of contact (going from part-whole containment over physical contact to adjacency without contact), boundedness (involving an extension of the part-whole relationship towards unbounded wholes and parts), and domain (with shifts from the spatial to the temporal, the spatio-temporal and the categorial domain).
    BibTeX:
    @article{PY-2006001,
      author = {Peirsman, Yves and Geeraerts, Dirk},
      title = {Metonymy as a prototypical category},
      journal = {Cognitive Linguistics},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {269--316}
    }
    
    Pirolli, P. & Card, S.K. Information foraging 1999 Psychological Review
    Vol. 106(4), pp. 643-675 
    article  
    Abstract: Information Foraging Theory is an approach to understanding how strategies and technologies for information seeking, gathering, and consumption are adapted to the flux of information in the environment. The theory assumes that people, when possible, will modify their strategies or the structure of the environment to maximize their rate of gaining valuable information. Field studies inform the theory by illustrating that people do freely structure their environments and their strategies to yield higher gains in information foraging. The theory is developed by (a) adaptation (rational) analysis of information foraging problems and (b) a detailed process model (ACT-IF). The adaptation analysis develops (a) information patch models, which deal with time allocation and information filtering and enrichment activities in environments in which information is encountered in clusters (e.g., bibliographic collections), (b) information scent models which address the identification of information value from proximal cues, and (c) information diet models which address decisions about the selection and pursuit of information items. ACT-IF is developed to instantiate these rational models and to fit the moment-by-moment behavior of people interacting with complex information technology. ACT-IF is a production system in which the information scent of bibliographic stimuli is calculated by spreading activation mechanisms. Time allocation and item selection heuristics make use of information scent to select production rules in ways that maximize information foraging activities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PirolliCard1999Informationforaging,
      author = {Pirolli, Peter and Card, Stuart K.},
      title = {Information foraging},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {106},
      number = {4},
      pages = {643--675}
    }
    
    Poitrenaud, S., Richard, J.-F. & Tijus, C. Properties, categories, and categorisation 2005 Thinking & Reasoning
    Vol. 11(2), pp. 151-208 
    article  
    Abstract: We re-evaluate existing data that demonstrate a large amount of variability in the content of categories considering the fact that these data have been obtained in a specific task: the production of features of single isolated categories. We present new data that reveal a large consensus when participants have to judge whether or not a given feature is characteristic of a category and we show that classification tasks produce an intermediate level of consensus. We argue that the differences observed between tasks are due to the extent of implied context and we propose a reinterpretation of typicality effects, demonstrating that they are compatible with the existence of a stable conceptual core. In order to explain how the existence of a conceptual core is consistent with variability due to context. we present a theory of categorisation based oil a property tree organisation. Within a domain of description, we distinguish between semantic implications (flying -> moving) and empirical implications (flying -> having wings) as well as between properties used to describe objects. Semantic implications serve to build property lines and Galois lattices are used to reveal category structures according to empirical implications. We show that variability in the category content may be explained by the fact that some properties are emphasised while others are masked according to the context.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PS-2005001,
      author = {Poitrenaud, S?bastien and Richard, Jean-Fran?ois and Tijus, Charles},
      title = {Properties, categories, and categorisation},
      journal = {Thinking & Reasoning},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {11},
      number = {2},
      pages = {151--208}
    }
    
    Posner, M.I. & Keele, S.W. Retention of abstract ideas 1970 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 83(2), pp. 304-308 
    article  
    Abstract: If abstraction of information concerning the central tendency of a set of distortions occurs during learning, a time delay could lead to less forgetting of the schema than of the patterns which S memorized. 2 experiments, using 50 undergraduates, suggested that the schema pattern is less subject to loss over time than the learned instances. Results are consistent with the idea that information concerning the central tendency is abstracted during learning.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PMI1970001,
      author = {Posner, Michael I. and Keele, Steven W.},
      title = {Retention of abstract ideas},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1970},
      volume = {83},
      number = {2},
      pages = {304--308}
    }
    
    Posner, M.I. & Keele, S.W. On the genesis of abstract ideas 1968 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 77(3), pp. 353-363 
    article  
    Abstract: Previous work indicates that ss can learn to classify sets of patterns which are distortions of a prototype they have not seen. It is shown that after learning a set of patterns, the prototype (schema) of that set is more easily classified than control patterns also within the learned category. As the variability among the memorized patterns increases, so does the ability of ss to classify highly distorted new instances. These findings argue that information about the schema is abstracted from the stored instances with very high efficiency. It is unclear whether the abstraction of information involved in classifying the schema occurs while learning the original patterns or whether the abstraction process occurs at the time of the 1st presentation of the schema.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PMI1968001,
      author = {Posner, Michael I. and Keele, Steven W.},
      title = {On the genesis of abstract ideas},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1968},
      volume = {77},
      number = {3},
      pages = {353--363}
    }
    
    Pothos, E.M. The rules versus similarity distinction 2005 Behavioral and Brain Sciences
    Vol. 28(1), pp. 1-+ 
    article  
    Abstract: The distinction between rules and similarity is central to our understanding of much of cognitive psychology. Two aspects of existing research have motivated the present work. First, in different cognitive psychology areas we typically see different conceptions of rules and similarity; for example, rules in language appear to be of a different kind compared to rules in categorization. Second, rules processes are typically modeled as separate from similarity ones; for example, in a learning experiment, rules and similarity influences would be described on the basis of separate models. in the present article, I assume that the rules versus similarity distinction can be understood in the same way in learning, reasoning, categorization, and language, and that a unified model for rules and similarity is appropriate. A rules process is considered to be a similarity one where only a single or a small subset of an object's properties are involved. Hence, rules and overall similarity operations are extremes in a single continuum of similarity operations. It is argued that this viewpoint allows adequate coverage of theory and empirical findings in learning, reasoning, categorization, and language, and also a reassessment of the objectives in research on rules versus similarity.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PEM2005002,
      author = {Pothos, Emmanuel M.},
      title = {The rules versus similarity distinction},
      journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {28},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--+}
    }
    
    Pothos, E.M. & Chater, N. Unsupervised categorization and category learning 2005 Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section a-Human Experimental Psychology
    Vol. 58(4), pp. 733-752 
    article  
    Abstract: When people categorize a set of items in a certain way they often change their perceptions for these items so that they become more compatible with the learned categorization. In two experiments we examined whether such changes arc extensive enough to change the unsupervised categorization for the items-that is, the categorization of the items that is considered more intuitive or natural without any learning. In Experiment I we directly employed an unsupervised categorization task; in Experiment 2 we collected similarity ratings for the items and interred unsupervised categorizations using Pothos and Chater's (2002) model of unsupervised categorization. The unsupervised categorization for the items changed to resemble more the learned one when this was specified by the suppression of a stimulus dimension (both experiments), but less so when it was almost specified by the suppression of a stimulus dimension (Experiment 1, nonsignificant trend in Experiment 2). By contrast, no changes in the unsupervised categorization were observed when participants were taught a classification that was specified by a more fine tuning of the relative salience of the two dimensions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PEM2005001,
      author = {Pothos, Emmanuel M. and Chater, Nick},
      title = {Unsupervised categorization and category learning},
      journal = {Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section a-Human Experimental Psychology},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {58},
      number = {4},
      pages = {733--752}
    }
    
    Pothos, E.M. & Chater, N. A simplicity principle in unsupervised human categorization 2002 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 26(3), pp. 303-343 
    article  
    Abstract: We address the problem of predicting how people will spontaneously divide into groups a set of novel items. This is a process akin to perceptual organization. We therefore employ the simplicity principle from perceptual organization to propose a simplicity model of unconstrained spontaneous grouping. The simplicity model predicts that people would prefer the categories for a set of novel items that provide the simplest encoding of these items. Classification predictions are derived from the model without information either about the number of categories sought or information about the distributional properties of the objects to be classified. These features of the simplicity model distinguish it from other models in unsupervised categorization (where, for example, the number of categories sought is determined via a free parameter), and we discuss how these computational differences are related to differences in modeling objectives. The predictions of the simplicity model are validated in four experiments. We also discuss the significance of simplicity in cognitive modeling more generally. (C) 2002 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PEM2002001,
      author = {Pothos, Emmanuel M. and Chater, Nick},
      title = {A simplicity principle in unsupervised human categorization},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {26},
      number = {3},
      pages = {303--343}
    }
    
    Priss, U. Associative and formal concepts 2002 Conceptual Structures: Integration and Interfaces, Proceedings, pp. 354-368  incollection  
    Abstract: In several fields there is a divide between formal and associative models of concepts and reasoning. For example, in AI associative models such as neural networks and evolutionary computation are distinguished from symbolic, logic-based approaches. In psychology, fuzzy or category-based approaches compete with the "classical" theory of classification. In information science, systems based on dynamic, emergent structures can be distinguished from formal, manually designed structures. This paper argues that both modes of representation, formal and associative ones, need to be considered simultaneously for knowledge representation systems. This paper investigates the relationship between formal and associative structures and provides suggestions for bridging the gap between the two modes of representation.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{PU-2002001,
      author = {Priss, Uta},
      title = {Associative and formal concepts},
      booktitle = {Conceptual Structures: Integration and Interfaces, Proceedings},
      publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {354--368}
    }
    
    Proffitt, J.B., Coley, J.D. & Medin, D.L. Expertise and category-based induction 2000 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 26(4), pp. 811-828 
    article  
    Abstract: The authors examined inductive reasoning among experts in a domain. Three types of tree experts (landscapers, taxonomists, and parks maintenance personnel) completed 3 reasoning tasks. In Experiment 1, participants inferred which of 2 novel diseases would affect "more other kinds of trees" and provided justifications for their choices. In Experiment 2, the authors used modified instructions and asked which disease would be more likely to affect "all trees." In Experiment 3, the conclusion category was eliminated altogether, and participants were asked to generate a fist of other affected trees. Among these populations, typicality and diversity effects were weak to nonexistent. Instead, experts' reasoning was influenced by "local" coverage (extension of the property to members of the same folk family) and causal-ecological factors. The authors concluded that domain knowledge leads to the use of a variety of reasoning strategies not captured by current models of category-based induction.
    BibTeX:
    @article{PJB2000001,
      author = {Proffitt, Julia B. and Coley, John D. and Medin, Douglas L.},
      title = {Expertise and category-based induction},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {26},
      number = {4},
      pages = {811--828}
    }
    
