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s.n. Taxonomies and Thesauri: a list of references and resources for public sector applications 2007   techreport URL  
Abstract: A bibliography to help workers throughout the UK public sector as they plan implementation of taxonomies for use with Subject metadata. The bibliography has been prepared for Taxonomies in the Public Sector (TiPS), a discussion group which supports the Cabinet Office?s Metadata Working Group by encouraging information professionals in the public sector to meet and develop guidance on the implementation of taxonomies and metadata. While IPSV (Integrated Public Sector Vocabulary) and its predecessors GCL and LGCL are an important focus for compliance with e-government standards, public sector applications commonly use a complementary specialised vocabulary in tandem with IPSV. The bibliography gives background references across the field from development to exploitation and sharing the outputs.
BibTeX:
@techreport{UKC2007001,
  author = {s.n.},
  title = {Taxonomies and Thesauri: a list of references and resources for public sector applications},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.govtalk.gov.uk/documents/bibliography2007_05.pdf}
}
Sauperl, A. Subject cataloging process of Slovenian and American catalogers 2005 Journal of Documentation   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Sauperl2005,
  author = {Sauperl, Alenka},
  title = {Subject cataloging process of Slovenian and American catalogers},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {61},
  number = {6},
  pages = {713--734}
}
Albrechtsen, H. Classification schemes for collection mediation: Work centered design and cognitive work analysis 2003 School: Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University   phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{AH-2003001,
  author = {Albrechtsen, Hanne},
  title = {Classification schemes for collection mediation: Work centered design and cognitive work analysis},
  school = {Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {172 p. }
}
Albrechtsen, H. & Jacob, E. K. The dynamics of classification systems as boundary objects for cooperation in the electronic library 1998 Library Trends   article  
BibTeX:
@article{AH-1998001,
  author = {Albrechtsen, Hanne and Jacob, Elin K.},
  title = {The dynamics of classification systems as boundary objects for cooperation in the electronic library},
  journal = {Library Trends},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {47},
  number = {2},
  pages = {293--312}
}
Albrechtsen, H. & Pejtersen, A. M. Cognitive work analysis and work centered design of classification schemes 2003 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: Work centered design of classification schemes is an emerging area of research which poses particular challenges to domain analysis and scheme construction. A key challenge in work centered design of classification schemes is the evolving semantics of work. This article introduces a work centered approach to the design of classification schemes, based on the framework of cognitive work analysis. We launch collaborative task situations as a new unit of analysis for capturing evolving semantic structures in work domains. An example case from a cognitive work analysis of three national film research archives illustrates the application of the framework for identifying actors' needs for a classification scheme to support collaborative knowledge integration. It is concluded that a main contribution of the new approach is support for empirical analysis and overall design of classification schemes that can serve as material interfaces for actors' negotiations and integration of knowledge perspectives during collaborative work.
BibTeX:
@article{AH-2003002,
  author = {Albrechtsen, Hanne and Pejtersen, Annelise Mark},
  title = {Cognitive work analysis and work centered design of classification schemes},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {30},
  number = {3-4},
  pages = {213--227}
}
Amento, B., Hill, W., Terveen, L., Hix, D. & Ju, P. An empirical evaluation of user interfaces for topic management of Web sites 1999 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems: the CHI is the limit   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{AB-1999001,
  author = {Amento, Brian and Hill, Will and Terveen, Loren and Hix, Deborah and Ju, Peter},
  title = {An empirical evaluation of user interfaces for topic management of Web sites},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems: the CHI is the limit },
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {552--559}
}
Andersen, H. H. K. Classification schemes: Supporting articulation work in technical documentation 1994 Knowledge organization and quality management: Proceedings of the Third International ISKO Conference   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{AHH1994001,
  author = {Andersen, Hans H. K.},
  title = {Classification schemes: Supporting articulation work in technical documentation},
  booktitle = {Knowledge organization and quality management: Proceedings of the Third International ISKO Conference},
  publisher = {Indeks},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {286--293}
}
Andersen, J. Communication Technologies and the Concept of Knowledge Organization - a Medium-Theory Perspective 2002 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: In this article the relationship between communication technologies and the LIS concept of knowledge organization will be examined from a medium-theory perspective. The purpose of the medium-theory perspective is to trace the historicity of the LIS concept of knowledge organization, that is, an examination of which tradition has produced the concept. The perspective will help to reveal the condition of possibilities of knowledge organization and its strong connection with communication technologies, and their constitution of the social organization of society. The means and modes of communication fundamentally alter existing ways of thinking and of producing, communicating and organizing knowledge. The LIS concept of knowledge organization will be analyzed in relation to the storing and communication of knowledge in oral cultures, written cultures, print culture, and electronic cultures. Through this, it will be argued that the narrow LIS concept of knowledge organization is subordinated and in interaction with a broader social organization of knowledge in society. Further, it will be argued that the rise of the Internet as a source of knowledge and information must be understood in relation to and in continuation of this interaction.Among other things, it will be concluded that a relevant socio-historical background and framework for the LIS concept of knowledge organization is how humans have organized their intellectual activities throughout history in terms of particular means and modes of communication. Medium theory can provide part of this background and framework.
BibTeX:
@article{AJ-2002001,
  author = {Andersen, Jack},
  title = {Communication Technologies and the Concept of Knowledge Organization - a Medium-Theory Perspective},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  pages = {29--39}
}
Andersen, J. Written Knowledge: a Literary Perspective on Indexing Theory 2000 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: The general concern of Bazerman's book Shaping Written Knowledge. The Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science is written knowledge as it is produced by the academy. Bazerman discusses in particular the rhetoric, communicative, and epistemological issues of written knowledge. The article discusses these themes in a library and information science (LIS) perspective in terms of their implications for LIS research.For several reasons, it is argued that this way of scrutinizing into written knowledge ought to be of special interest to LIS research. As an example of a particular field of research in LIS, the article discusses the relationship between indexing theory and written knowledge. Bazerman analyzes written knowledge from a literary point of view. Among other things, it is argued that indexing theory can be seen as part of literary theory in that some of the questions raised by the latter are also raised in indexing theory. Furthermore, it is put forward that the indexer can be considered an author. The indexer produces a text, the document representation, which is the text the user actually meets in the first place. That way, the producer of a document representation is to some extent responsible for the quality of the documents indexed.Having discussed this relationship between written knowledge and LIS research in general and indexing theory in particular, it is concluded that LIS research ought to head toward more humanistic oriented research traditions, if the line of research presented by Bazerman should be considered useful for LIS.
BibTeX:
@article{Andersen2000,
  author = {Andersen, Jack},
  title = {Written Knowledge: a Literary Perspective on Indexing Theory},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {27},
  number = {4},
  pages = {201--212}
}
Andrew, P. G. & Larsgaard, M. L. Maps and Related Cartographic Materials: Cataloging, Classification, and Bibliographic Control 1999   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Andrew1999,
  author = {Andrew, Paige G and Larsgaard, Mary Lynette},
  title = {Maps and Related Cartographic Materials: Cataloging, Classification, and Bibliographic Control},
  publisher = {Haworth Information Press},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {487},
  note = {Also published as vol. 27, nos. 1/2 and 3/4 of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly.}
}
on an Appendix of Major, T. F., Minor Changes, C. o. C. D. &. A. C. & for Library Collections & Technical Services, C. S. A. Differences between, changes within: guidelines in when to create a new record 2007   book  
BibTeX:
@book{ALA2007001,
  author = {Task Force on an Appendix of Major and Minor Changes, Committee on Cataloging Description & Access Cataloging and Classification SEction Association for Library Collections & Technical Services},
  title = {Differences between, changes within: guidelines in when to create a new record},
  publisher = {American Library Association},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {31},
  edition = {Revised edition}
}
Association, V. R. VRA Core 4.0 2007   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{VRA2007001,
  author = {Visual Resources Association},
  title = {VRA Core 4.0},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.vraweb.org/projects/vracore4/index.html}
}
Atzenbeck, C. & N?rnberg, P. J. Looking Beyond Computer Applications: Investigating Rich Structures 2005 Proceedings of the Metainformatics Symposium 2004   inproceedings  
Abstract: Spatial structure supporting applications offer an abstract level of what can be found in the real world. However, in many systems, objects are aligned straight, rotation is not possible, they can be resized easily and can hold more text than is visible on the screen. Paper and structures created with paper seem to be more limited: Straight alignment is not possible without spending much time; paper can hardly be resized without damaging it; and piles may fall down if they become too tall. However, a closer look shows that paper structures offer much more attributes and dependencies than any current spatial structure supporting application. In this article, we compare paper structures to a selection of computer applications. We argue that the observed small additions with paper carry information which improves finding and organizing.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{AC-2005001,
  author = {Atzenbeck, Claus and N?rnberg, Peter J.},
  title = {Looking Beyond Computer Applications: Investigating Rich Structures},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Metainformatics Symposium 2004},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {51--65}
}
Aurnhammer, M., Hanappe, P. & Steels, L. Integrating collaborative tagging and emergent semantics for image retrieval 2006 WWW2006 Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop   inproceedings  
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the combination of collaborative tagging and emergent semantics for improved data navigation and search. We propose to use visual features in addition to tags provided by users in order to discover new relationships between data. We show that our method is able to overcome some of the problems involved in navigating databases using tags only, such as synonymy or different languages, spelling mistakes, homonymy, or missing tags. On the other hand, image search based on visual features can be simplified substantially by the use of tags. We present technical details of our prototype system and show some preliminary results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{AM-2006001,
  author = {Aurnhammer, Melanie and Hanappe, Peter and Steels, Luc},
  title = {Integrating collaborative tagging and emergent semantics for image retrieval},
  booktitle = {WWW2006 Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop},
  year = {2006}
}
Babb, N. M. Cataloging spirits and the spirit of cataloging 2005 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Specific rules within the cataloging codes may seem strange and out of step with the times in which the codes are used. This paper examines one such seemingly strange set of rules, those regarding spirit communications, and explores how these rules illuminate both historical developments and current practices in cataloging. Anglo-American cataloging rules regarding author entry for works of spirit communication are particularly illustrative of evolving theories of authorship and bibliographic identity in the library catalog.
BibTeX:
@article{Babb2005,
  author = {Babb, Nancy M.},
  title = {Cataloging spirits and the spirit of cataloging},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {40},
  number = {2},
  pages = {89--122}
}
Bade, D. W. Colorless green ideals in the language of bibliographic description: Making sense and nonsense in libraries 2007 Language and Communication   article  
Abstract: Cataloguing in libraries was formerly done by cataloguers with a wide range of academic backgrounds and linguistic abilities. With the rise of networked databases much of this work is now automated, outsourced to vendors, or done by persons lacking the requisite skills. The removal of this activity from libraries leads to a generic product produced for a generic user, with no possibility for a library-internal evaluation of the product. Librarians demand "a bibliographic record" of a certain form in a manner analogous to the generative grammar's production of sentences. So long as the form is correct, it is not evaluated for appropriateness or usefulness. The resulting information is often equivalent to colorless green ideas.
BibTeX:
@article{BDW2007001,
  author = {Bade, David W.},
  title = {Colorless green ideals in the language of bibliographic description: Making sense and nonsense in libraries},
  journal = {Language and Communication},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {27},
  number = {1},
  pages = {54--80}
}
Bade, D. W. The creation and persistence of misinformation in shared library catalogs : language and subject knowledge in a technological era 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Bade2002,
  author = {Bade, David W.},
  title = {The creation and persistence of misinformation in shared library catalogs : language and subject knowledge in a technological era},
  publisher = {Publications Office, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {33}
}
Bador, P. & Rey, J. Description of a Professional Activity. Modelling of the Activity Linked With the Completion of a Pharmacy Thesis Related to Its Terminology Environment. I. Description, Analysis and Activity Modelling. 2000 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: In this paper, made up of parts I and III we investigate the complex relationships between knowledge, information and activity in order to study how a system of activity assistance can help the actor to solve his information problems.Through the example of the completion of a pharmacy thesis, we have tried, in part I, to describe, schematize and model the successive phases that make up the whole of this activity. Our method of observation and analysis combined the observation of two students preparing their pharmacy theses, the reading of five theses and the reading of six books. We thus propose in a table form, a modelling outline that presents the sequential succession of the ten operational phases describing the completion of a pharmacy thesis following a chronological order:(1) Subject definition, (2) Documentary research, (3)Documents analysis, (4) Conceiving of the experimental strategy, (5) Experimentation, (6) Results interpretation, (7) Writing of the thesis, (8) Administrative procedures, (9) Preparation of the viva, (10) Viva.The table also presents the succession of the structural, operational, material and human elements: Referents of the activity, Subject of the activity, Location of the activity, Identification of the operations, Handled objects, and Actors.We have refined the activity analysis by drawing up al structured list, showing the organization of the terms related to the different operational phases. This work is presented in part II.