    Ratneshwar, S., Barsalou, L.W., Pechmann, C. & Moore, M. Goal-derived categories: The role of personal and situational goals in category representations 2001 Journal of Consumer Psychology
    Vol. 10(3), pp. 147-157 
    article  
    Abstract: Prior research often emphasized a stimulus-based or bottom-up view of product category representations. In contrast, we emphasize a more purposeful, top-down perspective and examine categories that consumers might construct in the service of salient (i.e., highly accessible) goals. Specifically, we investigate how the point of view imposed by salient consumer goals might affect category representations assessed by participants' similarity judgments of food products. A key factor in our study is that we examine both individual and situational sources of variability in goal salience. In addition, we also vary the surface-level, visual resemblance of the stimulus pairs of foods used in the study. The results suggest that personal goals (e.g., health) and situational goals (e.g., convenience) act in conjunction and exert a systematic impact on category representations. Both types of goals, when salient, enhanced the. perceived similarity of goal-appropriate products and reduced the similarity of product pairs when only one product was ideal for the particular goal. The similarity-enhancing effect was most pronounced when the surface resemblance between the products was low, and the similarity-diminishing effect was more apparent when surface resemblance was high. Implications are discussed for current theoretical assumptions regarding categorization in consumer research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RS-2001001,
      author = {Ratneshwar, S. and Barsalou, Lawrence W. and Pechmann, C. and Moore, M.},
      title = {Goal-derived categories: The role of personal and situational goals in category representations},
      journal = {Journal of Consumer Psychology},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {10},
      number = {3},
      pages = {147--157}
    }
    
    Reed, S.K. Pattern recognition and categorization 1972 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 3(3), pp. 382-407 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RSK1972001,
      author = {Reed, S. K.},
      title = {Pattern recognition and categorization},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1972},
      volume = {3},
      number = {3},
      pages = {382--407}
    }
    
    Reese, C.M. & Cherry, K.E. Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood 2004 International Journal of Aging & Human Development
    Vol. 59(3), pp. 235-253 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article, we focus on practical memory concerns in adulthood. Young, middle-aged, and community-dwelling older adults responded to seven open-ended questions covering the topics of memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. The results revealed several similarities among the age groups. All groups reported the same types of information as easy to recall, and responses across age groups were also largely alike in terms of mnemonics usage, forgetting that is bothersome, and forgetting that is not bothersome. Differences between the age groups were most evident in responses related to types of information that are difficult to recall, areas of memory where improvement is desired, and fears of memory aging. Implications for understanding adult memory concerns and memory beliefs across the adult lifespan are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Reese2004PracticalMemoryConcerns,
      author = {Reese, C. M. and Cherry, K. E.},
      title = {Practical Memory Concerns in Adulthood},
      journal = {International Journal of Aging & Human Development},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {59},
      number = {3},
      pages = {235--253}
    }
    
    Rehder, B. When similarity and causality compete in category-based property generalization 2006 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 34(1), pp. 3-16 
    article  
    Abstract: Five experiments were performed to investigate the category-based generalization of nonblank properties, properties that were novel but that were attributed to existing category features with causal explanations. Experiments 1-3 tested how such explanations interact with the well-known effects of similarity on such generalizations. The results showed that when the causal explanations were used, standard effects of typicality (Experiment 1), diversity (Experiment 2), or similarity itself (Experiment 3) were almost completely eliminated. Experiments 4 and 5 demonstrated that category-based generalizations exhibit some of the standard properties of causal reasoning; for example, an effect (i.e., a novel category property) is judged to be more prevalent when its cause (i.e., an existing category feature) is also prevalent. These findings suggest that category-based property generalization is often an instance of causal inference.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RB-2006002,
      author = {Rehder, Bob},
      title = {When similarity and causality compete in category-based property generalization},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3--16}
    }
    
    Rehder, B. Categorization as causal reasoning 2003 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 27(5), pp. 709-748 
    article  
    Abstract: A theory of categorization is presented in which knowledge of causal relationships between category features is represented in terms of asymmetric and probabilistic causal mechanisms. According to causal-model theory, objects are classified as category members to the extent they are likely to have been generated or produced by those mechanisms. The empirical results confirmed that participants rated exemplars good category members to the extent their features manifested the expectations that causal knowledge induces, such as correlations between feature pairs that are directly connected by causal relationships. These expectations also included sensitivity to higher-order feature interactions that emerge from the asymmetries inherent in causal relationships. Quantitative fits of causal-model theory were superior to those obtained with extensions to traditional similarity-based models that represent causal knowledge either as higher-order relational features or "prior exemplars" stored in memory. (C) 2003 Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RB-2003001,
      author = {Rehder, Bob},
      title = {Categorization as causal reasoning},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {27},
      number = {5},
      pages = {709--748}
    }
    
    Rehder, B. A causal-model theory of conceptual representation and categorization 2003 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 29(6), pp. 1141-1159 
    article  
    Abstract: This article presents a theory of categorization that accounts for the effects of causal knowledge that relates the features of categories. According to causal-model theory, people explicitly represent the probabilistic causal mechanisms that link category features and classify objects by evaluating whether they were likely to have been generated by those mechanisms. In 3 experiments, participants were taught causal knowledge that related the features of a novel category. Causal-model theory provided a good quantitative account of the effect of this knowledge on the importance of both individual features and interfeature correlations to classification. By enabling precise model fits and interpretable parameter estimates, causal-model theory helps place the theory-based approach to conceptual representation on equal footing with the well-known similarity-based approaches.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RB-2003002,
      author = {Rehder, Bob},
      title = {A causal-model theory of conceptual representation and categorization},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {29},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1141--1159}
    }
    
    Rehder, B. & Hastie, R. Category coherence and category-based property induction 2004 Cognition
    Vol. 91(2), pp. 113-153 
    article  
    Abstract: One important property of human object categories is that they define the sets of exemplars to which newly observed properties are generalized. We manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories and assessed the resulting strength of property inductions. We found that the theoretical coherence afforded to a category by inter-feature causal relationships strengthened inductive projections. However, this effect depended on the degree to which the exemplar with the to-be-projected predicate manifested or satisfied its category's causal laws. That is, the coherence that supports inductive generalizations is a property of individual category members rather than categories. Moreover, we found that an exemplar's coherence was mediated by its degree of category membership. These results were obtained across a variety of causal network topologies and kinds of categories, including biological kinds, non-living natural kinds, and artifacts. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RB-2004001,
      author = {Rehder, Bob and Hastie, Reid},
      title = {Category coherence and category-based property induction},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {91},
      number = {2},
      pages = {113--153}
    }
    
    Rehder, B. & Hastie, R. Causal knowledge and categories: The effects of causal beliefs on categorization, induction, and similarity 2001 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 130(3), pp. 323-360 
    article  
    Abstract: Despite the recent interest in the theoretical knowledge embedded in human representations of categories, little research has systematically manipulated the structure of such knowledge. Across four experiments this study assessed the effects of interattribute causal laws on a number of category-based judgments. The authors found that (a) any attribute occupying a central position in a network of causal relationships comes to dominate category membership, (b) combinations of attribute values are important to category membership to the extent they jointly confirm or violate the causal laws, and (c) the presence of causal knowledge affects the induction of new properties to the category. These effects were a result of the causal laws, rather than the empirical correlations produced by those laws. Implications for the doctrine of psychological essentialism, similarity-based models of categorization, and the representation of causal knowledge are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RB-2001001,
      author = {Rehder, Bob and Hastie, Reid},
      title = {Causal knowledge and categories: The effects of causal beliefs on categorization, induction, and similarity},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {130},
      number = {3},
      pages = {323--360}
    }
    
    Rehder, B. & Hoffman, A.B. Thirty-something categorization results explained: Selective attention, eyetracking, and models of category learning 2005 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 31(5), pp. 811-829 
    article  
    Abstract: An eyetracking study testing D. L. Medin and M. M. Schaffer's (1978) 5-4 category structure was conducted. Over 30 studies have shown that the exemplar-based generalized context model (GCM) usually provides a better quantitative account of 5-4 learning data as compared with the prototype model. However, J. D. Smith and J. P. Minda (2000) argued that the GCM is a psychologically implausible account of 5-4 learning because it implies suboptimal attention weights. To test this claim, the authors recorded undergraduates' eye movements while the students learned the 5-4 category structure. Eye fixations matched the attention weights estimated by the GCM but not those of the prototype model. This result confirms that the GCM is a realistic model of the processes involved in learning the 5-4 structure and that learners do not always optimize attention, as commonly supposed. The, conditions under which learners are likely to optimize attention during category learning are discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RB-2005001,
      author = {Rehder, Bob and Hoffman, Aaron B.},
      title = {Thirty-something categorization results explained: Selective attention, eyetracking, and models of category learning},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {31},
      number = {5},
      pages = {811--829}
    }
    
    Rehder, B. & Kim, S.W. How causal knowledge affects classification: A generative theory of categorization 2006 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 32(4), pp. 659-683 
    article  
    Abstract: Several theories have been proposed regarding how causal relations among features of objects affect how those objects are classified. The assumptions of these theories were tested in 3 experiments that manipulated the causal knowledge associated with novel categories. There were 3 results. The 1st was a multiple cause effect in which a feature's importance increases with its number of causes. The 2nd was a coherence effect in which good category members are those whose features jointly corroborate the category's causal knowledge. These 2 effects can be accounted for by assuming that good category members are those likely to be generated by a category's causal laws. The 3rd result was a primary cause effect, in which primary causes are more important to category membership. This effect can also be explained by a generative account with an additional assumption: that categories often are perceived to have hidden generative causes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RB-2006001,
      author = {Rehder, Bob and Kim, Shin Woo},
      title = {How causal knowledge affects classification: A generative theory of categorization},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {32},
      number = {4},
      pages = {659--683}
    }
    
    Rehder, B. & Ross, B.H. Abstract coherent categories 2001 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 27(5), pp. 1261-1275 
    article  
    Abstract: Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RB-2001002,
      author = {Rehder, Bob and Ross, Brian H.},
      title = {Abstract coherent categories},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {27},
      number = {5},
      pages = {1261--1275}
    }
    
    Rennie, D.L. & Fergus, K.D. Embodied categorizing in the grounded theory method - Methodical hermeneutics in action 2006 Theory & Psychology
    Vol. 16(4), pp. 483-503 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article it is argued that attention to embodied experiencing enhances the quality of categorizing in the grounded theory method of qualitative research. George Lakoff and Mark Johnson's model of experiential cognition is applied to the structural features of embodied categorizing, while Eugene Gendlin's philosophy of experiential phenomenology is extended to use of embodied experiencing in the process of creating and evaluating categories. This use is demonstrated. The method's procedure of categorizing is connected more tightly with its methodology, seen by the authors as methodical hermeneutics, and with its epistemology, seen as an accommodation of realism and relativism. The article concludes with practical implications for the practice of categorizing in the grounded theory method.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RDL2006001,
      author = {Rennie, D. L. and Fergus, K. D.},
      title = {Embodied categorizing in the grounded theory method - Methodical hermeneutics in action},
      journal = {Theory & Psychology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {16},
      number = {4},
      pages = {483--503}
    }
    
    Rey, G. Concepts and stereotypes 1983 Cognition
    Vol. 15, pp. 237-262 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RG-1983001,
      author = {Rey, Georges},
      title = {Concepts and stereotypes},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {15},
      pages = {237--262}
    }
    
    Rifkin, A. Evidence for a basic level in event taxonomies 1985 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 13(6), pp. 538-556 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RA-1985001,
      author = {Rifkin, Anthony},
      title = {Evidence for a basic level in event taxonomies},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {1985},
      volume = {13},
      number = {6},
      pages = {538--556}
    }
    
    Rips, L.J. Necessity and natural categories 2001 Psychological Bulletin
    Vol. 127(6), pp. 827-852 
    article  
    Abstract: Our knowledge of natural categories includes beliefs not only about what is true of them but also about what would be true if the categories had properties other than (or in addition to) their actual ones. Evidence about these beliefs comes from three lines of research: experiments on category-based induction, on hypothetical transformations of category members, and on definitions of kind terms. The Ist part of this article examines results and theories arising from each of these research streams. The 2nd part considers possible unified theories for this domain, including theories based on ideals and norms. It also contrasts 2 broad frameworks for modal category information: one focusing on beliefs about intrinsic or essential properties, the other focusing on interacting causal relations.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RLJ2001001,
      author = {Rips, Lance J.},
      title = {Necessity and natural categories},
      journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {127},
      number = {6},
      pages = {827--852}
    }
    
    Rips, L.J. & Conrad, F.G. Folk psychology of mental activities 1989 Psychological Review
    Vol. 96(2), pp. 187-207 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RLJ1989001,
      author = {Rips, Lance J. and Conrad, Frederick G.},
      title = {Folk psychology of mental activities},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1989},
      volume = {96},
      number = {2},
      pages = {187--207}
    }
    
    Ritchie, D. Categories and similarities: A note on circularity 2003 Metaphor and Symbol
    Vol. 18(1), pp. 49-53 
    article  
    Abstract: Theories of metaphor comprehension that rely on category assignment based on common characteristics (Keysar & Glucksberg, 1992), a comparison between characteristics or relationships of source and target (Chiappe & Kennedy, 2001), or a mapping of characteristics or relationships from source to target (Gentner & Bowdle, 2001) are inherently circular, since these comparisons, mappings, or categories usually make sense only after the underlying metaphor has already been understood. This inherent circularity is avoided by approaches such as conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) and conceptual blending theory (Fauconnier & Turner, 1998) that seek to explain metaphors in terms of underlying cognitive concepts or schemas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RD-2003003,
      author = {Ritchie, David},
      title = {Categories and similarities: A note on circularity},
      journal = {Metaphor and Symbol},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {49--53}
    }
    
    Roediger III, H.L. Relativity of Remembering: Why the Laws of Memory Vanished 2008 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 59(1), pp. 225-254 
    article  
    Abstract: For 120 years, cognitive psychologists have sought general laws of learning and memory. In this review I conclude that none has stood the test of time. No empirical law withstands manipulation across the four sets of factors that Jenkins (1979) identified as critical to memory experiments: types of subjects, kinds of events to be remembered, manipulation of encoding conditions, and variations in test conditions. Another factor affecting many phenomena is whether a manipulation of conditions occurs in randomized, within-subjects designs rather than between-subjects (or within-subject, blocked) designs. The fact that simple laws do not hold reveals the complex, interactive nature of memory phenomena. Nonetheless, the science of memory is robust, with most findings easily replicated under the same conditions as originally used, but when other variables are manipulated, effects may disappear or reverse. These same points are probably true of psychological research in most, if not all, domains.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RHL2008001,
      author = {Roediger III, Henry L.},
      title = {Relativity of Remembering: Why the Laws of Memory Vanished},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2008},
      volume = {59},
      number = {1},
      pages = {225--254}
    }
    
    Roediger III, H.L., Gallo, D.A. & Geraci, L. Processing approaches to cognition: The impetus from the levels-of-processing framework 2002 Memory
    Vol. 10(5/6), pp. 319-332 
    article  
    Abstract: Processing approaches to cognition have a long history, from act psychology to the present, but perhaps their greatest boost was given by the success and dominance of the levels-of-processing framework. We review the history of processing approaches, and explore the influence of the levels-of-processing approach, the procedural approach advocated by Paul Kolers, and the transfer-appropriate processing framework. Processing approaches emphasise the procedures of mind and the idea that memory storage can be usefully conceptualised as residing in the same neural units that originally processed information at the time of encoding. Processing approaches emphasise the unity and interrelatedness of cognitive pro- cesses and maintain that they can be dissected into separate faculties only by neglecting the richness of mental life. We end by pointing to future directions for processing approaches.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RoedigerGalloGeraci2002,
      author = {Roediger III, Henry L. and Gallo, David A. and Geraci, Lisa},
      title = {Processing approaches to cognition: The impetus from the levels-of-processing framework},
      journal = {Memory},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {10},
      number = {5/6},
      pages = {319--332}
    }
    
    Rolls, E.T. Memory Systems in the Brain 2000 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 51(1), pp. 599-630 
    article  
    Abstract: The operation of different brain systems involved in different types of memory is described. One is a system in the primate orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala involved in representing rewards and punishers, and in learning stimulus-reinforcer associations. This system is involved in emotion and motivation. A second system in the temporal cortical visual areas is involved in learning invariant representations of objects. A third system in the hippocampus is implicated in episodic memory and in spatial function. Fourth, brain systems in the frontal and temporal cortices involved in short term memory are described. The approach taken provides insight into the neuronal operations that take place in each of these brain systems, and has the aim of leading to quantitative biologically plausible neuronal network models of how each of these memory systems actually operates.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RET2000001,
      author = {Rolls, Edmund T.},
      title = {Memory Systems in the Brain},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {51},
      number = {1},
      pages = {599--630}
    }
    
    Rosch, E.H. Cognitive representations of semantic categories 1975 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 104(3), pp. 192-233 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RE-1975002,
      author = {Rosch, Eleanor H.},
      title = {Cognitive representations of semantic categories},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {104},
      number = {3},
      pages = {192--233}
    }
    
    Rosch, E.H. Cognitive reference points 1975 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 7, pp. 532-547 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RE-1975003,
      author = {Rosch, Eleanor H.},
      title = {Cognitive reference points},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {7},
      pages = {532--547}
    }
    
    Rosch, E.H. Natural categories 1973 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 4(3), pp. 328-350 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RE-1973001,
      author = {Rosch, Eleanor H.},
      title = {Natural categories},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1973},
      volume = {4},
      number = {3},
      pages = {328--350}
    }
    
    Rosch, E.H. & Mervis, C.B. Family Resemblances: Studies in Internal Structure of Categories 1975 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 7(4), pp. 573-605 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RE-1975001,
      author = {Rosch, Eleanor H. and Mervis, Carolyn B.},
      title = {Family Resemblances: Studies in Internal Structure of Categories},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1975},
      volume = {7},
      number = {4},
      pages = {573--605}
    }
    
    Rosch, E.H., Mervis, C.B., Gray, W.D., Johnson, D.M. & Boyesbraem, P. Basic objects in natural categories 1976 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 8(3), pp. 382-439 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RE-1976001,
      author = {Rosch, Eleanor H. and Mervis, Carolyn B. and Gray, W. D. and Johnson, D. M. and Boyesbraem, P.},
      title = {Basic objects in natural categories},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1976},
      volume = {8},
      number = {3},
      pages = {382--439}
    }
    
    Ross, B.H. The effects of category use on learned categories 2000 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 28(1), pp. 51-63 
    article  
    Abstract: Frequently, people learn to classify instances of a concept and later learn additional information about the concept. What is the effect of this later learning on the original classification? In five experiments, this issue was investigated with a common classification paradigm in which symptom sets were classified into disease categories. After learning to classify these sets, the subjects learned to use the category to decide what treatment should be given for a symptom set. The symptoms that were important for the treatments were later classified by disease more accurately and were generated earlier from the disease name. However, this effect occurred only if the category representation was activated during the learning of the treatments. Thus, later learning about a particular use of the concept can sometimes affect the original classification.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RBH2000001,
      author = {Ross, Brian H.},
      title = {The effects of category use on learned categories},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {28},
      number = {1},
      pages = {51--63}
    }
    
    Ross, B.H. Postclassification category use: The effects of learning to use categories after learning to classify 1999 Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
    Vol. 25(3), pp. 743-757 
    article  
    Abstract: The use of category knowledge can affect category representations, including classification knowledge, even if people learn to classify before learning to use the categories. In 5 experiments, subjects first learned to classify spy messages and then learned a category use that required simple problem solving (applying a formula to decode a message). The number relations that were important for the decoding were later used as an additional basis of classification. This effect of category use occurred even when the classification was not provided during use learning, if the category representation was incidentally available. This incidental activation of the category representation is common in real-world situations and can occur by additional processing (Experiment 2) or by extended classification learning (Experiments 3-5). The discussion focuses on the conditions necessary for obtaining this effect and the generality of the findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)(from the journal abstract) *Classification (Cognitive Process); *Cognitive Discrimination; *Concept Formation; *Knowledge Level learning to use categories after learning to classify, category representation & classification knowledge, college students
    BibTeX:
    @article{Ross1999Postclassificationcategoryuse,
      author = {Ross, Brian H.},
      title = {Postclassification category use: The effects of learning to use categories after learning to classify},
      journal = {Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {25},
      number = {3},
      pages = {743--757}
    }
    
    Ross, B.H. The use of categories affects classification 1997 Journal of Memory and Language
    Vol. 37(2), pp. 240-267 
    article  
    Abstract: Once an item is classified as a member of a category, knowledge about that category may be used. Most research has focused on classification rather than the use of category knowledge. Seven experiments show that in learning to classify and use categories, the use may affect later classifications. Five of the experiments employed a common classification paradigm in which symptom sets were classified into disease categories. After each classification, subjects used the category to decide what treatment should be given. The symptoms that were important for the treatments were later classified more accurately, generated earlier from the disease, and judged to have occurred more frequently. The last two experiments extended this work to new paradigms in which the category use required simple problem solving. Again, the use affected later classifications. The discussion addresses the implications of these results for classification theories and for the study of categories.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RBH1997001,
      author = {Ross, Brian H.},
      title = {The use of categories affects classification},
      journal = {Journal of Memory and Language},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {37},
      number = {2},
      pages = {240--267}
    }
    
    Ross, B.H. & Murphy, G.L. Food for thought: Cross-classification and category organization in a complex real-world domain 1999 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 38(4), pp. 495-553 
    article  
    Abstract: Seven studies examined how people represent, access, and make inferences about a rich real-world category domain, foods. The representation of the category was assessed by category generation, category ratings, and item sortings. The first results indicated that the high-level category of foods was organized simultaneously by taxonomic categories for the kind of food (e.g., vegetables, meats) and script categories for the situations in which foods are eaten (e.g., breakfast foods, snacks). Sortings were dominated by the taxonomic categories, but the script categories also had an influence. The access of the categories was examined both by a similarity rating task, with and without the category labels, and by a speeded priming experiment. In both studies, the script categories showed less access than the taxonomic categories, but more than novel ad hoc categories, suggesting some intermediate level of access. Two studies on induction found that both types of categories could be used to make a wide range of inferences about food properties, but that they were differentially useful for different kinds of inferences. The results give a detailed picture of the use of cross-classification in a complex domain, demonstrating that multiple categories and ways of categorizing can be used in a single domain at one time. (C) 1999 Academic Press.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RBH1999001,
      author = {Ross, Brian H. and Murphy, Gregory L.},
      title = {Food for thought: Cross-classification and category organization in a complex real-world domain},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {38},
      number = {4},
      pages = {495--553}
    }
    