BibTeX:
@article{BP-2000001,
  author = {Bador, Pascal and Rey, Jacqueline},
  title = {Description of a Professional Activity. Modelling of the Activity Linked With the Completion of a Pharmacy Thesis Related to Its Terminology Environment. I. Description, Analysis and Activity Modelling.},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {27},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {35--43}
}
Bador, P. & Rey, J. Description of a Professional Activity. Modelling of the Activity Linked With the Completion of a Pharmacy Thesis Related to Its Terminology Environment. II. Terminology Organization of the Activity. 2000 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: Following the modelling of the activity related to the completion of a pharmacy thesis, as presented in part I, we have completed the activity analysis by drawing up a structured word list to show the terminological organization around the ten operational phases. Indeed, it seemed obvious to us that the reasoning at the root of any activity is based on words used to describe it. This terminology inventory which we called Structured Terminology Environment (STE), together with the modelling diagram, could eventually be directly used during the conceiving of a software tool specific to the studied professional activity. The STE is a thesaurus of 565 words selected on the basis of a corpus stemming from five pharmacy theses and six books, were we put the significant terms which represent the actors and actions we observed during the ten phases, as well as the handled tools. Once the terms were shared out among the ten basic operations, we structured the terminology by grouping the concepts of a same nature so that the sub-categories show a certain homogeneity around the action. We used the following basic relationships: generic/specific relationships, whole/part relationships and finally, we completed the categorization with the help of classes induced by facets (process, phenomenon, properties, material or object, tool or equipment and operating conditions.).
BibTeX:
@article{Bador2000,
  author = {Bador, Pascal and Rey, Jacqueline},
  title = {Description of a Professional Activity. Modelling of the Activity Linked With the Completion of a Pharmacy Thesis Related to Its Terminology Environment. II. Terminology Organization of the Activity.},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {27},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {44--54}
}
Bailey, P. Always start with structure 2007 Library + information gazette   article  
Abstract: Amazon, ebay and other sites work on good old principles of of indexing and categorisation, so we must always retain these core basics while learning from their successes
BibTeX:
@article{BP-2007001,
  author = {Bailey, Penny},
  title = {Always start with structure},
  journal = {Library + information gazette},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {9}
}
Bar-Ilan, J., Shoham, S., Idan, A., Miller, Y. & Shachak, A. Structured vs. unstructured tagging - A case study 2006 WWW2006 Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop   inproceedings  
Abstract: In this paper we describe and discuss a tagging experiment of images related to Israeli and Jewish cultural heritage. The first group of participants was asked to assign the images tags that describe them, while the second group was asked to provide freetext values to predefined metadata elements. The results show that on the one hand structured tagging provides guidance to the users, but on the other hand different interpretations of the meaning of the elements may worsen the tagging quality instead of improving it. Our recommendation is to experiment with a system where the users provide both the tags and the context of these tags.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BIJ2006001,
  author = {Bar-Ilan, Judit and Shoham, Snunith and Idan, Asher and Miller, Yitzchak and Shachak, Aviv},
  title = {Structured vs. unstructured tagging - A case study},
  booktitle = {WWW2006 Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop},
  year = {2006}
}
Barite, M. G. The notion of "category": Its implications in subject analysis and in the construction and evaluation of indexing languages 2000 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: The notion of category, from Aristotle and Kant to the present time, has been used as a basic intellectual tool for the analysis of the existence and changeableness of things. Ranganathan was the first to extrapolate the concept, into the Theory of Classification, placing it as an essential axis for the logical organization of knowledge and the construction of indexing languages. This paper proposes a conceptual and methodological reexamination of the notion of category from a functional and instrumental perspective, and tries to clarify the essential characters of categories in chat context, and their present implications regarding the construction and evaluation of indexing languages.
BibTeX:
@article{BMG2000001,
  author = {Barite, Mario Guido},
  title = {The notion of "category": Its implications in subject analysis and in the construction and evaluation of indexing languages},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {27},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {4--10}
}
Bateman, S., Brooks, C., McCalla, G. & Brusilovsky, P. Applying collaborative tagging to e-learning 2007 WWW2007 Tagging and Metadata for Social Information Organizations   inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper outlines our experiences with applying collaborative tagging in e-learning systems to supplement more traditional metadata gathering approaches. Over the last 10 years, the learning object paradigm has emerged in e-learning and has caused standards bodies to focus on creating metadata repositories based upon strict domain-free taxonomies. We argue that the social collection phenomena and flexible metadata standards are key in collecting the kinds of metadata required for adaptable online learning. This paper takes a broad look at tagging within elearning. It first looks at the implications for tagging within the domain through an analysis of tags students provided when classifying learning objects. Next, it looks at two case studies based on novel interfaces for applying tagging. These two systems emphasize tags being applied within learning content through the use of a highlighting metaphor.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BS-2007001,
  author = {Bateman, Scott and Brooks, Christopher and McCalla, Gordon and Brusilovsky, Peter},
  title = {Applying collaborative tagging to e-learning},
  booktitle = {WWW2007 Tagging and Metadata for Social Information Organizations},
  year = {2007}
}
Beall, J. Catalog or Catalogue?: Examining a Library Dilemma 2004   misc URL  
Abstract: The variant spellings catalog and catalogue create problems for librarianship by causing confusion, hindering research, and betraying the standardization the profession values. The predominant spelling in Britain (catalogue) differs from the predominant spelling in the U.S. (catalog), but within the U.S. both spellings are commonly used. Both of these different practices create inconsistencies. Although the spelling catalog has long been prescribed in the U.S., it has not fully caught on. The spelling catalog is far more common on the Web than catalogue. The best solution to this dilemma for librarians may be to not use this outmoded term at all.
BibTeX:
@misc{BJ-2004001,
  author = {Beall, Jeffrey},
  title = {Catalog or Catalogue?: Examining a Library Dilemma},
  year = {2004},
  url = {http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00004983/}
}
Beghtol, C. L. Exploring new approaches to the organization of knowledge: The subject classification of James Duff Brown 2004 Library Trends   article  
Abstract: James Duff Brown was an influential and energetic librarian in Great Britain in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His Subject Classification has characteristics that were unusual and idiosyncratic during his own time, but his work deserves recognition as one of the precursors of modern bibliographic classification systems. This article discusses a number of theories and classification practices that Brown developed. In particular, it investigates his views on the order of main classes, on the phenomenon of "concrete" subjects, and on the need for synthesized notations. It traces these ideas briefly into the future through the work of S. R. Ranganathan, the Classification Research Group, and the second edition of the Bliss Bibliographic Classification system. It concludes that Brown's work warrants further study for the light it may shed on current classification theory and practice.
BibTeX:
@article{BC-2004001,
  author = {Beghtol, Clare L.},
  title = {Exploring new approaches to the organization of knowledge: The subject classification of James Duff Brown},
  journal = {Library Trends},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {52},
  number = {4},
  pages = {702--718}
}
Beghtol, C. L. Response to Hj?rland and Nicolaisen 2004 Knowledge Organization   article  
BibTeX:
@article{BCL2003001c,
  author = {Beghtol, Clare L.},
  title = {Response to Hj?rland and Nicolaisen},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {31},
  number = {1},
  pages = {62--63}
}
Beghtol, C. L. Classification for information retrieval and classification for knowledge discovery: Relationships between "professional" and "naive" classification 2003 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: Classification is a transdisciplinary activity that occurs during all human pursuits. Classificatory activity, however, serves different purposes in different situations. In information retrieval, the primary purpose of classification is to find knowledge that already exists, but one of the purposes of classification in other fields is to discover new knowledge. In this paper, classifications for information retrieval are called "professional" classifications because they arc! devised by people who have a professional interest in classification, and classifications for knowledge discovery are called "naive" classifications because they are devised by people who have no particular interest in studying classification as an end in itself. This paper compares the overall purposes and methods of these two kinds of classifications and provides a general model of the relationships between the two kinds of classificatory activity in the context of information studies. This model addresses issues of the influence of scholarly activity and communication on the creation and revision of classifications for the purposes of information retrieval and for the purposes of knowledge discovery. Further comparisons elucidate the relationships between the universality of classificatory methods and the specific purposes served by naive and professional classification systems.
BibTeX:
@article{BCL2003001,
  author = {Beghtol, Clare L.},
  title = {Classification for information retrieval and classification for knowledge discovery: Relationships between "professional" and "naive" classification},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {30},
  number = {2},
  pages = {64--73}
}
Beghtol, C. L. Knowledge Domains: Multidisciplinarity and Bibliographic Classification Systems 1998 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: Bibliographic classification systems purport to organize the world of knowledge for information storage and retrieval purposes in libraries and bibliographies, both manual and online. The major systems that have predominated during the twentieth century were originally predicated on the academic disciplines. This structural principle is no longer adequate because multidisciplinary knowledge production has overtaken more traditional disciplinary perspectives and produced communities of cooperation whose documents cannot. be accommodated in a disciplinary structure. This paper addresses the problems the major classifications face; reports some attempts to revise these systems to accommodate multidisciplinary works more appropriately, and describes some theoretical research perspectives that attempt to reorient classification research toward the pluralistic needs of multidisciplinary knowledge creation and the perspectives of different discourse communities. Traditionally, the primary desiderata of classification systems were mutual exclusivity and joint exhaustivity. The need to respond to multidisciplinary research may mean that hospitality mill replace mutual exclusivity and joint exhaustivity as the most needed and useful characteristics of classification systems ill both theory and practice.
BibTeX:
@article{BCL1998001,
  author = {Beghtol, Clare L.},
  title = {Knowledge Domains: Multidisciplinarity and Bibliographic Classification Systems},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {25},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {1--12}
}
Beghtol, C. L. Bibliographic Classification-Theory and Text Linguistics - Aboutness Analysis, Intertextuality and the Cognitive Act of Classifying Documents 1986 Journal of Documentation   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Beghtol1986a,
  author = {Beghtol, Clare L.},
  title = {Bibliographic Classification-Theory and Text Linguistics - Aboutness Analysis, Intertextuality and the Cognitive Act of Classifying Documents},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {42},
  number = {2},
  pages = {84--113}
}
Beghtol, C. L. Semantic validity: Concepts of warrant in bibliographic classification systems 1986 Library resources & technical services   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Beghtol1986,
  author = {Beghtol, Clare L.},
  title = {Semantic validity: Concepts of warrant in bibliographic classification systems},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {109--125}
}
Black, S. Journal collection analysis at a liberal arts college 1997 Library resources & technical services   article  
Abstract: Describes an inexpensive method for analyzing the cost-effectiveness of a liberal arts college's periodical collection and offers an answer to the question: 'What are the criteria for determining the cost effectiveness of a periodical collection, and how can these be measured?' The study was conducted at the College of Saint Rose, New York, and was based on measurements of periodical use, periodical subscription prices, and course enrolment by academic department. Periodical use data was used to calculate 4 variables: subscription price per use; subscription price per enrolled student; number of enrolled students per subscription in each department; and number of periodical uses per enrolled student. The data was also applied to shelf space analysis and management. Data collection methods are explained, and results of collection analysis are presented. Concludes that the technique promises to be a valuable tool for improving the cost-effectiveness of the periodical collection but whether this will be realized will depend upon the collective wisdom and mutual cooperation between librarians and teaching faculty.