    Ross, B.H., Perkins, S.J. & Tenpenny, P.L. REMINDING-BASED CATEGORY LEARNING 1990 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 22(4), pp. 460-492 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{RBH1990001,
      author = {Ross, Brian H. and Perkins, S. J. and Tenpenny, P. L.},
      title = {REMINDING-BASED CATEGORY LEARNING},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1990},
      volume = {22},
      number = {4},
      pages = {460--492}
    }
    
    Roth, E.M. & Shoben, E.J. The effect of context on the structure of categories 1983 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 15(3), pp. 346-378 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{REM1983001,
      author = {Roth, E. M. and Shoben, E. J.},
      title = {The effect of context on the structure of categories},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1983},
      volume = {15},
      number = {3},
      pages = {346--378}
    }
    
    Rozenblit, L. & Keil, F.C. The misunderstood limits of folk science: an illusion of explanatory depth 2002 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 26(5), pp. 521-562 
    article  
    Abstract: People feel they understand complex phenomena with far greater precision, coherence, and depth than they really do; they are subject to an illusion-an illusion of explanatory depth. The illusion is far stronger for explanatory knowledge than many other kinds of knowledge, such as that for facts, procedures or narratives. The illusion for explanatory knowledge is most robust where the environment supports real-time explanations with visible mechanisms. We demonstrate the illusion of depth with explanatory knowledge in Studies 1-6. Then we show differences in overconfidence about knowledge across different knowledge domains in Studies 7-10. Finally, we explore the mechanisms behind the initial confidence and behind overconfidence in Studies I I and 12, and discuss the implications of our findings for the roles of intuitive theories in concepts and cognition. (C) 2002 Leonid Rozenblit. Published by Cognitive Science Society, Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{RL-2002001,
      author = {Rozenblit, Leonid and Keil, Frank C.},
      title = {The misunderstood limits of folk science: an illusion of explanatory depth},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {26},
      number = {5},
      pages = {521--562}
    }
    
    Schacter, D.L. The seven sins of memory: how the mind forgets and remembers 2001   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Schacter2001,
      author = {Schacter, D. L.},
      title = {The seven sins of memory: how the mind forgets and remembers},
      publisher = {Houghton Mifflin},
      year = {2001}
    }
    
    Schank, R. & Abelson, R.P. Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding: An inquiry into human knowledge structures 1977   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{SR-1977001,
      author = {Schank, Roger and Abelson, Robert P.},
      title = {Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding: An inquiry into human knowledge structures},
      publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum},
      year = {1977}
    }
    
    Seifert, C.M. & Patalano, A.L. Opportunism in Memory: Preparing for Chance Encounters 2001 Current Directions in Psychological Science
    Vol. 10(6), pp. 198-201 
    article  
    Abstract: Recognizing opportunities to achieve pending goals is an important cognitive ability. But when and how do we recognize that a current situation is especially suited to resuming a past goal? The predictive encoding model suggests pending goals are encoded into memory in association with anticipated environmental features. Optimally, these features are (a) necessary for successful goal satisfaction, (b) distinctive preconditions for expecting a plan to achieve the goal, and (c) described so as to be readily identified in the environment. Later, ordinary perception of features in the environment leads to automatic recognition of opportunities already prepared in memory. Evidence from experimental studies supports this theory, and demonstrates that general preparation can produce apparently novel opportunism. These findings suggest ways to facilitate the recognition of opportunities to satisfy pending goals.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SeifertPatalano2001Opportunisminmemory,
      author = {Seifert, Colleen M. and Patalano, Andrea L.},
      title = {Opportunism in Memory: Preparing for Chance Encounters},
      journal = {Current Directions in Psychological Science},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {10},
      number = {6},
      pages = {198--201}
    }
    
    Shanks, D.R. CATEGORIZATION BY A CONNECTIONIST NETWORK 1991 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 17(3), pp. 433-443 
    article  
    Abstract: Three experiments tested a simple connectionist network approach to human categorization. The specific network considered consists of a layer of input nodes, each representing a feature of the exemplar to be categorized, connected in parallel to a layer of output nodes representing the categories. Learning to categorize exemplars consists of adjusting the weights in the network so as to increase the probability of making correct categorizations; weight changes are determined by the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) learning rule. The experiments used a simulated medical diagnosis procedure in which subjects have to decide which disease (the category) each of a series of patients is suffering from on the basis of the patients' symptoms (the features). After a series of trials, the subjects rated the extent to which particular symptoms were associated with particular diseases. In each of the experiments, it is shown that a process of selective learning occurs in this categorization task and that selection in turn depends on the relative predictiveness of the symptom for the disease. Such effects parallel results found in animal conditioning experiments and are readily reproduced by the connectionist network model. The results are also discussed in terms of a variety of traditional theories of categorization.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SDR1991001,
      author = {Shanks, David R.},
      title = {CATEGORIZATION BY A CONNECTIONIST NETWORK},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {433--443}
    }
    
    Shapiro, L. The Embodied Cognition Research Programme 2007 Philosophy Compass
    Vol. 2(2), pp. 338-346 
    article URL 
    Abstract: Abstract Embodied Cognition is an approach to cognition that departs from traditional cognitive science in its reluctance to conceive of cognition as computational and in its emphasis on the significance of an organism's body in how and what the organism thinks. Three lines of embodied cognition research are described and some thoughts on the future of embodied cognition offered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Shapiro2007EmbodiedCognition,
      author = {Shapiro, Larry},
      title = {The Embodied Cognition Research Programme},
      journal = {Philosophy Compass},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {2},
      number = {2},
      pages = {338--346},
      url = {http://ruccs.rutgers.edu.libproxy.lib.unc.edu/faculty/pylyshyn/Proseminar07/Shapiro_EmbodiedCognition.pdf}
    }
    
    Shapiro, S.L., Carlson, L.E., Astin, J.A. & Freedman, B. Mechanisms of mindfulness 2006 Journal of Clinical Psychology
    Vol. 62(3), pp. 373-386 
    article  
    Abstract: Recently, the psychological construct mindfulness has received a great deal of attention. The majority of research has focused on clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions. This line of research has led to promising data suggesting mindfulness-based interventions are effective for treatment of both psychological and physical symptoms. However, an equally important direction for future research is to investigate questions concerning mechanisms of action underlying mindfulness-based interventions. This theoretical paper proposes a model of mindfulness, in an effort to elucidate potential mechanisms to explain how mindfulness affects positive change. Potential implications and future directions for the empirical study of mechanisms involved in mindfulness are addressed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ShapiroCarlsonAstinEtAl2006,
      author = {Shapiro, Shauna L. and Carlson, Linda E. and Astin, John A. and Freedman, Benedict},
      title = {Mechanisms of mindfulness},
      journal = {Journal of Clinical Psychology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {62},
      number = {3},
      pages = {373--386}
    }
    
    Shaw, M.L.G. & McKnight, C. Think again : personal problem-solving and decision-making 1981 , pp. x, 182 p. ;  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Shaw1981,
      author = {Shaw, Mildred L. G and McKnight, Cliff},
      title = {Think again : personal problem-solving and decision-making},
      publisher = {Prentice-Hall},
      year = {1981},
      pages = {x, 182 p. ;}
    }
    
    Shneiderman, B. & Bederson, B.B. Maintaining concentration to achieve task completion 2005 Proceedings of the 2005 conference on Designing for User eXperience, pp. Article No. 9  inproceedings  
    Abstract: When faced with a challenging goal, knowledge workers need to concentrate on their tasks so that they move forward toward completion. Since frustrations, distractions, and interruptions can interfere with their smooth progress, design strategies should enable users to maintain concentration. This paper promotes awareness of this issue, reviews related work, and suggests three initial strategies: Reduce short-term and working memory load, provide information abundant interfaces, and increase automaticity.
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{ShneidermanBederson2005Concentrationtaskcompletion,
      author = {Shneiderman, Ben and Bederson, Benjamin B.},
      title = {Maintaining concentration to achieve task completion},
      booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2005 conference on Designing for User eXperience},
      publisher = {ACM Press},
      year = {2005},
      pages = {Article No. 9}
    }
    
    Sinha, R. A cognitive analysis of tagging (or how the lower cognitive cost of tagging makes it popular) 2005 Rashmi Sinha: Thoughts on technology, design & cognition  article URL 
    BibTeX:
    @article{SR-2005001,
      author = {Sinha, Rashmi},
      title = {A cognitive analysis of tagging (or how the lower cognitive cost of tagging makes it popular)},
      journal = {Rashmi Sinha: Thoughts on technology, design & cognition},
      year = {2005},
      url = {http://www.rashmisinha.com/archives/05_09/tagging-cognitive.html}
    }
    
    Sloman, S.A. & Malt, B.C. Artifacts are not ascribed essences, nor are they treated as belonging to kinds 2003 Language and Cognitive Processes
    Vol. 18(5-6), pp. 563-582 
    article  
    Abstract: We evaluate three theories of categorisation in the domain of artifacts. Two theories are versions of psychological essentialism; they posit that artifact categorisation is a matter of judging membership in a kind by appealing to a belief about the true, underlying nature of the object. The first version holds that the essence can be identified with the intended function of objects. The second holds that the essence can be identified with the creator's intended kind membership. The third theory is called "minimalism". It states that judgements of kind membership are based on beliefs about causal laws, not beliefs about essences. We conclude that each theory makes unnecessary assumptions in explaining how people make everyday classifications and inductions with artifacts. Essentialist theories go wrong in assuming that the belief that artifacts have essences is critical to categorisation. All theories go wrong in assuming that artifacts are treated as if they belong to stable, fixed kinds. Theories of artifact categorisation must contend with the fact that artifact categories are not stable, but rather depend on the categorisation task at hand.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SSA2003001,
      author = {Sloman, Steven A. and Malt, Barbara C.},
      title = {Artifacts are not ascribed essences, nor are they treated as belonging to kinds},
      journal = {Language and Cognitive Processes},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {18},
      number = {5-6},
      pages = {563--582}
    }
    
    Sloman, S.A. & Rips, L.J. Similarity as an explanatory construct 1998 Cognition
    Vol. 65(2-3), pp. 87-101 
    article  
    Abstract: Theories can be found throughout cognitive science that give an explanatory role to similarity. Such theories can be contrasted with those that model thought using abstract rules. We lay out four possible explanatory roles for similarity. We then review the computational pros and cons of similarity- and rule-based models and outline the empirical work that speaks to the psychological plausibility of the two frameworks. We conclude that an adequate model of human thought must take advantage of both the flexibility of similarity-based inference and the compositionality and certainty associated with rule-based inference.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SSA1998001,
      author = {Sloman, Steven A. and Rips, Lance J.},
      title = {Similarity as an explanatory construct},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {65},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {87--101}
    }
    
    Sloutsky, V.M. The role of similarity in the development of categorization 2003 Trends in Cognitive Sciences
    Vol. 7(6), pp. 246-251 
    article  
    Abstract: Early in development, humans exhibit the ability to form categories and overlook differences for the sake of generality. This ability poses several important questions: How does categorization arise? What processes underlie category formation? And how are categories mentally represented? We argue that the development of categorization is grounded in perceptual and attentional mechanisms capable of detecting multiple correspondences or similarities in the environment. We present evidence that: (a) similarity can drive categorization early in development; and (b) early in development, humans have powerful learning mechanisms that enable them to extract regularities in the environment. We conclude that, despite remaining challenges, the similarity-based approach offers a promising account of the development of categorization.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SVM2003001,
      author = {Sloutsky, Vladimir M.},
      title = {The role of similarity in the development of categorization},
      journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {7},
      number = {6},
      pages = {246--251}
    }
    
    Smith, E.E. Rule and similarity as prototype concepts 2005 Behavioral and Brain Sciences
    Vol. 28(1), pp. 34-+ 
    article  
    Abstract: There is a continuum between prototypical cases of rule use and prototypical cases of similarity use. A prototypical rule: (1) is explicitly represented, (2) can be verbalized, and (3) requires that the user selectively attend to a few features of the object, while ignoring the others. Prototypical similarty-use requires that: (1) the user should match the object to a mental representation holistically, and (2) there should be no selective attention or inhibition. Neural evidence supports prototypical rule-use. Most models of categorization fall between the two prototypes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SEE2005001,
      author = {Smith, Edward E.},
      title = {Rule and similarity as prototype concepts},
      journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {28},
      number = {1},
      pages = {34--+}
    }
    
    Smith, E.E. & Medin, D.L. Categories and Concepts 1981   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Smith1981,
      author = {Smith, Edward E. and Medin, Douglas L.},
      title = {Categories and Concepts},
      publisher = {Harvard University Press},
      year = {1981}
    }
    
    Smith, E.E., Patalano, A.L. & Jonides, J. Alternative strategies of categorization 1998 Cognition
    Vol. 65(2-3), pp. 167-196 
    article  
    Abstract: Psychological studies of categorization often assume that all concepts are of the same general kind, and are operated on by the same kind of categorization process. In this paper, we argue against this unitary view, and for the existence of qualitatively different categorization processes. In particular, we focus on the distinction between categorizing an item by: (a) applying a category-defining rule to the item vs. (b) determining the similarity of that item to remembered exemplars of a category. We begin by characterizing rule application and similarity computations as strategies of categorization. Next, we review experimental studies that have used artificial categories and shown that differences in instructions or time pressure can lead to either rule-based categorization or similarity-based categorization. Then we consider studies that have used natural concepts and again demonstrated that categorization can be done by either rule application or similarity calculations. Lastly, we take up evidence from cognitive neuroscience relevant to the rule vs. similarity issue. There is some indirect evidence from brain-damaged patients for neurological differences between categorization based on rules vs. that based on similarity (with the former involving frontal regions, and the latter relying more on posterior areas). For more direct evidence, we present the results of a recent neuroimaging experiment, which indicates that different neural circuits are involved when people categorize items on the basis of a rule as compared with when they categorize the same items on the basis of similarity. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SEE1998001,
      author = {Smith, Edward E. and Patalano, Andrea L. and Jonides, John},
      title = {Alternative strategies of categorization},
      journal = {Cognition},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {65},
      number = {2-3},
      pages = {167--196}
    }
    
    Smith, E.E., Shoben, E.J. & Rips, L.J. Structure and process in semantic memory: a featural model for semantic decisions 1974 Psychological review
    Vol. 81, pp. 214-241 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{SEE1974001,
      author = {Smith, Edward E. and Shoben, E. J. and Rips, Lance J.},
      title = {Structure and process in semantic memory: a featural model for semantic decisions},
      journal = {Psychological review},
      year = {1974},
      volume = {81},
      pages = {214--241}
    }
    
    Smith, J.D. & Minda, J.P. Thirty categorization results in search of a model 2000 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 26(1), pp. 3-27 
    article  
    Abstract: One category structure dominated in the shift toward exemplar-based theories of categorization. Given the theoretical burden on this category structure, the authors reanalyzed 30 of its uses over 20 years in 8 articles. The authors suggest 4 conclusions. (a) This category structure may encourage exemplar-memorization processes because of its poor structure, the learning difficulties it causes, and its small, memorizable exemplar sets. Its results may only generalize narrowly. (b) Exemplar models have an advantage in fitting these 30 data sets only because they reproduce a performance advantage for training items. Other models fit equally well if granted this capacity. (c) A simpler exemplar process than assumed by exemplar models suffices to explain these data sets. (d) An important qualitative result predicted by exemplar theory is not found overall and possibly should not even be expected. The authors conclude that the data produced by this category structure do not clearly support exemplar theory.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SJD2000001,
      author = {Smith, J. David and Minda, John Paul},
      title = {Thirty categorization results in search of a model},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {26},
      number = {1},
      pages = {3--27}
    }
    
    Smith, J.D. & Minda, J.P. Prototypes in the mist: The early epochs of category learning 1998 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 24(6), pp. 1411-1436 
    article  
    Abstract: Recent ideas about category learning have favored exemplar processes over prototype processes. However, research has focused on small, poorly differentiated categories and on task-final performances-both may highlight exemplar strategies. Thus, we evaluated participants' categorization strategies and standard categorization models at successive stages in the learning of smaller, less differentiated categories and larger, more differentiated categories. In the former case, the exemplar model dominated even early in learning. In the latter case, the prototype model had a strong early advantage that gave way slowly. Alternative models, and even the behavior of individual parameters within models, suggest a psychological transition from prototype-based to exemplar-based processing during category learning and show that different category structures produce different trajectories of learning through the larger space of strategies.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SJD1998001,
      author = {Smith, J. David and Minda, John Paul},
      title = {Prototypes in the mist: The early epochs of category learning},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {1998},
      volume = {24},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1411--1436}
    }
    
    Soler, M.J. & Ruiz, J.C. The spontaneous use of memory aids at different educational levels 1996 Applied Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 10(1), pp. 41-51 
    article  
    Abstract: Three groups of students in different educational levels: 8th-9th grade students (average age 15); 10th-11th grade students (average age 16); and college students (average age 21), completed a metamemory questionnaire on the use of external, general, and formal memory aids in everyday life and study situations. Short-term repetition, mental rehearsing, and summary elaboration were the most frequent aids. The least frequently used were those that require a special training to be used effectively (e.g. Digit-letters and method of loci). There were differences in the use of general memory aids due to education level, but not in the case of external and formal memory aids. Results showed also that women used memory aids more frequently than men.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Soler1996MemoryAids,
      author = {Soler, Mar?a Jos? and Ruiz, Juan Carlos},
      title = {The spontaneous use of memory aids at different educational levels},
      journal = {Applied Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1996},
      volume = {10},
      number = {1},
      pages = {41--51}
    }
    
    Solomon, K.O., Medin, D.L. & Lynch, E.B. Concepts do more than categorize 1999 Trends in Cognitive Science
    Vol. 3, pp. 99-104 
    article  
    Abstract: Concepts underlie all higher-level cognitive processes. Until recently, the study of concepts has largely been the study of categorization. But categorization is only one conceptual function among several. We argue that concepts cannot be understood sufficiently through the study of categorization, or any other function, in isolation, for two important reasons. First, concepts serve multiple functions which interact to affect conceptual structure and processing. Second, studying a single function in isolation encourages one to see cognitive processes that are particular to each function, but discourages the discovery of processes that are common to multiple functions. For these two reasons, we suggest that concepts should instead be studied in the context of a system of interrelated functions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SKO1999001,
      author = {Solomon, Karen O. and Medin, Douglas L. and Lynch, Elizabeth B.},
      title = {Concepts do more than categorize},
      journal = {Trends in Cognitive Science},
      year = {1999},
      volume = {3},
      pages = {99--104}
    }
    
    Spence, J.D. The memory palace of Matteo Ricci 1984   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Spence1984,
      author = {Spence, Jonathan D.},
      title = {The memory palace of Matteo Ricci},
      publisher = {Viking},
      year = {1984}
    }
    
    Spratling, M.W. & Johnson, M.H. A feedback model of perceptual learning and categorization 2006 Visual Cognition
    Vol. 13(2), pp. 129-165 
    article  
    Abstract: Top-down, feedback, influences are known to have significant effects on visual information processing. Such influences are also likely to affect perceptual learning. This paper employs a computational model of the cortical region interactions underlying visual perception to investigate possible influences of top-down information on learning. The results suggest that feedback Could bias the way in which perceptual stimuli are categorized and could also facilitate the learning of subordinate level representations Suitable for object identification and perceptual expertise.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SMW2006001,
      author = {Spratling, M. W. and Johnson, M. H.},
      title = {A feedback model of perceptual learning and categorization},
      journal = {Visual Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {129--165}
    }
    
    Stafford, T. & Webb, M. Mind hacks: tips and tools for using your brain 2004   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{StaffordWebb2004,
      author = {Stafford, Tom and Webb, Matt},
      title = {Mind hacks: tips and tools for using your brain},
      publisher = {O'Reilly},
      year = {2004}
    }
    
    Stern, S.E. & Kipnis, D. Technology in Everyday Life and Perceptions of Competence 1993 Journal of Applied Social Psychology
    Vol. 23(22), pp. 1892-1902 
    article  
    Abstract: Studies of technology in the workplace generally report that the use of de-skilling technology results in dissatisfied and alienated employees. To determine whether this relation existed in nonworkplace settings, a series of surveys were conducted to assess the relation between the kind of technologies people use and feelings of competence. In three separate surveys of cooking, photography, and driving cars, a positive relation was found between the skill requirements of the technology that people use and their assessment of their ability and level of enjoyment in these activities.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SternKipnis1993,
      author = {Stern, Steven E. and Kipnis, David},
      title = {Technology in Everyday Life and Perceptions of Competence},
      journal = {Journal of Applied Social Psychology},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {23},
      number = {22},
      pages = {1892--1902}
    }
    