BibTeX:
@article{BS-1997001,
  author = {Black, Steve},
  title = {Journal collection analysis at a liberal arts college},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {41},
  number = {4},
  pages = {283--93}
}
Blake, V. L. Forging the Anglo-American cataloging alliance: Descriptive cataloging, 1830--1908 2002 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: This paper discusses the development of descriptive cataloging from 1830 to 1908 and focuses on the careers of Antonio Panizzi, Charles Coffin Jewett, and Charles Ammi Cutter and the development of the American Library Association (ALA) and the Library Association of the United Kingdom (LAUK). It analyzes the various rules and codes put forth by both Americans and British librarians and the eventual cooperation between the United States and the United Kingdom.
BibTeX:
@article{Blake2002,
  author = {Blake, Virgil L.P.},
  title = {Forging the Anglo-American cataloging alliance: Descriptive cataloging, 1830--1908},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {35},
  number = {1/2},
  pages = {3--22}
}
de Boer, A., Coetzee, H. S. & Coetzee, H. Teaching cataloging and classification at the University of Pretoria: Thinking preferences of second year students 2001 Libri   article  
BibTeX:
@article{BAL2001001,
  author = {de Boer, Ann-Louise and Coetzee, H. S. and Coetzee, H.},
  title = {Teaching cataloging and classification at the University of Pretoria: Thinking preferences of second year students},
  journal = {Libri},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {51},
  pages = {114--123}
}
Bosch, A., Munoz, X. & Marti, R. Which is the best way to organize/classify images by content? 2007 Image and Vision Computing   article  
Abstract: Thousands of images are generated every day, which implies the necessity to classify, organise and access them using an easy, faster and efficient way. Scene classification, the classification of images into semantic categories (e.g. coast, mountains and streets), is a challenging and important problem nowadays. Many different approaches concerning scene classification have been proposed in the last few years. This article presents a detailed review of some of the most commonly used scene classification approaches. Furthermore, the surveyed techniques have been tested and their accuracy evaluated. Comparative results are shown and discussed giving the advantages and disadvantages of each methodology. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Bosch2007,
  author = {Bosch, A. and Munoz, X. and Marti, R.},
  title = {Which is the best way to organize/classify images by content?},
  journal = {Image and Vision Computing},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {25},
  number = {6},
  pages = {778--791}
}
Bowker, G. C. Memory Practices in the Sciences 2005   book  
BibTeX:
@book{BGC2005001,
  author = {Bowker, Geoffrey C.},
  title = {Memory Practices in the Sciences},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  year = {2005}
}
Bowker, G. C. & Star, S. L. Sorting things out: Classification and its consequences 1999   book  
BibTeX:
@book{BGC1999001,
  author = {Bowker, Geoffrey C. and Star, Susan Leigh},
  title = {Sorting things out: Classification and its consequences},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  year = {1999}
}
Boyden, W. L. Classification of the literature of Freemasonry and related societies 1946   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Boyden1946,
  author = {Boyden, William L.},
  title = {Classification of the literature of Freemasonry and related societies},
  publisher = {s.n.},
  year = {1946},
  pages = {30},
  edition = {2nd ed.}
}
Brachman, R. J. What IS-A is and isn't: An analysis of taxonomic links in semantic networks 1983 Computer   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Brachman1983,
  author = {Brachman, Ronald J.},
  title = {What IS-A is and isn't: An analysis of taxonomic links in semantic networks},
  journal = {Computer},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {16},
  number = {10},
  pages = {30--36}
}
Bragg, J. & Zhu, L. Shelflist in an online environment: experience at Washington State University libraries 2006 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Since 1980, most of the functions of the card catalog have been gradually incorporated into the online catalog. In contrast, the traditional shelflist has fallen into obscurity as retrospective conversion projects have been completed. Most of the functions of the traditional shelflist have been incorporated into the online catalog; nevertheless, the online catalog still does not provide all the functions that the traditional shelflist used to perform. This paper introduces how Washington State University Libraries set up an online history file to incorporate some of the functions of the traditional shelflist into their online catalog. (Copies of this article are available for a fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service, Haworth Press, Inc. E-Mail: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com, Web site http://www.HaworthPress.com). (Author abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{BJ-2006001,
  author = {Bragg, Jane and Zhu, Lihong},
  title = {Shelflist in an online environment: experience at Washington State University libraries},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {42},
  number = {2},
  pages = {83--97}
}
Brier, S. The Usefulness of Cybersemiotics in Dealing With Problems of Knowledge Organization and Document Mediating Systems 1996 Cybernetica   article  
Abstract: This article develops a non-reductionistic and interdisciplinary view of information and human knowing in the light of second-order cybernetics, where information is seen as ''a difference which makes a difference'' for a living autopoietic (self-organizing, self-creating) system. Another key idea comes from the semiotics of Peirce : the understanding of signs as a triadic relation between an object, a representation, and an interprefant. Information is the interpretation of signs by living, feeling, self-organizing, biological and social systems. As a concrete example we attempt to describe Library & Information Science (LIS) - especially information retrieval (IR) - in a way that goes beyond the cognitivist ''information processing paradigm''. The main problem of this paradigm is that its concept of information and language does not deal in a systematic way with how social and cultural dynamics set the contexts that determine the meaning of those signs and words that are the basic tools for LIS to organize and retrieve documents. The paradigm does not distinguish clearly enough between how the computer manipulate signs and how meaning is generated in autopoietic systems, and thereby the difference between physical and intellectual access.
BibTeX:
@article{Brier1996,
  author = {Brier, Soren},
  title = {The Usefulness of Cybersemiotics in Dealing With Problems of Knowledge Organization and Document Mediating Systems},
  journal = {Cybernetica},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {39},
  number = {4},
  pages = {273--299}
}
Broughton, V. Faceted classification as a basis for knowledge organization in a digital environment: The Bliss Bibliographic Classification and the creation of multi-dimensional knowledge structures 2001 New review of hypermedia and multimedia   article  
Abstract: Modern classification schemes, built on a facet analytical principles are more appropriate as a tool for the management of electronic resources than is generally realised. Faceted classifications as exemplified by the Bliss Bibliographic Classification (BC2) are powerful tools for the management of vocabulary, characterised by a rigorous analytical approach to terms, and the clear identification of semantic and syntactic relationships and structures. Describes the philosophy and function of BC2 and the process of building a knowledge structure on facet analytical principles. Considers the range of related functions of such structures when employed as knowledge management tools (as classification, thesaurus, subject heading list, browsable index) and the potential of facet analytical knowledge structures for the management of digital materials. Facet analysis is a powerful methodology particularly in dealing with the problems of complex subject description and retrieval and multidimensionality. (Original abstract - amended)
BibTeX:
@article{BV-2001001,
  author = {Broughton, V.},
  title = {Faceted classification as a basis for knowledge organization in a digital environment: The Bliss Bibliographic Classification and the creation of multi-dimensional knowledge structures},
  journal = {New review of hypermedia and multimedia},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {67--102}
}
Broughton, V. & Lane, H. Classification schemes revisited: applications to Web indexing and searching 2000 Journal of Internet Cataloging   article  
Abstract: Article included in a special issue devoted to the theme: Internet searching and indexing: the subject approach. Basic skills of classification and subject indexing have been little taught in UK library schools since automation was introduced into libraries. However, development of the Internet as a major medium of publication has stretched the capacity of search engines to cope with retrieval. Consequently, there has been interest in applying existing systems of knowledge organisation to electronic resources. Unfortunately, the classification systems have been adopted without a full understanding of modern classification principles. Analytico-synthetic schemes have been used crudely, as in the case of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC). The fully faceted Bliss Bibliographical Classification, Second edition (BC2) with its potential as a tool for electronic resource retrieval is virtually unknown outside academic libraries. Concludes that there is an urgent need to apply the principles of classification to Internet and World Wide Web searching in a thorough and rational manner.
BibTeX:
@article{Broughton2000,
  author = {Broughton, V. and Lane, H.},
  title = {Classification schemes revisited: applications to Web indexing and searching},
  journal = {Journal of Internet Cataloging},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {143--55}
}
Burford, B., Briggs, P. & Eakins, J. P. A taxonomy of the image: on the classification of content for image retrieval 2003 Visual Communication   article  
Abstract: Image database (IDB) systems are at present often designed to test technology and the efficacy of retrieval algorithms, rather than being oriented towards delivering functionality to users. Research is necessary to design interfaces geared towards human usage of images. The starting point of this research needs to be consideration at a fundamental, user-centred level of how people perceive and interpret images. This article considers literature from many disciplines to describe a taxonomy of image content, from direct sensory elements to high-level abstractions. The nine categories derived will later be validated and used to direct the design of visual query interfaces for IDB systems.
BibTeX:
@article{BB-2003001,
  author = {Burford, Bryan and Briggs, Pam and Eakins, John P.},
  title = {A taxonomy of the image: on the classification of content for image retrieval},
  journal = {Visual Communication },
  year = {2003},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {123--161}
}
Buxton, A. B. Computer searching of UDC numbers 1990 Journal of Documentation   article  
Abstract: The Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) is able to provide a detailed description of the subject content of the document in any area. Its hierarchical and synthetic structure, which is generally reflected in its notation, should enable computer searching for hierarchically-related subjects and for the individual facets of a complex subject. Discusses the possibilities of using these features in automated retrieval and draws attention to places where UDC falls short. Discusses a number of on-line catalogues, data bases and information retrieval packages in terms of their ability to allow the searching of UDC numbers. The most sophisticated ones, such as ETHICS at the ETH (Eidgenossiche Tethnische Hochschule Zurich) Library, use a separate file of verbal descriptors linked to the document file through UDC numbers. Makes suggestions for enhancing retrieval performance on UDC numbers in simple systems, and for ways in which the classification might be developed to improve automated searching. 00 Original abstract
BibTeX:
@article{Buxton1990,
  author = {Buxton, A. B.},
  title = {Computer searching of UDC numbers},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {46},
  number = {3},
  pages = {193--217}
}
Byrum, J. D. IFLA's ISBD Programme: Purpose, Process, and Prospects 2005 3rd IFLA meeting of experts on an international cataloguing code   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BJD2005002,
  author = {Byrum, John D.},
  title = {IFLA's ISBD Programme: Purpose, Process, and Prospects},
  booktitle = {3rd IFLA meeting of experts on an international cataloguing code},
  publisher = {IFLA},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://www.loc.gov/loc/ifla/imeicc/papers.html}
}
Byrum, J. D. Recommendations for urgently needed improvement of OPAC and the role of the National Bibliographic Agency in achieving it 2005 World library and information congress: 71th IFLA General Conference and Council   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BJD2005001,
  author = {Byrum, John D.},
  title = {Recommendations for urgently needed improvement of OPAC and the role of the National Bibliographic Agency in achieving it},
  booktitle = {World library and information congress: 71th IFLA General Conference and Council},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla71/papers/124e-Byrum.pdf}
}
Calhoun, K. Being a librarian: metadata and metadata specialists in the twenty-first century 2007 Library Hi Tech   article  
Abstract: Abstract: Purpose ? This paper aims to forecast the changing roles of librarians ? especially catalogers and metadata specialists ? in today's technology-driven research, teaching, and learning environments, in which information seekers behave more and more self-sufficiently and move well beyond library collections in their pursuit of information. Design/methodology/approach ? Places the roles of librarians and library collections in the larger context of knowledge management and campus information network processes, which occur in every knowledge community, with or without a library. Explores and provides examples of how knowledge creators can collaborate with information technology experts and librarians to transform how faculty members teach and conduct research; how students learn; and how libraries support these activities. Findings ? Librarians need to make their collections and services much more visible through human and technological interconnections and greatly improved delivery of information content. Metadata and metadata specialists are strategic assets for libraries, but the service model for cataloging faces critical challenges. Two tables list these challenges and the implications for metadata specialists. Originality/value ? Offers new observations and insights into how librarians can continue to contribute to saving information seekers' time and advancing the state of knowledge in the increasingly interconnected world of the web. Drawing from the larger context of the global infosphere, information-seeking behavior, and changing roles for library collections and information systems, forecasts the role of metadata and metadata specialists in libraries.