    Stibel, J.M. The role of explanation in categorization decisions 2006 International Journal of Psychology
    Vol. 41(2), pp. 132-144 
    article  
    Abstract: Research into the role of explanation on the categorization process has yielded conflicting conclusions. Some theorists stress the importance of explanation, arguing that explanations provide a causal structure necessary to the categorization process. Others discount its significance, arguing that explanation is neither necessary nor sufficient for categorization. Experimentally, explanation has shown modest success in accounting for some categories but not others. Across three experiments, we test whether the central features of a category are the ones that capture the most explanatory structure. The objectives of the current study are threefold: to determine the importance of explanation in natural kind and artifact categorization; to understand the implications of feature correlations as they relate to explanation; and to further delineate the benefit of explanation outside of a functional role. Experiment 1 demonstrates that explanation plays a more dominant role in artifact versus natural kind categorization. Experiment 2 provides evidence that correlated features are neither necessary nor sufficient for categorization. Moreover, it demonstrates that, in the absence of correlation, people still rely on explanation for artifacts but not for natural kinds. Experiment 3 tests to what extent functional information underlies explanation in artifact categorization. We demonstrate that functional relations are not necessary for explanatory-based categorization. Our results, coupled with previous evidence, suggest a dichotomous role for explanation-based categorization. On the one hand, explanation is virtually ignored when categorizing biological kinds; on the other, explanation fosters artifact categorization. Implications for categorization and category-specific disorder are considered.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SJM2006001,
      author = {Stibel, J. M.},
      title = {The role of explanation in categorization decisions},
      journal = {International Journal of Psychology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {41},
      number = {2},
      pages = {132--144}
    }
    
    Storms, G. Exemplar models in the study of natural language concepts 2004 Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol 45, pp. 1-39  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{SG-2004001,
      author = {Storms, Gert},
      title = {Exemplar models in the study of natural language concepts},
      booktitle = {Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory, Vol 45},
      publisher = {Elsevier Academic Press Inc},
      year = {2004},
      pages = {1--39}
    }
    
    Sun, R. Desiderata for cognitive architectures 2004 Philosophical Psychology
    Vol. 17(3), pp. 341-373 
    article  
    Abstract: This article addresses issues in developing cognitive architectures-generic computational models of cognition. Cognitive architectures are believed to be essential in advancing understanding of the mind, and therefore, developing cognitive architectures is an extremely important enterprise in cognitive science. The article proposes a set of essential desiderata for developing cognitive architectures. It then moves on to discuss in detail some of these desiderata and their associated concepts and ideas relevant to developing better cognitive architectures. It argues for the importance of taking into full consideration these desiderata in developing future architectures that are more cognitively and ecologically realistic. A brief and preliminary evaluation of existing cognitive architectures is attempted on the basis of these ideas.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SR-2004002,
      author = {Sun, Ron},
      title = {Desiderata for cognitive architectures},
      journal = {Philosophical Psychology},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {17},
      number = {3},
      pages = {341--373}
    }
    
    Sun, R. Symbol grounding: a new look at an old idea 2000 Philosophical Psychology
    Vol. 13(2), pp. 149-172 
    article  
    Abstract: Symbols should be grounded, as has been argued before. But we insist that they should be grounded not only in subsymbolic activities, but also in the interaction between the agent and the world. The point is that concepts are not formed in isolation (from the world), in abstraction, or "objectively." They are found in relation to the experience of agents, through their perceptual/motor apparatuses, in their world and linked to their goals and actions. This paper rakes a detailed look at this relatively, old issue, with a new perspective, aided by our work of computational cognitive model development. To further our understanding, we also go back in rime to link up with earlier philosophical theories related to this issue. The result is an account that extends from computational mechanisms to philosophical abstractions.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SR-2000001,
      author = {Sun, Ron},
      title = {Symbol grounding: a new look at an old idea},
      journal = {Philosophical Psychology},
      year = {2000},
      volume = {13},
      number = {2},
      pages = {149--172}
    }
    
    Sutton, J. Memory and the extended mind: embodiment, cognition, and culture 2005 Cognitive Processing
    Vol. 6(4), pp. 223-226 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Sutton2005MemoryExtendedMind,
      author = {Sutton, John},
      title = {Memory and the extended mind: embodiment, cognition, and culture},
      journal = {Cognitive Processing},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {6},
      number = {4},
      pages = {223--226}
    }
    
    Suwa, M. & Tversky, B. External Representations Contribute to the Dynamic Construction of Ideas 2002 Diagrammatic Representation and Inference : Second International Conference, Diagrams 2002, pp. 341-343  inproceedings  
    BibTeX:
    @inproceedings{SM-2002001,
      author = {Suwa, Masaki and Tversky, Barbara},
      title = {External Representations Contribute to the Dynamic Construction of Ideas},
      booktitle = {Diagrammatic Representation and Inference : Second International Conference, Diagrams 2002},
      year = {2002},
      pages = {341--343}
    }
    
    Symons, C.S. & Johnson, B.T. The self-reference effect in memory: a meta-analysis 1997 Psychological Bulletin
    Vol. 121(3), pp. 371-394 
    article  
    Abstract: In this review, the authors examine the basis for the mnemonic superiority that results from relating material to the self. A meta-analysis confirms the expected self-reference effect (SRE) in memory, with self-referent encoding strategies yielding superior memory relative to both semantic and other- referent encoding strategies. Consistent with theory and research that suggest self-reference (SR) produces both organized and elaborate processing, the SRE was smaller (a) when SR is compared with other-reference (OR) rather than semantic encoding and (b) when the comparison tasks promote both organization and elaboration. Thus, the SRE appears to result primarily because the self is a well-developed and often-used construct that promotes elaboration and organization of encoded information. The authors discuss the implications of these and other findings for theories of the SRE and for future research.
    BibTeX:
    @article{SymonsJohnson1997,
      author = {Symons, Cynthia S. and Johnson, Blair T.},
      title = {The self-reference effect in memory: a meta-analysis},
      journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {121},
      number = {3},
      pages = {371--394}
    }
    
    Tanaka, J.W. & Taylor, M. Object categories and expertise: is the basic level in the eye of the beholder? 1991 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 23(3), pp. 457-482 
    article  
    Abstract: Classic research on conceptual hierarchies has shown that the interaction between the human perceiver and objects in the environment specifies one level of abstraction for catergorizing objects, called the basic level, which plays a primary role in cognition. The question of whether the special psychological status of the basic level can be modified by experience was addressed in three experiments comparing the performance of subjects in expert and novice domains. The main findings were that in the domain (a) subordinate-level categories were as differentiated as the basic-level categories, (b) subordinate-level names were used as frequently as basic-level names for identifying objects, and (c) subordinate-level categorizations were as fast as basic-level categorizations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that individual differences in domain-specific knowledge affect the extent that the basic level is central to categorization.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TJW1991001,
      author = {Tanaka, James W. and Taylor, Marjorie},
      title = {Object categories and expertise: is the basic level in the eye of the beholder?},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {1991},
      volume = {23},
      number = {3},
      pages = {457--482}
    }
    
    Thibaut, J.-P. & Gelaes, S. Exemplar effects in the context of a categorization rule: Featural and holistic influences 2006 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 32(6), pp. 1403-1415 
    article  
    Abstract: Brooks and colleagues (S. W. Allen & L. R. Brooks, 199 1; G. Regehr & L. R. Brooks, 1993) have shown that the classification of transfer stimuli is influenced by their similarity to training stimuli, even when a perfect classification rule is available. It is argued that the original effect obtained by Brooks and colleagues might have resulted from two potential confounding variables. Once these confounds were controlled, the current authors did not replicate Brooks and colleagues' results in Experiment 1. Exemplar effects appeared in Experiment 2 when transfer stimuli were perceptually more similar to training stimuli than in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, the authors obtained exemplar effects with separated stimuli, a finding that was not predicted by Brooks and colleagues' model. The authors suggest that a close perceptual match between training and transfer stimuli is necessary for the effect to occur, for both integrated and separated stimuli. The nature of this perceptual match, holistic or featural, is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TJP2006001,
      author = {Thibaut, Jean-Pierre and Gelaes, Sabine},
      title = {Exemplar effects in the context of a categorization rule: Featural and holistic influences},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {32},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1403--1415}
    }
    
    Tijus, C. Contextual categorization and cognitive phenomena 2001 Modeling and Using Context, Proceedings, pp. 316-329  incollection  
    Abstract: Contextual Categorization theory (CC-T) is introduced as a theory based on Galois lattice,, that are used to capture the organization of current situations. It is shown hock the objects and their properties are processed to simulate cognitive phenomena related to context effects: denotation, description, explanation. similarity judgement, analogy. non-literal language understanding and reasoning.
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{TC-2001001,
      author = {Tijus, Charles},
      title = {Contextual categorization and cognitive phenomena},
      booktitle = {Modeling and Using Context, Proceedings},
      publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin},
      year = {2001},
      pages = {316--329}
    }
    
    Tinsley, H.E.A. & Eldredge, B.D. Psychological benefits of leisure participation: A taxonomy of leisure activities based on their need-gratifying properties 1995 Journal of Counseling Psychology
    Vol. 42(2), pp. 123-132 
    article  
    Abstract: In this study, a needs-based taxonomy of leisure activities is proposed. Respondents experienced in a given leisure activity were asked to indicate the extent to which it met different psychological needs, as measured by the Paragraphs About Leisure (PAL) questionnaire. Each of the 3,771 participants completed the PAL on only 1 of the 82 leisure activities for which data were collected. The leisure activities were cluster analyzed with the scores on the PAL, and 12 leisure activity clusters were revealed. One group was judged to be a residual, and the other 11 groups were named agency, novelty, belongingness, service, sensual enjoyment, cognitive stimulation, self-expression, creativity, competition, vicarious competition, and relaxation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{THE1995001,
      author = {Tinsley, Howard E. A. and Eldredge, Barbara D.},
      title = {Psychological benefits of leisure participation: A taxonomy of leisure activities based on their need-gratifying properties},
      journal = {Journal of Counseling Psychology},
      year = {1995},
      volume = {42},
      number = {2},
      pages = {123--132}
    }
    
    Tinsley, H.E.A., Hinson, J.A. & Tinsley, D.J. Attributes of leisure and work experiences 1993 Journal of Counseling Psychology
    Vol. 40(4), pp. 447-455 
    article  
    Abstract: Essays written by 238 college students and 66 noncollege adults about their most memorable leisure experiences and most meaningful commonly occurring leisure and work experiences were content analyzed for the presence of 46 constructs describing 39 attributes and 7 benefits of the experiences. Significant differences were found in the frequency with which these constructs were used in describing leisure and work activities. Leisure experiences were most frequently characterized as providing enjoyment (i.e., intrinsic satisfaction), companionship, novelty, relaxation, aesthetic appreciation, and intimacy. In contrast, work was most frequently described as providing extrinsic rewards, accomplishment, learning, and altruism. The results were interpreted as supporting Tinsley and Tinsley's (1988) theory of leisure experience.
    BibTeX:
    @article{THE1993001,
      author = {Tinsley, Howard E. A. and Hinson, Janise A. and Tinsley, Diane J.},
      title = {Attributes of leisure and work experiences},
      journal = {Journal of Counseling Psychology},
      year = {1993},
      volume = {40},
      number = {4},
      pages = {447--455}
    }
    