BibTeX:
@article{CK-2007001,
  author = {Calhoun, Karen},
  title = {Being a librarian: metadata and metadata specialists in the twenty-first century},
  journal = {Library Hi Tech},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {25},
  number = {2},
  pages = {174--187}
}
Callahan, D. & MacLeod, J. Management issues and the challenge for cataloging education 1996 Technical services quarterly   article  
Abstract: Cataloguing departments have faced enormous transitions during the last 20 years due to technological advances, changing administrative goals, and shrinking budgets. The responsibilities of professional cataloguers have greatly expanded and now include management, budgeting, and planning. Research indicates that entry-level cataloguers feel unprepared for managerial responsibilities by their graduate education. Educators and practitioners should examine the need for potential cataloguing managers and consider changing library school curricula in an effective and realistic manner to support this trend.
BibTeX:
@article{CD-1996002,
  author = {Callahan, Daren and MacLeod, Judy},
  title = {Management issues and the challenge for cataloging education},
  journal = {Technical services quarterly},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  pages = {15--24}
}
Cargille, D. A. Variant edition cataloguing in OCLC: input or adapt? 1982 Library resources & technical services   article  
Abstract: Addresses the question of whether to input a new record or to adapt an existing record when cataloguing variant editions. In the On-line Computer Library Center (OCLC) environment, arguments from the standpoint of both economy and interlibrary loan service appear to favour the use of the NEW command for the input of a new record.
BibTeX:
@article{Cargille1982,
  author = {Cargille, Douglas A.},
  title = {Variant edition cataloguing in OCLC: input or adapt?},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {1982},
  volume = {26},
  number = {1},
  pages = {47--51}
}
Carlyle, A. Understanding FRBR as a conceptual model: FRBR and the bibliographic universe 2006 Library resources and technical services   article  
Abstract: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) presents a complex conceptual model. Because of this, it is not easy for everyone to understand. The purpose of this paper is to make some of the more difficult aspects of the FRBR model, in particular the Group 1 entities work expression, manifestation, and item, easier to understand by placing FRBR in the context of what it is: a conceptual entity-relationship model. To this end, a definition of the term model is presented, a variety of types and functions of models are introduced, conceptual models are discussed in detail, modeling an abstraction is explained, and different ways of interpreting FRBR are suggested. Various models used in the history of cataloging are introduced to place FRBR in the context of the historical development of document models.
BibTeX:
@article{Carlyle2006,
  author = {Carlyle, Allyson},
  title = {Understanding FRBR as a conceptual model: FRBR and the bibliographic universe},
  journal = {Library resources and technical services},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {50},
  number = {4},
  pages = {264-273}
}
Carlyle, A. User categorisation of works: Toward improved organisation of online catalogue displays 1999 Journal of documentation   article  
Abstract: Examines the ways in which a group of people categorized a set of documents relating to a particular literary work, Charles Dickens' 'A Christmas Carol'. The participants in the study were invited to provide descriptions of the attributes they used in categorizing the documents. Discusses the characteristics of these descriptions. Suggests that the attributes used by people in classifying or grouping documents related to a work may be used to guide the design of displays of summary information about works in online catalogues. (Original abstract - amended)
BibTeX:
@article{CA-1999001,
  author = {Carlyle, Allyson},
  title = {User categorisation of works: Toward improved organisation of online catalogue displays},
  journal = {Journal of documentation},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {55},
  number = {2},
  pages = {184--208}
}
Carlyle, A. & Timmons, T. E. Default record displays in Web-based catalogs 2002 The Library Quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{CA-2002002,
  author = {Carlyle, Allyson and Timmons, Traci E.},
  title = {Default record displays in Web-based catalogs},
  journal = {The Library Quarterly},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {72},
  number = {2},
  pages = {179--204}
}
on Cataloguing Principles, I. C. Paris Principles 1961 International Conference on Cataloguing Principles   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{ParisPrinciples,
  author = {International Conference on Cataloguing Principles},
  title = {Paris Principles},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Cataloguing Principles},
  publisher = {IFLA},
  year = {1961},
  url = {http://www.loc.gov/loc/ifla/imeicc/papers.html}
}
Chan, L. M. The Library of Congress Classification System in an online environment 1990 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Paper presented at the 2nd Annette Lewis Phinazee Symposium on Classification as an enhancement of intellectual access to information in an online environment, held at the School of Library and Information Sciences, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina. Advantages and disadvantages of on-line classification access are presented with special attention to Library of Congress Classification (LCC) features for subject browsing, known item-searching, enhancement of keyword and controlled vocabulary searching, and other unique retrieval capabilities. 00 Original abstract
BibTeX:
@article{CLM1990001,
  author = {Chan, Lois Mai},
  title = {The Library of Congress Classification System in an online environment},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {11},
  number = {1},
  pages = {7--25}
}
Chan, L. M. Instructional materials used in teaching cataloging and classification 1987 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: Contribution to a thematic issue on education and training for cataloguers and classifiers. An informal survey was conducted for the purpose of identifying instructional materials used in teaching cataloguing and classification in library and information science programmes in the U.S. and Canada. Based on responses from instructors, 3 groups of instructional materials were identified: cataloguing and classification tools; textbooks; background and supplementary reading materials.
BibTeX:
@article{CLM1987001,
  author = {Chan, Lois Mai},
  title = {Instructional materials used in teaching cataloging and classification},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {7},
  number = {4},
  pages = {131--144}
}
Chudnov, D. Library groupware for bibliographic lifecycle management 28 Jan 2004   misc URL  
Abstract: This informal paper proposes that libraries could merge the functions of weblogging, reference management, and link resolution into a new library groupware infrastructure, helping users to better manage the entire lifecycle of the bibliographic research process. Several scenarios explore how such an application suite might help library users by integrating their bibliographic research more closely with communication -- scholarly and otherwise, from private annotation to public discussion. A discussion of related architectural issues suggests a new model of "link routing" to augment "link resolution," and describes how link routing systems could enable library visitors to become users of our groupware services as much as they already are users of the information resources we procure.
BibTeX:
@misc{CD-2004001,
  author = {Chudnov, Daniel},
  title = {Library groupware for bibliographic lifecycle management},
  year = {28 Jan 2004},
  url = {http://curtis.med.yale.edu/dchud/writings/blm.html}
}
Claborne, G. Linnaeus, Mendeleev, Dewey, and Ranganathan: What can they tell us today about the organization of information? 2005 2005 ASIS&T-PNC Annual Meeting   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: The classification schemes that are in use today to organize information had their beginnings. They had a history including places, events, and people. What prompted their development? How did their creators put them together? What can they tell us about what it means to have a good organization of information? This presentation goes back to four classification schemes developed in the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries but are still widely used today or are recognized as having contributed to the growth of knowledge in their respective domains. Two classification schemes are chosen from domains that study natural objects: the sexual classification system and binomial nomenclature for living things developed by the Swedish doctor/botanist Carolus Linnaeus in the 18th century and the periodic table of elements that has gained its mature form through the work of the Russian chemist Dmitrii Mendeleev in the mid 19th century. The other two are from a domain that studies information about information resources: the Dewey Decimal Classification developed by the American librarian Melvil Dewey in the late 19th century and the Colon Classification by the Indian librarian S. R. Ranganathan in the 20th century. Linneaus' and Mendeleev's are contrasting schemes as are Dewey's and Ranganathan's. The presentation is based on an independent study supervised by William Jones
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Claborne2005Classificationtoday,
  author = {Claborne, Glenda},
  title = {Linnaeus, Mendeleev, Dewey, and Ranganathan: What can they tell us today about the organization of information?},
  booktitle = {2005 ASIS&T-PNC Annual Meeting},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://softtester.org/portfolio/apps/IS_Claborne.doc}
}
Cleveland, D. & Cleveland, A. D. Introduction to indexing and abstracting 1990   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Cleveland1990,
  author = {Cleveland, Donald and Cleveland, Ana D.},
  title = {Introduction to indexing and abstracting},
  publisher = {Libraries Unlimited},
  year = {1990}
}
Comaromi, J. P. Summation of classification as an enhancement of intellectual access to information in an online environment 1990 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Paper presented at the 2nd Annette Lewis Phinazee Symposium on Classification as an enhancement of intellectual access to Information Sciences, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina. sums up and considers the implications of classification as an enhancement of intellectual access to information in an on-line environment emphasising that classification structure and indexes to classifications need to be better understood before classification can be a major access point in on-line catalogues. 00 Original abstract--amended
BibTeX:
@article{CJP1990001,
  author = {Comaromi, John P},
  title = {Summation of classification as an enhancement of intellectual access to information in an online environment},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {11},
  number = {1},
  pages = {99--102}
}
of Congress, L. Thesaurus for Graphic Materials I: Subject Terms (TGM I) 2007   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Library2007,
  author = {Library of Congress},
  title = {Thesaurus for Graphic Materials I: Subject Terms (TGM I)},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/tgm1/}
}
Creider, L. S. Cataloging, reception, and the boundaries of a "work" 2006 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: The concept of a "work" is fundamental to cataloging and users, but there is no clear understanding of the point at which one work becomes another. Various factors influence the setting of the boundaries of a work including that of the reception of the work. Brief investigations of the transmission and study of works such as medieval saints' lives and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as well as works conceived in electronic form give insight into the processes involved and provide some clues for how catalogers can cope with these factors. (Copies of this article are available for a fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service, Haworth Press, Inc. E-Mail: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com, Web site http://www.HaworthPress.com). (Author abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{CLS2006001,
  author = {Creider, Laurence S.},
  title = {Cataloging, reception, and the boundaries of a "work"},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {42},
  number = {2},
  pages = {3--19}
}
Crosby, E. Technical services in twenty-first century special collections 2000 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: Article included in a special issue devoted to the theme: Managing cataloging and the organization of information: philosophies, practices and challenges at the onset of the Twentyfirst century. Part 2: Specialized and academic libraries in the United States. Special collections libraries are evolving to include electronic resources in addition to the papers, books, photographs and artefacts that have been collected in the past and technical services must evolve and change to keep pace. Examines new and traditional duties and staffing. New responsibilities will include managing electronic rights and resources, preparing scanning and digitizing projects, overseeing online catalogues and developing metadata standards. Staff will need thorough grounding in fundamentals of technical services work as well as the ability to cooperate across departmental boundaries. The special collections library will become an important information portal in the twenty-first century.
BibTeX:
@article{CE-2000001,
  author = {Crosby, Ellen},
  title = {Technical services in twenty-first century special collections},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {30},
  number = {2/3},
  pages = {167--176}
}
Crowley, B. Don't let Google and the pennypinchers get you down: Defending (or redefining) libraries and librarianship in the age of technology 2007 British Columbia Library Association Conference 2007 : Beyond 20/20 : Envisioning the Future   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: What are libraries really about? If libraries and librarians cannot compete with information technology giants like Google, how can they remain relevant to their communities of users? Crowley explores ways to understand how the general public and students view libraries. Bluntly stated, there is no longer any way that librarians and trustees can convince residents of local communities and members of college and university campuses that libraries are their primary information source. Given this reality, Crowley introduces the concept of lifecycle librarianship, offering a useful way of considering library roles and securing the necessary human and financial resources to carry them through. This presentation will encourage realistic and original thinking about the future of libraries and professional librarianship by redefining their primary roles from information suppliers to education providers and self-learning facilitators.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Crowley2007RoleofLibraries,
  author = {Crowley, Bill},
  title = {Don't let Google and the pennypinchers get you down: Defending (or redefining) libraries and librarianship in the age of technology},
  booktitle = {British Columbia Library Association Conference 2007 : Beyond 20/20 : Envisioning the Future},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00009526/}
}
Dahlberg, I. Domain interaction: Theory and practice 1994 Advances in knowledge organization   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{DI-1994001,
  author = {Dahlberg, Ingetraut},
  title = {Domain interaction: Theory and practice},
  booktitle = {Advances in knowledge organization},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {60--71}
}
Dahlberg, I. The basis of a new universal classification system seen from a philopsophy of science point of view 1992 Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Proceedings of the 5th international study conference on classification research   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Dahlberg1992,
  author = {Dahlberg, Ingetraut},
  title = {The basis of a new universal classification system seen from a philopsophy of science point of view},
  booktitle = {Classification research for knowledge representation and organization. Proceedings of the 5th international study conference on classification research},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {187--197}
}
Dahlberg, I. Classification theory: yesterday and today 1976 International Classification   article  
BibTeX:
@article{DI-1976001,
  author = {Dahlberg, Ingetraut},
  title = {Classification theory: yesterday and today},
  journal = {International Classification},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {85--90}
}
Danskin, A. Tomorrow never knows: the end of cataloguing? 2006 World library and information congress: 72nd IFLA General Conference and Council, IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{DA-2006001,
  author = {Danskin, Alan},
  title = {Tomorrow never knows: the end of cataloguing?},
  booktitle = {World library and information congress: 72nd IFLA General Conference and Council, IFLA-CDNL Alliance for Bibliographic Standards},
  year = {2006},
  url = {http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla72/index.htm }
}
Danskin, A. & Chapman, A. Bibliographic records in the computer age 2003 Library & information update   article URL  
Abstract: Focuses on FRBR's potential for improving displays of search results.
BibTeX:
@article{DanskinChapman2003,
  author = {Danskin, Alan and Chapman, Ann},
  title = {Bibliographic records in the computer age},
  journal = {Library & information update},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {2},
  number = {9},
  pages = {42-43},
  url = {http://www.cilip.org.uk/publications/updatemagazine/archive/archive2003/september/update0309d.htm}
}
Day, R. E. Works and representation 2008 Journal of the American society for information science and technology   article  
Abstract: The concept of the work in art differs from and challenges traditional concepts of the work in bibliography. Whereas the traditional bibliographic concept of the work takes an ideational approach that incorporates mentalist epistemologies, container-content metaphors, and the conduit metaphor of information transfer and re-presentation, the concept of the work of art as is presented here begins with the site-specific and time-valued nature of the object as a product of human labor and as an event that is emergent through cultural forms and from social situations. The account of the work, here, is thus materialist and expressionist rather than ideational. This article takes the discussion of the work in the philosopher Martin Heidegger's philosophical-historical account and joins this with the concept of the work in the modern avant-garde, toward bringing into critique the traditional bibliographic conception of the work and toward illuminating a materialist perspective that may be useful in understanding cultural work-objects, as well as texts proper.
BibTeX:
@article{Day2008,
  author = {Day, Ronald E.},
  title = {Works and representation},
  journal = {Journal of the American society for information science and technology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {59},
  number = {10},
  pages = {1644--1652}
}
DeMarsicoi, M., Cinque, L. & Levialdi, S. Indexing pictorial documents by their content: A survey of current techniques 1997 Image and Vision Computing   article  
Abstract: To efficiently solve the image retrieval problem in an image database, many techniques have been devised addressing the requirements of different applications. Present information management systems exploit these techniques to allow querying of pictorial documents archives. To do this, the first step is to extract relevant keys from the image content itself, so that images are not treated as illustrative appendices of textual documents. Even more important, the search process is not restricted to external attributes such as the storing date or the archive number. The kind of characteristics used to build the database index depends on the users' information needs for a given cognitive environment. Currently, the focus is on image color statistics and patterns (textures), on shapes and their spatial relations, or on a combination of these. This paper reviews indexing methods that are significant examples of techniques presently used.
BibTeX:
@article{DM-1997001,
  author = {DeMarsicoi, M. and Cinque, L. and Levialdi, S.},
  title = {Indexing pictorial documents by their content: A survey of current techniques},
  journal = {Image and Vision Computing},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {15},
  number = {2},
  pages = {119--141}
}
Denton, W. FRBR and the history of cataloging 2007 Understanding FRBR: What it is and how it will affect our retrieval tools   incollection URL  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Denton2007,
  author = {Denton, William},
  title = {FRBR and the history of cataloging},
  booktitle = {Understanding FRBR: What it is and how it will affect our retrieval tools},
  publisher = {Greenwood},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {35--57},
  url = {http://pi.library.yorku.ca/dspace/handle/10315/1250}
}
Devadason, F. J., Intaraksa, N., Patamawongjariya, P. & Desai, K. Faceted indexing based system for organizing and accessing internet resources 2002 Knowledge Organization   article  
BibTeX:
@article{DFJ2002001,
  author = {Devadason, Francis J. and Intaraksa, Neelawat and Patamawongjariya, Ponprapa and Desai, Kavita},
  title = {Faceted indexing based system for organizing and accessing internet resources},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {29},
  number = {2},
  pages = {65--77}
}
Dewey, M. Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Dewey2003,
  author = {Dewey, Melville},
  title = {Dewey Decimal Classification and Relative Index},
  publisher = {OCLC Online Computer Library Center},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {4},
  edition = {22nd}
}
Dewey, M. A classification and subject index for cataloguing and arranging the books and pamphlets of a library 1876   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Dewey1876,
  author = {Dewey, Melvil},
  title = {A classification and subject index for cataloguing and arranging the books and pamphlets of a library},
  publisher = {Facsimile published by Forest Press Division, Lake Placid Education Foundation},
  year = {1876},
  pages = {42}
}
Dittmann, H. Learn Library of Congress Classification 2000   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Dittmann2000,
  author = {Dittmann, Helena},
  title = {Learn Library of Congress Classification},
  publisher = {Scarecrow Press in cooperation with DocMatrix Pty Ltd, Canbera, Australia},
  year = {2000}
}
Dodd, D. G. Grass-roots cataloging and classification: Food for thought from World Wide Web subject-oriented hierarchical lists 1996 Library resources & technical services   article  
BibTeX:
@article{DDG1996001,
  author = {Dodd, D. G.},
  title = {Grass-roots cataloging and classification: Food for thought from World Wide Web subject-oriented hierarchical lists},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {40},
  number = {3},
  pages = {275--286}
}
Dolence, T. & Gilmour, R. Libraries, information, and amateur scientists 2006 Technical services quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{DT-2006001,
  author = {Dolence, Travis and Gilmour, Ron},
  title = {Libraries, information, and amateur scientists},
  journal = {Technical services quarterly},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {23},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1--18}
}
Donovan, J. M. Patron expectations about collocation: Measuring the difference between the psychologically real and the really real 1991 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Library patrons have innate expectations about how documents should be arranged. Useful classification schemes are those which confirm to these expectations and are thereby psychologically comfortable. All schemes necessarily deviate from these expectations, but not to the same degree. The greater the divergence from this mental standard with a scheme, the greater the psychological discomfort the patron will experience and the less useful the patron will find it. Develops a measure of the deviation of library classifications from in mental space, using an example taken from the discipline of anthropology.
BibTeX:
@article{DJM1991001,
  author = {Donovan, James M.},
  title = {Patron expectations about collocation: Measuring the difference between the psychologically real and the really real},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  pages = {23--43}
}
Drabenstott, K. M. Experiences with online catalogs in the USA using a classification system as a subject searching tool 1991 Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 1.   inproceedings  
Abstract: Traces the development of on-line catalogues in the USA that feature subject searching and browsing through the machine-readable text of library classifications. Covers the author's experiences from 1983-86 developing and testing subject searching and browsing capabilities in an experimental on-line catalogue using the machine-readable 19th edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC). Suggests improvements to the original subject searching and browsing capabilities in the experimental on-line that would enable users to search and browse the DDC tables. 00 Original abstract
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{DKM1991001,
  author = {Drabenstott, Karen Markey},
  title = {Experiences with online catalogs in the USA using a classification system as a subject searching tool},
  booktitle = {Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 1.},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {35--46}
}
Ercegovac, Z. Multiple-version resources in digital libraries: Towards user-centered displays 2006 Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology   article  
Abstract: The author reports findings from experiments with the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions' (IFLA) Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) as applied to the domain of science fiction, Edwin A. Abbott's Flatland. A Romance of Many Dimensions in the Online Computer Library Center's (OCLC) WorldCat. The goal of the study is to gauge the characteristics of bibliographic entities under study, to examine types of relationships these entities exhibit, and to collocate bibliographic entities according to the FRBR group I hierarchy of entities identified as works, expressions, manifestations, and items. The study's findings show that by assembling bibliographic records into interrelated clusters and displaying these according to the FRBR entity-relationship model, a new navigational capability in networked digital libraries can be developed.
BibTeX:
@article{Ercegovac2006,
  author = {Ercegovac, Z.},
  title = {Multiple-version resources in digital libraries: Towards user-centered displays},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {57},
  number = {8},
  pages = {1023--1032}
}
Farradane, J. E. L. The psychology of classification 1955 Journal of Documentation   article  
BibTeX:
@article{FJE1955001,
  author = {Farradane, Jason E. L.},
  title = {The psychology of classification},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {1955},
  volume = {11},
  number = {4},
  pages = {187--201}
}
Ferguson, B. MARC/AACR2/authority control tagging : a blitz cataloging workbook 2005   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Ferguson2005,
  author = {Ferguson, Bobby},
  title = {MARC/AACR2/authority control tagging : a blitz cataloging workbook},
  publisher = {Greenwood},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {179}
}
Ferguson, B. Subject Analysis Blitz Cataloging Workbook 1998   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Ferguson1998,
  author = {Ferguson, Bobby},
  title = {Subject Analysis Blitz Cataloging Workbook},
  publisher = {Libraries Unlimited},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {135}
}
Fiscella, J. B. & Sack, N. Independent Office Collections and the Evolving Role of Academic Librarians 1994 Library resources & technical services   article  
Abstract: Recent collaboration between librarians and teaching faculty at the University of Illinois at Chicago aided in the identification of a new type of library on campus. This so-called hybrid office library is similar to a personal collection in the type and arrangement of materials acquired, and it is like a branch library in that the materials are collected and used by a number of persons working in the same field. Until now, librarians have not been concerned with providing access to faculty-owned collections. But changing information requirements of the faculty, new technologies available to them, and financial constraints on the university require that librarians take on a new role: helping faculty organize their independent office collections and encouraging them to make their materials available to a broader constituency.
BibTeX:
@article{FJB1994001,
  author = {Fiscella, Joan B. and Sack, Nancy},
  title = {Independent Office Collections and the Evolving Role of Academic Librarians},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {38},
  number = {3},
  pages = {267--273}
}
Fischer, R., Lugg, R. & Boese, K. C. Cataloging: how to take a business approach 2004 The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances   article  
BibTeX:
@article{FR-2004002,
  author = {Fischer, Ruth and Lugg, Rick and Boese, Kent C.},
  title = {Cataloging: how to take a business approach },
  journal = {The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {17},
  number = {2},
  pages = {50--54}
}
Foskett, A. C. The subject approach to information 1977   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Foskett1977,
  author = {Foskett, A. C.},
  title = {The subject approach to information},
  publisher = {Linnet Books},
  year = {1977}
}
Foskett, D. J. Ranganathan and 'user-friendliness' 1992 Libri   article  
Abstract: Contribution to a thematic issue devoted to an investigation and celebration of the works of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. His 'Five Laws of Library Science' place the user as the focus of library and information service and emphasise the need to understand the user. Facet analysis helps the information specialist to understand and interpret the subject of the user's enquiry which contributes to user-friendliness. Concept organisation is required at the input stage, through subject analysis of the document content, and at the output stage, by analysing the user's information need from the terms in his or her enquiry. Facet analysis reflects a natural way of thinking and can be introduced into computerised systems without difficulty. 00 Original abstract--amended
BibTeX:
@article{Foskett1992,
  author = {Foskett, Douglas J.},
  title = {Ranganathan and 'user-friendliness'},
  journal = {Libri },
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  number = {3},
  pages = {227--234}
}
Foskett, D. J. Concerning general and special classifications 1991 International Classification   article  
BibTeX:
@article{FDJ1991001,
  author = {Foskett, Douglas J.},
  title = {Concerning general and special classifications},
  journal = {International Classification},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {18},
  number = {2},
  pages = {87--91}
}
Foskett, D. J. Systems-theory and its relevance to documentary classification 1980 International Classification   article  
BibTeX:
@article{FDJ1980001,
  author = {Foskett, Douglas J.},
  title = {Systems-theory and its relevance to documentary classification},
  journal = {International Classification},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {7},
  number = {1},
  pages = {2--5}
}
Fox, R. Cataloging for the masses 2007 OCLC Systems & Services   article  
Abstract: Purpose ? The purpose of this paper is to explore methods for opening up web content to automated classification using metadata, potentially in the context of library groupware or portals. Design/methodology/approach ? Examines various web sites and meta-searching tools which provides a new means of access for users, and allow users to better document and integrate their research findings. Findings ? This paper is exploratory in nature and highlights trends in the area of library groupware, link routing, and personalized metadata usage. Practical implications ? The vast wealth of information on the web today needs to be exploited by information specialists (librarians) by assisting patrons in organizing, sharing and syndicating content from nearly any information source and empowering patrons via the use of ?folksonomies? which are grass roots taxonomies, in conjunction with traditional controlled vocabularies. Originality/value ? In highlighting the as of yet untapped power of technologies such as openURL and link routing, digital librarians can assist patrons by providing services against traditional and non traditional information sources allowing resources to be organized and shared in order to increase utility. This paper examines innovative means by which this could be accomplished.