    Truell, A.D., Bartlett, J.E. & Alexander, M.W. Response Rate, Speed, and Completeness: a Comparison of Internet-Based and Mail Surveys 2002 Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers
    Vol. 34(1), pp. 46-49 
    article  
    Abstract: Because of their speed and accessibility, the use of on-line research tools has grown considerably in recent years. The present study compared two ways of delivering surveys: Internet-based and mail delivery methods. Although Internet-based and mail surveys achieved a similar response rate, Internet-based surveys may be more effective than mail surveys in a setting such as when the target population has both e-mail and Internet access.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TAD2002001,
      author = {Truell, Allen D. and Bartlett, James E. and Alexander, Melody W.},
      title = {Response Rate, Speed, and Completeness: a Comparison of Internet-Based and Mail Surveys},
      journal = {Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {46--49}
    }
    
    Tulving, E. Episodic memory: From mind to brain 2002 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 53, pp. 1-25 
    article  
    Abstract: Episodic memory is a neurocognitive (brain/mind) system, uniquely different from other memory systems, that enables human beings to remember past experiences. The notion of episodic memory was first proposed some 30 years ago. At that time it was defined in terms of materials and tasks. It was subsequently refined and elaborated in terms of ideas such as self, subjective time, and autonoetic consciousness. This chapter provides a brief history of the concept of episodic memory, describes how it has changed (indeed greatly changed) since its inception, considers criticisms of it, and then discusses supporting evidence provided by (a) neuropsychological studies of patterns of memory impairment caused by brain damage, and (b) functional neuroimaging studies of patterns of brain activity of normal subjects engaged in various memory tasks. I also suggest that episodic memory is a true, even if as yet generally unappreciated, marvel of nature.
    BibTeX:
    @article{TE-2002001,
      author = {Tulving, Endel},
      title = {Episodic memory: From mind to brain},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {53},
      pages = {1--25}
    }
    
    Tversky, A. Features of similarity 1977 Psychological review
    Vol. 84, pp. 327-352 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TA-1977001,
      author = {Tversky, Amos},
      title = {Features of similarity},
      journal = {Psychological review},
      year = {1977},
      volume = {84},
      pages = {327--352}
    }
    
    Tversky, B. Components and categorization 1986 Noun classes and categorization, pp. 63-75  incollection  
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{TB-1986001,
      author = {Tversky, Barbara},
      title = {Components and categorization},
      booktitle = {Noun classes and categorization},
      publisher = {Benjamins},
      year = {1986},
      pages = {63--75}
    }
    
    Tversky, B. & Hemenway, K. OBJECTS, PARTS, AND CATEGORIES 1984 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 113(2), pp. 169-193 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{TB-1984001,
      author = {Tversky, Barbara and Hemenway, Kathleen},
      title = {OBJECTS, PARTS, AND CATEGORIES},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {1984},
      volume = {113},
      number = {2},
      pages = {169--193}
    }
    
    Uyeda, K.M. & Mandler, G. PROTOTYPICALITY NORMS FOR 28 SEMANTIC CATEGORIES 1980 Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation
    Vol. 12(6), pp. 587-595 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{UKM1980001,
      author = {Uyeda, K. M. and Mandler, G.},
      title = {PROTOTYPICALITY NORMS FOR 28 SEMANTIC CATEGORIES},
      journal = {Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation},
      year = {1980},
      volume = {12},
      number = {6},
      pages = {587--595}
    }
    
    Vervaeke, J. & Green, C.D. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Theories: A Critique of Lakoff's Theory of Categorization 1997 Metaphor and Symbol
    Vol. 12(1), pp. 59-80 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{VJ-1997001,
      author = {Vervaeke, John and Green, Christopher D.},
      title = {Women, Fire, and Dangerous Theories: A Critique of Lakoff's Theory of Categorization},
      journal = {Metaphor and Symbol},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {12},
      number = {1},
      pages = {59--80}
    }
    
    Waldmann, M.R. & Hagmayer, Y. Categories and causality: The neglected direction 2006 Cognitive Psychology
    Vol. 53(1), pp. 27-58 
    article  
    Abstract: The standard approach guiding research on the relationship between categories and causality views categories as reflecting causal relations in the world. We provide evidence that the opposite direction also holds: categories that have been acquired in previous learning contexts may influence subsequent causal learning. In three experiments we show that identical causal learning input yields different attributions of causal capacity depending on the pre-existing categories to which the learning exemplars are assigned. There is a strong tendency to continue to use old conceptual schemes rather than switch to new ones even when the old categories are not optimal for predicting the new effect, and when they were motivated by goals that differed from the present context of causal discovery. However, we also found that the use of prior categories is dependent on the match between categories and causal effect. Whenever the category labels suggest natural kinds which can be plausibly related to the causal effects, transfer was observed. When the categories were arbitrary, or could not be plausibly related to the causal effect learners abandoned the categories, and used different categories to predict the causal effect. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WMR2006001,
      author = {Waldmann, Michael R. and Hagmayer, York},
      title = {Categories and causality: The neglected direction},
      journal = {Cognitive Psychology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {53},
      number = {1},
      pages = {27--58}
    }
    
    Waldron, E.M. & Ashby, F.G. The effects of concurrent task interference on category learning: Evidence for multiple category learning systems 2001 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
    Vol. 8(1), pp. 168-176 
    article  
    Abstract: Participants learned simple and complex category structures under typical single-task conditions and when performing a simultaneous numerical Stroop task. In the simple categorization tasks, each set of contrasting categories was separated by a unidimensional explicit rule, whereas the complex tasks required integrating information from three stimulus dimensions and resulted in implicit rules that were difficult to verbalize. The concurrent Stroop task dramatically impaired learning of the simple explicit rules, but did not significantly delay learning of the complex implicit rules. These results support the hypothesis that category learning is mediated by multiple learning systems.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WEM2001001,
      author = {Waldron, Elliott M. and Ashby, F. Gregory},
      title = {The effects of concurrent task interference on category learning: Evidence for multiple category learning systems},
      journal = {Psychonomic Bulletin & Review},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {8},
      number = {1},
      pages = {168--176}
    }
    
    Walker, B.M. & Winter, D.A. The elaboration of personal construct psychology 2007 Annual Review of Psychology
    Vol. 58, pp. 453-477 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WBM2007001,
      author = {Walker, Beverly M. and Winter, David A.},
      title = {The elaboration of personal construct psychology},
      journal = {Annual Review of Psychology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {58},
      pages = {453--477}
    }
    
    Waxman, S.R., Medin, D.L. & Ross, N.O. Folkbiological reasoning from a cross-cultural developmental perspective: Early essentialist notions are shaped by cultural beliefs 2007 Developmental psychology
    Vol. 43(2), pp. 294-308 
    article  
    Abstract: Two experiments examine the evolution of folkbiological reasoning in children (4 to 10 years of age) and adults from four distinct communities (rural Native American, rural majority culture, and suburban and urban North American communities). Using an adoption paradigm, we examine participants? intuitions regarding the inheritance of properties and the mechanisms underlying the transmission of kindhood. Across all communities and ages, there was a strong biological component underlying reasoning about the inheritance of properties. There were also differences in children?s intuitions about the mechanisms underlying kindhood: Native American children were more likely than their counterparts to consider blood as a candidate biological essence. This suggests that as children search to discover the underlying essence of a biological kind, they are guided by broad essentialist notions that are shaped by discourse within their community.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WSR2007001,
      author = {Waxman, Sandra R. and Medin, Douglas L. and Ross, Norbert O.},
      title = {Folkbiological reasoning from a cross-cultural developmental perspective: Early essentialist notions are shaped by cultural beliefs},
      journal = {Developmental psychology},
      year = {2007},
      volume = {43},
      number = {2},
      pages = {294--308}
    }
    
    Weiner, B. An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion 1986 Psychological Review
    Vol. 92, pp. 548-573 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{Weiner1986,
      author = {Weiner, B.},
      title = {An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1986},
      volume = {92},
      pages = {548--573}
    }
    
    Wickens, D.D. ENCODING CATEGORIES OF WORDS - EMPIRICAL APPROACH TO MEANING 1970 Psychological Review
    Vol. 77(1), pp. 1-15 
    article  
    BibTeX:
    @article{WDD1970001,
      author = {Wickens, Delos D.},
      title = {ENCODING CATEGORIES OF WORDS - EMPIRICAL APPROACH TO MEANING},
      journal = {Psychological Review},
      year = {1970},
      volume = {77},
      number = {1},
      pages = {1--15}
    }
    
    Wilensky, R. Planning and Understanding: A Computational Approach to Human Reasoning 1983 , pp. 168  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Wilensky1983,
      author = {Wilensky, Robert},
      title = {Planning and Understanding: A Computational Approach to Human Reasoning},
      publisher = {Addison-Wesley Pub. Co},
      year = {1983},
      pages = {168}
    }
    
    Wills, A.J., Noury, M., Moberly, N.J. & Newport, M. Formation of category representations 2006 Memory & Cognition
    Vol. 34(1), pp. 17-27 
    article  
    Abstract: Many formal models of categorization assume, implicitly or explicitly, that categorization results in the formation of direct associations from representations of the presented stimuli to representations of the experimentally provided category labels. In three categorization experiments employing a polymorphous classification structure (Dennis, Hampton, & Lea, 1973) and a partial reversal, optional shift procedure (Kendler, Kendler, & Wells, 1960), we provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that learning a new classification problem results in the creation of category representations that mediate between representations of the stimulus and the label. This hypothesis can be instantiated through the AMBRY model (Kruschke, 1996).
    BibTeX:
    @article{WAJ2006001,
      author = {Wills, A. J. and Noury, Malia and Moberly, Nicholas J. and Newport, Matthew},
      title = {Formation of category representations},
      journal = {Memory & Cognition},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {34},
      number = {1},
      pages = {17--27}
    }
    
    Wilson, M. Six views of embodied cognition 2002 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
    Vol. 9(4), pp. 625-636 
    article  
    Abstract: The emerging viewpoint of embodied cognition holds that cognitive processes are deeply rooted in

    the body's interactions with the world. This position actually houses a number of distinct claims, some

    of which are more controversial than others. This paper distinguishes and evaluates the following six

    claims: (1) cognition is situated; (2) cognition is time-pressured; (3) we off-load cognitive work onto

    the environment; (4) the environment is part of the cognitive system; (5) cognition is for action; (6) off-

    line cognition is body based. Of these, the first three and the fifth appear to be at least partially true,

    and their usefulness is best evaluated in terms of the range of their applicability. The fourth claim, I argue,

    is deeply problematic. The sixth claim has received the least attention in the literature on embodied

    cognition, but it may in fact be the best documented and most powerful of the six claims.