BibTeX:
@article{Fox2007,
  author = {Fox, Robert},
  title = {Cataloging for the masses},
  journal = {OCLC Systems & Services},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3},
  pages = {166--172}
}
Fox, R. The great pig roast 2007 OCLC Systems & Services   article  
Abstract: Abstract: Purpose ? The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of the next generation OPAC, and several proposed solutions to that problem. Design/methodology/approach ? This is an exploratory paper. It examines several proposals for reinventing the traditional library OPAC into a more relevant, user centered system. Findings ? Libraries need to seriously re-evaluate the relevance of the online public access catalog as it exists today. There are no one size fits all solutions given the rapidly changing information environment libraries find themselves in today. Originality/value ? This paper provides points of discussion for professional librarians and library staff to engage in as they consider to future of the OPAC. Several key members of the library technology community are cited, and may provide further information on this important topic.
BibTeX:
@article{Fox2007a,
  author = {Fox, Robert},
  title = {The great pig roast},
  journal = {OCLC Systems & Services},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {23},
  number = {3},
  pages = {242--249}
}
Frumkin, J. The death, and rebirth, of the metadat record: rethinking library search 2007 OCLC Systems & Services   article  
Abstract: Purpose ? The purpose of this paper is to describe the issues with libraries' current approach to utilizing metadata and metadata records from a user perspective, and to suggest future directions in utilizing metadata records in a search context. Design/methodology/approach ? Experiential commentary. Findings ? Metadata records need to be reborn as surrogate tools that can be used to provide better search results. Originality/value ? This paper opinionates on the traditions that libraries bring to providing search and retrieval tools, and how those traditions need to evolve in order for libraries to continue to provide useful search services in the digital context. It should be of interest to digital library developers, librarians, and information scientists. Keywords: Catalogues, Information retrieval, Libraries Article Type: Viewpoint
BibTeX:
@article{Frumkin2007,
  author = {Frumkin, Jeremy},
  title = {The death, and rebirth, of the metadat record: rethinking library search},
  journal = {OCLC Systems & Services},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3},
  pages = {164--165}
}
Fugmann, R. An interactive classaurus on the PC 1990 International Classification   article  
Abstract: Both classification systems and thesauri have their specific strengths and weaknesses. Combining both approaches elimination of the latter can preserve the strengths. Classauri which originate in this well-known way are most effective if they are constructed and applied during computer-aided indexing. Describes a special variety of classaurus which is characterised by the emplopyment of simple but highly effective conceptual and technical devices and by the renunciation of attempts to generate the wording of index entries algorithmically. 00 Original abstract
BibTeX:
@article{Fugmann1990,
  author = {Fugmann, Robert},
  title = {An interactive classaurus on the PC},
  journal = {International Classification},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {17},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {133--137}
}
on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, I. S. G. Functional requirements for bibliographic records: Final report 1998   techreport URL  
BibTeX:
@techreport{FRBR.pdf,
  author = {IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records},
  title = {Functional requirements for bibliographic records: Final report},
  year = {1998},
  number = {vol. 19},
  url = {http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/wgfrbr/finalreport.htm}
}
on the Future of Bibliographic Control, W. G. On the record 2008   techreport URL  
BibTeX:
@techreport{LC-2008001,
  author = {Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control},
  title = {On the record},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {49},
  url = {http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/news/lcwg-ontherecord-jan08-final.pdf}
}
Gaeddert, B. K. Editions and printings: applying AACR2 to monographs 1989 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Information on editions, printings, and dates is brought together to expedite decision making in descriptive cataloguing. Types of dates are differentiated, including publication date, date of release or transmittal, and legal deposit. Relevant AACR2 rules are listed, along with their rule interpretations, if any. Flow charts illustrate the logical processes involved in choosing a single date or using more than one. 00 Original abstract--amended
BibTeX:
@article{GBK1989001,
  author = {Gaeddert, Barbara Knisely},
  title = {Editions and printings: applying AACR2 to monographs},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {9},
  number = {4},
  pages = {51--66. bibliog}
}
Ganendran, J. Learn Library of Congress Subject Access 2000   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Ganendran2000,
  author = {Ganendran, Jacki},
  title = {Learn Library of Congress Subject Access},
  publisher = {Scarecrow Press, in cooperation with DocMatrix Pty, Canberra, Australia},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {107}
}
Given, L. M. & Olson, H. A. Knowledge Organization in Research: a Conceptual Model for Organizing Data 2003 Library & Information Science Research   article  
Abstract: Organizing research data for effective analysis has been insufficiently addressed in the methodological literature. This article proposes that concepts of knowledge organization relating to relevance, precision, recall, coextensiveness, exhaustivity, specificity, and consistency offer a ready-made model that can be applied to research data. The knowledge organization (KO) model is reinterpreted for transferability to quantitative, qualitative, and textual research. In each instance, the model's applicability is illustrated with examples from the authors' research. This exploration demonstrates the model's resiliency in organizing numeric data, coding transcripts, and marking up textual statements. The limitations of the model are noted and compromises are described, providing a valuable approach to meaningful data preparation for researchers, educators, students, and reviewers of research across disciplines. The article concludes that the KO model contributes significantly to the ability of researchers to collect and organize data in a manner most likely to shed light on research problems they address. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Given2003,
  author = {Given, Lisa M. and Olson, Hope A.},
  title = {Knowledge Organization in Research: a Conceptual Model for Organizing Data},
  journal = {Library & Information Science Research},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {25},
  number = {2},
  pages = {157--176}
}
Godert, W. Facet classification in online retrieval 1991 International classification   article  
Abstract: The study of faceted classification systems has primarily been directed towards application for precombined catalogues or bibliographies, not so much for use in post coordinated retrieval systems. Argues that faceted classification systems in some respects are superior to other techniques of on-line retrieval as far as facet and concept analysis is combined with an expressive notational system in order to guide a form of retrieval which will use Boolean operators (for combining the facets regardless of one special citation order) and truncation for retrieving hierarchically different sets of documents. This point of view is demonstrated by 2 examples. The 1st one uses a short classification system derived from B. Buchanan and the 2nd is built upon the classification system used by Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA). Further discussion is concerned with some possible consequences which could be derived from a retrieval with PRECIS strings. 00 Original abstract
BibTeX:
@article{GW-1991001,
  author = {Godert, Winfried},
  title = {Facet classification in online retrieval},
  journal = {International classification},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {18},
  number = {2},
  pages = {98--109}
}
Gorman, M. Why Teach Cataloguing and Classification? 2002 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{GM-2002001,
  author = {Gorman, Michael},
  title = { Why Teach Cataloguing and Classification?},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {34},
  number = {1/2},
  pages = {1--13}
}
Gorman, M. Metadata or cataloguing? A false choice 1999 Journal of internet cataloging   article  
BibTeX:
@article{GM-1999001,
  author = {Gorman, Michael},
  title = {Metadata or cataloguing? A false choice},
  journal = {Journal of internet cataloging},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {2},
  number = {1},
  pages = {5--22}
}
Gossen, E. A. & Irving, S. Ownership versus access and low-use periodical titles 1995 Library resources & technical services   article  
Abstract: Explores the question of the cost effectiveness of ownership versus access to periodicals using data collected during a local periodicals use study and data from the Association of Research Libraries and Research Libraries Group Cost Study. Results revealed that if a periodical is used fewer than 5 times per year in a given library, it is generally more cost effective to rely on access, even if the subscription cost is modest. If total in house use is 10 times per year or more, the cost effectiveness of relying on access rather than ownership is distributed unevenly across subject disciplines. Examination of the availability of the group of low use titles through interloans and commercial document delivery indicates general availability at the present time. Discusses the impact of periodicals cancellations on users' needs. Original abstract.
BibTeX:
@article{Gossen1995,
  author = {Gossen, Eleanor A. and Irving, Suzanne},
  title = {Ownership versus access and low-use periodical titles},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {39},
  number = {1},
  pages = {43--52}
}
Greenberg, J. Intellectual control of visual archives: A comparison between the Art and Architecture Thesaurus and Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials 1993 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{GJ-1993001,
  author = {Greenberg, Jane},
  title = {Intellectual control of visual archives: A comparison between the Art and Architecture Thesaurus and Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {16},
  number = {1},
  pages = {85--117}
}
Greiner, G. Some reflections on teaching subject analysis in the field of documentation 1984 International Classification   article  
BibTeX:
@article{GG-1984001,
  author = {Greiner, G?tz},
  title = {Some reflections on teaching subject analysis in the field of documentation},
  journal = {International Classification},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {11},
  number = {2},
  pages = {66--68}
}
Grund, A. ICONCLASS - on subject analysis of iconographic representations of works of art 1993 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: The special classification system ICONCLASS, created by Henry van de Waal for the description of occidental art, is considered against the background of art-historical iconography. By means of a number of examples the structure and use of ICONCLASS and its importance for art-historical documentation are illustrated.
BibTeX:
@article{GA-1993001,
  author = {Grund, Angelika},
  title = {ICONCLASS - on subject analysis of iconographic representations of works of art},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {20},
  number = {1},
  pages = {20--29}
}
Guarino, N. Formal ontology and information systems 1998 Formal ontology in information systems: Proceedings of FOIS'98   inproceedings  
Abstract: Research on ontology is becoming increasingly widespread in the computer science community, and its importance is being recognized in a multiplicity of research fields and application areas, including knowledge engineering, database design and integration, information retrieval and extraction. We shall use the generic term ?information systems?, in its broadest sense, to collectively refer to these application perspectives. We argue in this paper that so-called ontologies present their own methodological and architectural peculiarities: on the methodological side, their main peculiarity is the adoption of a highly interdisciplinary approach, while on the architectural side the most interesting aspect is the centrality of the role they can play in an information system, leading to the perspective of ontology-driven information systems.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GN-1998001,
  author = {Guarino, Nicola},
  title = {Formal ontology and information systems},
  booktitle = {Formal ontology in information systems: Proceedings of FOIS'98},
  publisher = {IOS Press},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {3--15}
}
Hall-Ellis, S. D. Descriptive impressions of entry-level cataloger positions as reflected in American Libraries, AUTOCAT, and the Colorado State Library Jobline, 2000-2003 2005 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Library school students and employers articulate expectations for entry-level cataloger positions including understandings and familiarities with a theoretical basis for organization (cataloging, classification, authority control), technical skills (bibliographic utilities, tools), and non-library specific competencies. Therefore, entry-level catalog librarian position announcements provide insight into shifting requirements regarding graduate education, expertise, and preferred preparations for these positions. This empirical research study explores 150 entry-level cataloger position announcements published during a three-year period in order to determine the common aspects of employers' expectations. A rigorous content analysis methodology enabled the researcher to identify employers' expectations and requirements among types of libraries. Copies of this article are available for a fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service http: [mailto://docdelivery@haworthpress.com]. (Original abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{HES2005001,
  author = {Hall-Ellis, Sylvia D.},
  title = {Descriptive impressions of entry-level cataloger positions as reflected in American Libraries, AUTOCAT, and the Colorado State Library Jobline, 2000-2003},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {40},
  number = {2},
  pages = {33--72}
}
Hanson, E. R. & Daily, J. E. Catalogs and cataloging 2003 Encyclopedia of library and information science   incollection  
Abstract: General introduction and overview to catalogs and cataloging. Includes Appendix list of codes of cataloging rules.