    BibTeX:
    @article{Wilson2002,
      author = {Wilson, Margaret},
      title = {Six views of embodied cognition},
      journal = {Psychonomic Bulletin & Review},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {9},
      number = {4},
      pages = {625--636}
    }
    
    Wilson, R.A. & Clark, A. How to situate cognition: Letting nature take its course 2006 The Cambridge handbook of situated cognition  incollection URL 
    BibTeX:
    @incollection{WilsonClark2006,
      author = {Wilson, Robert A. and Clark, Andy},
      title = {How to situate cognition: Letting nature take its course},
      booktitle = {The Cambridge handbook of situated cognition},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      year = {2006},
      url = {preprint: https://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/1445}
    }
    
    Wood, W., Quinn, J.M. & Kashy, D.A. Habits in Everyday Life: Thought, Emotion, and Action 2002 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
    Vol. 83(6), pp. 1281-1297 
    article  
    Abstract: To illustrate the differing thoughts and emotion's involved in guiding habitual and nonhabitual behavior, 2,. diary studies were conducted in which participants provided hourly reports of their ongoing experiences. When participants were engaged in habitual behavior, defined as behavior that had been performed almost daily in stable contexts, they were likely to think about issues unrelated to their behavior, presumably because they did not have to consciously guide their actions. When engaged in nonhabitual behavior,or actions performed less often or :in shifting contexts; participants' thoughts tended to correspond to their behavior, suggesting that thought was necessary to guide action. Furthermore, the self-regulatory, benefits of habits were apparent in the lesser feelings of stress associated with habitual,. than nonhabitual behavior.
    BibTeX:
    @article{WW-2002001,
      author = {Wood, W. and Quinn, J. M. and Kashy, D. A.},
      title = {Habits in Everyday Life: Thought, Emotion, and Action},
      journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
      year = {2002},
      volume = {83},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1281--1297}
    }
    
    Yamauchi, T. Labeling bias and categorical induction: Generative aspects of category information 2005 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 31(3), pp. 538-553 
    article  
    Abstract: When a person is characterized categorically with a label (e.g., Linda is a feminist), people tend to think that the attributes associated with that person are central and long lasting. This bias, which is related to category-based induction and stereotyping, has been thought to arise because a category label (e.g., feminist) activates the dominant properties associated with the representation of the category. This explanation implies that categorical information influences inferential processes mainly by conjuring up main attributes or instances represented in the category. However, the present experiments reveal that this attribute-based explanation of induction does not provide a complete picture of inferential processes. The results from 3 experiments suggest that category information can affect inferences of attributes that are not directly related to the category, suggesting that categories not only activate likely attributes but also help integrate unlikely or even unrelated attributes.
    BibTeX:
    @article{YT-2005001,
      author = {Yamauchi, Takashi},
      title = {Labeling bias and categorical induction: Generative aspects of category information},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2005},
      volume = {31},
      number = {3},
      pages = {538--553}
    }
    
    Yeh, W.-c. & Barsalou, L.W. The situated nature of concepts 2006 American Journal of Psychology
    Vol. 119(3), pp. 349-384 
    article  
    Abstract: For decades the importance of background situations has been documented across all areas of cognition. Nevertheless, theories of concepts generally ignore background situations, focusing largely on bottom-up, stimulus-based processing. Furthermore, empirical research on concepts typically ignores background situations, not incorporating them into experimental designs. A selective review of relevant literatures demonstrates that concepts are not abstracted out of situations but instead are situated. Background situations constrain conceptual processing in many tasks (e.g., recall, recognition, categorization, lexical decision, color naming, property verification, property generation) across many areas of cognition (e.g., episodic memory, conceptual processing, visual object recognition, language comprehension). A taxonomy of situations is proposed in which grain size, meaningfulness, and tangibility distinguish the cumulative situations that structure cognition hierarchically.
    BibTeX:
    @article{YWC2006001,
      author = {Yeh, Wen-chi and Barsalou, Lawrence W.},
      title = {The situated nature of concepts},
      journal = {American Journal of Psychology},
      year = {2006},
      volume = {119},
      number = {3},
      pages = {349--384}
    }
    
    Yoder, C.Y. & Herrmann, D.J. The Utility of Commercial Memory Aids as a Function of the Kind of Aid and Individual Differences 2003 Psychologia
    Vol. 46(2), pp. 83-103 
    article  
    Abstract: Two investigations examined how college students perceived the utility of commercial memory aids. In investigation I the participants rated the perceived utility of a wide range of commercial external aids. The commercial aids rated as most useful were ones that served an encoding function. In general, the participants viewed the aids as somewhat more useful to themselves than they would be to other people. A review of the literature and Investigation 2 showed that the utility of commercial memory aids varies with three kinds of individual differences: those pertaining to demographic characteristics (age, gender); personality (conscientiousness, desire for control, agreeableness, fearfulness); and past experience (such as having a consistent or chaotic schedule). As the world relies more on technology, proper understanding of cognition in everyday life will increasingly require research that clarifies why people do or do not make good use of commercial memory aids.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Yoder2003,
      author = {Yoder, C. Y. and Herrmann, D. J.},
      title = {The Utility of Commercial Memory Aids as a Function of the Kind of Aid and Individual Differences},
      journal = {Psychologia},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {46},
      number = {2},
      pages = {83--103}
    }
    
    Young, C.J. Contributions of metaknowledge to retrieval of natural categories in semantic memory 2004 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 30(4), pp. 909-916 
    article  
    Abstract: Retrieving the answer to a general knowledge question has been shown to involve two metacognitive processes-a feeling-of-knowing that initiates the search of long-term memory and a willingness to continue searching until an answer can be confidently stated. To extend this model, college students were asked to retrieve as many members of 2 natural categories as they could in 1 min. Examination of the points at which they switched categories revealed that they searched longer in categories of higher potency, and they switched earlier when the other category was of higher potency. They also searched the first category longer when they were allowed to switch only once during a trial rather than as often as they wished. It was concluded that feeling-of-knowing maintained search of a category and also contributed to the willingness to continue searching, and the constraint on switching impacted the willingness to continue.
    BibTeX:
    @article{YCJ2004001,
      author = {Young, Carole J.},
      title = {Contributions of metaknowledge to retrieval of natural categories in semantic memory},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2004},
      volume = {30},
      number = {4},
      pages = {909--916}
    }
    
    Zacks, J.M., Tversky, B. & Iyer, G. Perceiving, remembering, and communicating structure in events 2001 Journal of Experimental Psychology-General
    Vol. 130(1), pp. 29-58 
    article  
    Abstract: How do people perceive routine events, such as making a bed, as these events unfold in time? Research on knowledge structures suggests that people conceive of events as goal-directed partonomic hierarchies. Here, participants segmented videos of events into coarse and fine units on separate viewings; some described the activity of each unit as well. Both segmentation and descriptions support the hierarchical bias hypothesis in event perception: Observers spontaneously encoded the events in terms of partonomic hierarchies. Hierarchical organization was strengthened by simultaneous description and, to a weaker extent, by familiarity. Describing from memory rather than perception yielded fewer units but did not alter the qualitative nature of the descriptions. Although the descriptions were telegraphic and without communicative intent, their hierarchical structure was evident to naive readers. The data suggest that cognitive schemata mediate between perceptual and functional information about events and indicate that these knowledge structures may be organized around object/action units.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZJM2001001,
      author = {Zacks, Jeffrey M. and Tversky, Barbara and Iyer, Gowri},
      title = {Perceiving, remembering, and communicating structure in events},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-General},
      year = {2001},
      volume = {130},
      number = {1},
      pages = {29--58}
    }
    
    Zaki, S.R., Nosofsky, R.M., Stanton, R.D. & Cohen, A.L. Prototype and exemplar accounts of category learning and attentional allocation: A reassessment 2003 Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition
    Vol. 29(6), pp. 1160-1173 
    article  
    Abstract: In a recent article, J. P. Minda and J. D. Smith (2002) argued that an exemplar model provided worse quantitative fits than an alternative prototype model to individual subject data from the classic D. L. Medin and M. M. Schaffer (1978) 5/4 categorization paradigm. In addition, they argued that the exemplar model achieved its fits by making untenable assumptions regarding how observers distribute their attention. In this article, we demonstrate that when the models are equated in terms of their response-rule flexibility, the exemplar model provides a substantially better account of the categorization data than does a prototype or mixed model. In addition, we point to shortcomings in the attention-allocation analyses conducted by J. P. Minda and J. D. Smith (2002). When these shortcomings are corrected, we find no evidence that challenges the attention-allocation assumptions of the exemplar model.
    BibTeX:
    @article{ZSR2003001,
      author = {Zaki, Safa R. and Nosofsky, Robert M. and Stanton, Roger D. and Cohen, Andrew L.},
      title = {Prototype and exemplar accounts of category learning and attentional allocation: A reassessment},
      journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition},
      year = {2003},
      volume = {29},
      number = {6},
      pages = {1160--1173}
    }
    
    Zhang, J. The nature of external representations in problem solving 1997 Cognitive Science
    Vol. 21(2), pp. 179-217 
    article  
    Abstract: This article proposes a theoretical framework for external representation based problem solving. The Tic-Tac-Toe and its isomorphs are used to illustrate the procedures of the framework as a methodology and test the predictions of the framework as a functional model. Experimental results show that the behavior in the Tic-Tac-Toe is determined by the directly available information in external and internal representations in terms of perceptual and cognitive biases, regardless of whether the biases are consistent with, inconsistent with, or irrelevant to the task. It is shown that external representations are not merely inputs and stimuli to the internal mind and that they have much more important functions than mere memory aids. A representational determinism is suggested?the form of a representation determines what information can be perceived, what processes can be activated, and what structures can be discovered from the specific representation.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zhang1997Representationsinproblemsolving,
      author = {Zhang, Jiajie},
      title = {The nature of external representations in problem solving},
      journal = {Cognitive Science},
      year = {1997},
      volume = {21},
      number = {2},
      pages = {179--217}
    }
    
    Zhang, J. & Norman, D.A. Representation in distributed cognitive tasks 1994 Cognitive science
    Vol. 18(1), pp. 87-122 
    article  
    Abstract: In this article we propose a theoretical framework of distributed representations and a methodology of representational analysis for the study of distributed cognitive taskstasks that require the processing of information distributed across the internal mind and the external environment. The basic principle of distributed representations Is that the representational system of a distributed cognitive task is a set of internal and external representations, which together represent the abstract structure of the task. The basic strategy of representational analysis is to decompose the representation of a hierarchical task into its component levels so that the representational properties at each level can be independently examined. The theoretical framework and the methodology are used to analyze the hierarchical structure of the Tower of Hanoi problem. Based on this analysis, four experiments are designed to examine the representational properties of the Tower of Hanoi. Finally, the nature of external representations is discussed.
    BibTeX:
    @article{Zhang1994,
      author = {Zhang, J. and Norman, Donald A.},
      title = {Representation in distributed cognitive tasks},
      journal = {Cognitive science},
      year = {1994},
      volume = {18},
      number = {1},
      pages = {87--122}
    }
    
    Zuriff, G.E. Behaviorism: A conceptual reconstruction 1985 , pp. 369  book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Zuriff1985,
      author = {Zuriff, Gerald E.},
      title = {Behaviorism: A conceptual reconstruction},
      publisher = {Columbia University Press},
      year = {1985},
      pages = {369}
    }
    
    Situated cognition: Social, semiotic, and psychological perspectives 1997   book  
    BibTeX:
    @book{Kirshner1997,,
      title = {Situated cognition: Social, semiotic, and psychological perspectives},
      publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum},
      year = {1997}
    }
    

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