BibTeX:
@incollection{HansonDaily2003,
  author = {Hanson, Eugene R and Daily, Jay E.},
  title = {Catalogs and cataloging},
  booktitle = {Encyclopedia of library and information science},
  publisher = {CRC Press},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {431--468}
}
Hart, C., Schoolbred, M. & Butcher, D. The bibliographical structure of fan information 1998 64th IFLA General Conference   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: The paper suggests that information generated by fans has traditionally been of little concern to the Information and Library(ILS) professionals and educationalists. However, developments on the internet have meant that fans are generating a huge quantity of information, far in excess of the time when fan literature was purely in paper formats. the bibliographic structure of fan information is discussed through two case studies on popular music and Star Trek. The paper concludes that the ILS community can help fans by knowing more about the vast extent of fan information.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hart1998001,
  author = {Hart, Chris and Schoolbred, Michael and Butcher, David},
  title = {The bibliographical structure of fan information},
  booktitle = {64th IFLA General Conference},
  publisher = {IFLA},
  year = {1998},
  url = {http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla64/020-123e.htm}
}
Hartel, J. The serious leisure frontier in library and information science: Hobby domains 2003 Knowledge Organization   article  
BibTeX:
@article{HJ-2003002,
  author = {Hartel, Jenna},
  title = {The serious leisure frontier in library and information science: Hobby domains},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {30},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {228--238}
}
Hastings, S. K. Query categories in a study of intellectual access to digitized art images 1995 Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science   inproceedings  
Abstract: The study describes the nature of intellectual access to digitized art images using qualitative methodologies. Images of Caribbean paintings were digitized and the process of querying the Caribbean art images observed. Queries of art historians are analyzed and compared to retrieval parameters and image characteristics. Findings from the investigation include: 1) Queries are identified that include levels of complexity; 2) Queries change in levels of complexity when digital images are used; 3) Some queries cannot be answered by use of a surrogate image; and 4) There are identifiable characteristics of the images that relate in complexity to queries of style.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HSK1995001,
  author = {Hastings, S. K.},
  title = {Query categories in a study of intellectual access to digitized art images},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {3--8}
}
Hastings, S. K. An exploratory study of intellectual access to digitized art images 1994 School: Florida State University   phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Hastings1994,
  author = {Hastings, S. K.},
  title = {An exploratory study of intellectual access to digitized art images},
  school = {Florida State University},
  year = {1994}
}
Henderson, K. L. Some persistent issues in the education of catalogers and classifiers 1987 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{HKL1987001,
  author = {Henderson, Kathryn Luther},
  title = {Some persistent issues in the education of catalogers and classifiers},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {7},
  number = {4},
  pages = {5--26}
}
High, W. H. Library of Congress Classification numbers as subject access points in computer-based retrieval 1990 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: Paper presented at the 2nd Annette Lewis Phinazee Symposium on Classification as an enhancement of intellectual access to information in on online environment, held at the school of Library and Information Sciences, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina. Subject retrieval by Library of Congress (LC) Classification numbers is examined from the perspective of 5 user groups of on-line catalogues. Although, at present, librarians are the user group most likely to benefit from the LC classification advances in the capabilities of on-line catalogues. Research on the use of the LC classification schedules as a component of subject retrieval should continue. 00 Original abstract
BibTeX:
@article{High1990,
  author = {High, Walter H.},
  title = {Library of Congress Classification numbers as subject access points in computer-based retrieval},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {11},
  number = {1},
  pages = {37--43}
}
Hill, D. W. Requisite skills of the entry-level cataloger: A supervisor's perspective 1997 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: While the literature addresses to some degree the practitioner's view on the educational requirements of the entry level cataloguer, usually in the form of the theory versus practice argument, little is written about specific qualities, skills, and abilities that the cataloguing supervisor looks for when recruiting new cataloguers. Outlines, from a library supervisor's perspective, some of those specific attributes looked for when recruiting such staff and explains their importance in the current cataloguing environment. (The author may be contacted by electronic mail at dhill@ualvm.ua.edu). Original abstract-amended.
BibTeX:
@article{HDW1997001,
  author = {Hill, Debra W.},
  title = {Requisite skills of the entry-level cataloger: A supervisor's perspective},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {23},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {75--83}
}
Hjörland, B. Approaches to knowledge organization (KO)   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HB-2007002,
  author = {Hjörland, Birger},
  title = {Approaches to knowledge organization (KO)}
}
Hjörland, B. Information Retrieval, Text Composition, and Semantics 1998 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: Information science (IS) is concerned with the searching and retrieval of test and other information (IR), mostly in electronic databases and on the Internet. Such databases contain fulltext (or other kinds of documents, e.g. pictures) and/or document representations and/or different kinds of "value added information". The core theoretical problem for IS is related to the determination of the usefulness of different "subject access points" in electronic databases. This problem is again related to theories of meaning and semantics.(2) This paper outlines some important principles in the design of documents done in the field of "composition studies". It maps the possible subject access points and presents research done on each kind of these. It shows how theories of IR must build on or relate to different theories of concepts and meaning. It: discusses two contrasting theories of semantics worked out by Ludwig Wittgenstein: "the picture theory" and "the theory of language games" and demonstrates the different consequences for such theories for IR. Finally, the implications for information professionals are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{HB-1998002,
  author = {Hjörland, Birger},
  title = {Information Retrieval, Text Composition, and Semantics},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {25},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {16--31}
}
Hjörland, B. The Classification of Psychology: a Case Study in the Classification of a Knowledge Field 1998 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: Different approaches to the classification of a knowledge field include empiristic, rationalistic, historicist, and pragmatic methods. This paper demonstrates how these different methods have been applied to the classification of psychology. An etymological approach is insufficient to define the subject matter of psychology, because other terms can be used to describe the same domain. To define the subject matter of psychology from the point of view of its formal establishment. as a science and acadeinic discipline (in Leipzig, 1879) is also insufficient because this was done in specific historical circumstances, which narrowed the subject matter to physiologically-related issues. When defining the subject area of a scientific field it is necessary to consider how different ontological and epistemological views have made their influences. A subject area and the approaches bl which this subject area has been studied cannot be separated from each other without tracing their mutual historical interactions. The classification of a subject field is theory-laden and thus cannot be neutral or ahistorical. Ii classification research can claim to have a method that is more general than the study of the concrete developments in the single knowledge fields the key is to be found in the general epistemological theories. It is shown how basic epistemological assumptions have formed the different approaches to psychology during the 20th century. The progress in the understanding of basic philosophical questions is decisive both for the development of a knowledge field and as the point of departure of classification. The theoretical principles developed in this paper are applied in a brief analysis of some concrete classification systems, including the one used by PsycINFO / Psychological Abstracts. The role of classification in modern information retrieval is also briefly discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{HB-1998001,
  author = {Hjörland, Birger},
  title = {The Classification of Psychology: a Case Study in the Classification of a Knowledge Field},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {25},
  number = {4},
  pages = {162--201}
}
Hjörland, B. Information seeking and subject representation: An activity-theoretical approach to information science 1997   book  
BibTeX:
@book{HB-1997001,
  author = {Hjörland, Birger},
  title = {Information seeking and subject representation: An activity-theoretical approach to information science},
  publisher = {Greenwood Press},
  year = {1997}
}
Hjörland, B. Nine principles of knowledge organization 1994 Advances in knowledge organization   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HB-1994001,
  author = {Hjörland, Birger},
  title = {Nine principles of knowledge organization},
  booktitle = {Advances in knowledge organization},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {91--100}
}
Hjörland, B. The Concept of Subject in Information-Science 1992 Journal of Documentation   article  
Abstract: This article presents a theoretical investigation of the concept of 'subject' or 'subject matter' in library and information science. Most conceptions of 'subject' in the literature are not explicit but implicit. Various indexing and classification theories, including automatic indexing and citation indexing, have their own more or less implicit concepts of subject. This fact puts the emphasis on making the implicit theories of 'subject matter' explicit as the first step.A very close connection exists between what subjects are, and how we are to know them. Those researchers who place the subjects in the minds of the users have a conception of 'subject' different to that possessed by those who regard the subject as a fixed property of the documents. The key to the definition of the concept of 'subject' lies in the epistemological investigation of how we are going to know what we need to know about documents in order to describe them in a way which facilitates information retrieval. The second step therefore is an analysis of the implicit epistemological conceptions in the major existing conceptions of 'subject'. The different conceptions of 'subject' can therefore be classified into epistemological positions, e.g. 'subjective idealism' (or the empiric/positivistic viewpoint), 'objective idealism' (the rationalistic viewpoint), 'pragmatism' and 'materialism/realism'. The third and final step is to propose a new theory of subject matter based on an explicit theory of knowledge. In this article this is done from the point of view of a realistic/materialistic epistemology. From this standpoint the subject of a document is defined as thc epistemological potentials of that document.
BibTeX:
@article{HB-1992001,
  author = {Hjörland, Birger},
  title = {The Concept of Subject in Information-Science},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {48},
  number = {2},
  pages = {172--200}
}
Hjörland, B. & Albrechtsen, H. An Analysis of Some Trends in Classification Research 1999 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: This paper takes a second look at three prevailing main themes in knowledge organization: i) the academic disciplines as the main structural principle; ii) the fiction/non-fiction distinction; and iii) the appropriate unit of analysis in online retrieval systems. The history and origin of bibliographic classification [Dewey, Bliss, Mills, Beghtol] are discussed from the perspective of pragmatist philosophy and social studies of science [Kuhn, Merton, Reich]. Choices of structural principles in different schemes are found to rely on more or less implicit philosophical foundations, ranging from rationalism to pragmatism. It is further shown how the increasing application of faceted structures as basic structural principles in universal classification schemes [DDC, UDC] impose rationalistic principles and structures for knowledge organization which are not in alignment with the development of knowledge in the covered disciplines. Further evidence of rationalism in knowledge organization is the fiction/non-fiction distinction, excluding the important role of artistic resources for, in particular; humanistic research. Finally, for the analysis of appropriate bibliographic unit, it is argued that there is a need to shift rewards a semiotic approach, founded on an understanding of intertextuality, rather than applying standard principles of hierarchical decomposition of documents. It is concluded that a change in classification research is needed, founded on a more historical and social understanding of knowledge.
BibTeX:
@article{HB-1999001,
  author = {Hjörland, Birger and Albrechtsen, Hanne},
  title = {An Analysis of Some Trends in Classification Research},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {26},
  number = {3},
  pages = {131--139}
}
Hjörland, B. & Nicolaisen, J. Scientific and scholarly classifications are not "na?ve": a comment to Begthol [sic] 2004 Knowledge Organization   article  
BibTeX:
@article{BCL2003001b,
  author = {Hjörland, Birger and Nicolaisen, Jeppe},
  title = {Scientific and scholarly classifications are not "na?ve": a comment to Begthol [sic]},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {31},
  number = {1},
  pages = {55--61}
}
Hjörland, B. & Pedersen, K. N. A substantive theory of classification for information retrieval 2005 Journal of Documentation   article  
Abstract: Purpose-To suggest that a theory of classification for information retrieval (IR), asked for by Sparck Jones in a 1970 paper, presupposes a full implementation of a pragmatic understanding. Part of the Journal of Documentation celebration, "60 years of the best in information research". Design/methodology/approach-Literature-based conceptual analysis, taking Sparck Jones as its starting-point. Analysis involves distinctions between "positivism" and "pragmatism" and "classical" versus Kuhnian understandings of concepts. Findings-Classification, both manual and automatic, for retrieval benefits from drawing upon a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques, a consideration of theories of meaning, and the adding of top-down approaches to IR in which divisions of labour, domains, traditions, genres, document architectures etc. are included as analytical elements and in which specific IR algorithms are based on the examination of specific literatures. Introduces an example illustrating the consequences of a full implementation of a pragmatist understanding when handling homonyms. Practical implications-Outlines how to classify from a pragmatic-philosophical point of view. Originality/value-Provides, emphasizing a pragmatic understanding, insights of importance to classification for retrieval, both manual and automatic.
BibTeX:
@article{HB-2005001,
  author = {Hjörland, Birger and Pedersen, Karsten Nissen},
  title = {A substantive theory of classification for information retrieval},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {61},
  number = {5},
  pages = {582--597}
}
Howarth, L. C. Metadata Structures and User Preferences: Designing User-Focussed Knowledge Access Systems 1998 Structures and Relations in Knowledge Organization: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conferencece of the International Society of Knowledge Organization   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HLC1998001,
  author = {Howarth, Lynne C.},
  title = {Metadata Structures and User Preferences: Designing User-Focussed Knowledge Access Systems},
  booktitle = {Structures and Relations in Knowledge Organization: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conferencece of the International Society of Knowledge Organization},
  year = {1998}
}
Hsieh-Yee, I. Organizing Audiovisual and Electronic Resources for Access: a Cataloging Guide 2006   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Hsieh-Yee2006,
  author = {Hsieh-Yee, Ingrid},
  title = {Organizing Audiovisual and Electronic Resources for Access: a Cataloging Guide},
  publisher = {Libraries Unlimited},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {376}
}
Hsieh-Yee, I. Cataloging and metadata education: A proposal for preparing cataloging professionals of the 21st century: A response to Action Item 5.1 of the "Bibliographic Control of Web Resources: A Library of Congress Action Plan" 2003   techreport URL  
BibTeX:
@techreport{HYI2003001,
  author = {Hsieh-Yee, Ingrid},
  title = {Cataloging and metadata education: A proposal for preparing cataloging professionals of the 21st century: A response to Action Item 5.1 of the "Bibliographic Control of Web Resources: A Library of Congress Action Plan"},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {59},
  url = {http://www.loc.gov/catdir/bibcontrol/CatalogingandMetadataEducation.pdf}
}
Ingwersen, P. & Wormell, I. Ranganathan in the perspective of advanced information retrieval 1992 Libri   article  
Abstract: Contribution to a thematic issue devoted to an investigation and celebration of the works of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. Examines Ranganathan's approach to knowledge organisation and its relevance to intellectual accessibility in libraries. Discusses the current and future developments of his methodology and theories in knowledge-based systems. Topics covered include: semi-automatic classification and structure of thesauri; user-intermediary interactions in information retrieval (IR); semantic value-theory and uncertainty principles in IR; and case grammar. 00 Original abstracT-amended
BibTeX:
@article{IP-1992001,
  author = {Ingwersen, Peter and Wormell, Irene},
  title = {Ranganathan in the perspective of advanced information retrieval},
  journal = {Libri },
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  number = {3},
  pages = {184--201}
}
Iyer, H. Classificatory Structures: Concepts, Relations and Representation 1995   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Iyer1995,
  author = {Iyer, Hemalata},
  title = {Classificatory Structures: Concepts, Relations and Representation},
  publisher = {Indeks Verlag},
  year = {1995}
}
Iyer, H. Online searching: use of classificatory structures 1991 Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 2.   inproceedings  
Abstract: Apples Ranganathan's theory of classification, specifically the use of facet analysis, to the searching of on-line data bases. On-line searches were performed for each of 30 students' queries using: facet model searching: quorum function searching; and Boolean searching. Precision and recall was measured for all 3 techniques. The facet model yielded the highest mean recall and precision values. 00 N.L.M.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{IH-1991001,
  author = {Iyer, Hemalata},
  title = {Online searching: use of classificatory structures},
  booktitle = {Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 2.},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {159--167}
}
Iyer, H. & Neelameghan, A. Information organization to assist knowledge discovery: case studies with non-bibliographic databases 2004 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Enumerates various paths that may lead to knowledge discovery (KD). Most of these paths begin from knowing what exists. To know what exists about an entity requires comprehensively assembling relevant data and information, in-depth analysis of the information, and identifying relations among the concepts in the related and even apparently unrelated subjects. Provision has to be made to reorganize and synthesize the information retrieved and/or that obtained through observation, experiment, survey, etc. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have considerably augmented the capabilities of information systems. Such ICT applications may range from the simple to sophisticated computerized systems, with data gathered using aerial photography, remote sensing, satellite imagery, large radar and planetary telescopes and many other instrument records of phenomena, as well as downloading via the Internet. While classification helps in data prospecting and data mining, for it to assist the KD process effectively it has to be supplemented with good indexes, hypertext links, access to statistical and modeling techniques, etc. Computer software assists text analysis, complex data manipulation, computation, statistical analysis, concept mapping, etc. But manual information systems can also assist KD. Enumerates several prerequisites to KD and relevant tools and techniques to be incorporated into information support systems. Presents case studies of information systems and services that assisted KD. Copies of this article are available for fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service http: / [mailto:/docdelivery@haworthpress]. (Original abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{Iyer2004,
  author = {Iyer, Hemalata and Neelameghan, A.},
  title = {Information organization to assist knowledge discovery: case studies with non-bibliographic databases},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {37},
  number = {1/2},
  pages = {115--130}
}
Jacob, E. K. Classification and categorization: A difference that makes a difference 2004 Library Trends   article  
Abstract: EXAMINATION OF THE SYSTEMIC PROPERTIES AND FORMS of interaction that characterize classification and categorization reveals fundamental syntactic differences between the structure of classification systems and the structure of categorization systems. These distinctions lead to meaningful differences in the contexts within which information can be apprehended and influence the semantic information available to the individual. Structural and semantic differences between classification and categorization are differences that make a difference in the information environment by influencing the functional activities of an information system and by contributing to its constitution as an information environment.
BibTeX:
@article{JEK2004001,
  author = {Jacob, Elin K.},
  title = {Classification and categorization: A difference that makes a difference},
  journal = {Library Trends},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {52},
  number = {3},
  pages = {515--540}
}
Jacob, E. K. The everyday world of work: Two approaches to the investigation of classification in context 2001 Journal of Documentation   article  
Abstract: One major aspect of T.D. Wilson's research has been his insistence on situating the investigation of information behaviour within the context of its occurrence - within the everyday world of work. The significance of this approach is reviewed in light of the notion of embodied cognition that characterises the evolving theoretical episteme in cognitive science research. Embodied cognition employs complex external props such as stigmergic structures and cognitive scaffoldings to reduce the cognitive burden on the individual and to augment human problem-solving activities. The cognitive function of the classification scheme is described as exemplifying both stigmergic structures and cognitive scaffoldings. Two different but complementary approaches to the investigation of situated cognition are presented: cognition-as-scaffolding and cognition-as-infrastructure. Classification-as-scaffolding views the classification scheme as a knowledge storage device supporting and promoting cognitive economy. Classification-as-infrastructure views the classification system as a social convention that, when integrated with technological structures and organisational practices, supports knowledge management work. Both approaches are shown to build upon and extend Wilson's contention that research is most productive when it attends to the social and organisational contexts of cognitive activity by focusing on the everyday world of work.
BibTeX:
@article{JEK2001001,
  author = {Jacob, Elin K.},
  title = {The everyday world of work: Two approaches to the investigation of classification in context},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {57},
  number = {1},
  pages = {76--99}
}
Jacob, E. K. Classification and crossdisciplinary communication: Breaching the boundaries imposed by classificatory structure 1994 Advances in knowledge organization   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{JEK1994001,
  author = {Jacob, Elin K.},
  title = {Classification and crossdisciplinary communication: Breaching the boundaries imposed by classificatory structure},
  booktitle = {Advances in knowledge organization},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {101--108}
}
Jacob, E. K. Classification and categorization: Drawing the line 1991 Proceedings of the 2nd ASIS SIG/CR Classification research workshop   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{JEK1991001,
  author = {Jacob, Elin K.},
  title = {Classification and categorization: Drawing the line},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2nd ASIS SIG/CR Classification research workshop},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {67--83}
}
Jacob, E. K. & Albrechtsen, H. When essence becomes function: post-structuralist implications for an ecological theory of organisational classification systems 1999 Exploring the contexts of information behaviour, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{JEK1999001,
  author = {Jacob, Elin K. and Albrechtsen, Hanne},
  title = {When essence becomes function: post-structuralist implications for an ecological theory of organisational classification systems},
  booktitle = {Exploring the contexts of information behaviour, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {519--534}
}
Jacob, E. K. & Loehrlein, A. What ontologies are not:a [draft] theoretical framework for the analysis of representational systems 2003 School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University-Bloomington   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{JEK2003001,
  author = {Jacob, Elin K. and Loehrlein, Aaron},
  title = {What ontologies are not:a [draft] theoretical framework for the analysis of representational systems},
  booktitle = {School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University-Bloomington},
  year = {2003}
}
Jaimes, A. & Chang, S. A conceptual framework for indexing visual information at multiple levels 2000 IS&T/SPIE Internet Imaging I   inproceedings  
Abstract: In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for indexing different aspects of visual information. Our framework unifies concepts from the literature in diverse fields such as cognitive psychology, library sciences, art, and the more recent contentbased retrieval. We present multiple level structures for visual and non-visual information. The ten-level visual structure presented provides a systematic way of indexing images based on syntax (e.g., color, texture, etc.) and semantics (e.g., objects, events, etc.), and includes distinctions between general concept and visual concept. We define different types of relations (e.g., syntactic, semantic) at different levels of the visual structure, and also use a semantic information table to summarize important aspects related to an image. While the focus is on the development of a conceptual indexing structure, our aim is also to bring together the knowledge from various fields, unifying the issues that should be considered when building a digital image library. Our analysis stresses the limitations of state of the art content-based retrieval systems and suggests areas in which improvements are necessary.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{JA-2000001,
  author = {Jaimes, Alejandro and Chang, Shih-Fu},
  title = {A conceptual framework for indexing visual information at multiple levels},
  booktitle = {IS&T/SPIE Internet Imaging I},
  publisher = {SPIE},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {2--15}
}
Jeng, L. H. From cataloging to organization of information: A paradigm for the core curriculum 1993 Journal of education for library and information science   article  
BibTeX:
@article{JLH1993001,
  author = {Jeng, Ling Hwey},
  title = {From cataloging to organization of information: A paradigm for the core curriculum},
  journal = {Journal of education for library and information science},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {34},
  number = {2},
  pages = {113--126}
}
Jensen, P. E. Three methods of teaching basic subject cataloguing 1985 Journal of education for library and information science   article  
Abstract: Describes a study conducted at the graduate library school of the University of Rhode Island to examine the effectiveness of 3 methods of instruction in the teaching of basic subject cataloguing and to develop an instructional module for students. Determines differences between videotaped television lecture and microcomputer programmed instruction and the conventional method, the printed text, in 2 levels of learning, factual and problem-solving, and attempts to establish relative effectiveness in the retention of the instructional content of the module. The findings have implications for instructional programmes and strategies as well as for future instructional effectiveness research.
BibTeX:
@article{JPE1985001,
  author = {Jensen, Patricia E.},
  title = {Three methods of teaching basic subject cataloguing},
  journal = {Journal of education for library and information science},
  year = {1985},
  volume = {25},
  number = {3},
  pages = {190--199}
}
Johnson, G. M. Eliminating Series Authority Records and Series Title Control: Improving Efficiency or Creating Waste? Or, 12 Reasons Why the Library of Congress Should Reconsider Its SARs Decision 2007   techreport URL  
BibTeX:
@techreport{JGM2007001,
  author = {Johnson, Gary M.},
  title = {Eliminating Series Authority Records and Series Title Control: Improving Efficiency or Creating Waste? Or, 12 Reasons Why the Library of Congress Should Reconsider Its SARs Decision},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.guild2910.org/SARS%20PAPER.pdf}
}
Jones, B. & Kastner, A. Duplicate records in the bibliographic utilities: a historical review of the printing versus edition problem 1983 Library resources & technical services   article  
Abstract: A major cause of duplicate bibliographic records in the OCLC and RLIN bibliographic utilities is the difficulty of distinguishing printings and editions of a given monographic title. This decision is complex because the cataloguer must consider the history of printing technology, cataloguing rules, Library of Congress policy, and local practices, as they apply to the standards of the bibliograhic utilities. Understanding these elements will help cataloguers achieve consistency and accuracy in the creating and editing of bibliographic records at the local, national, and international level.
BibTeX:
@article{Jones1983,
  author = {Jones, Barbara and Kastner, Arno},
  title = {Duplicate records in the bibliographic utilities: a historical review of the printing versus edition problem},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {1983},
  volume = {27},
  number = {2},
  pages = {211--220}
}
Judge, A. J. N. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION .1. (REPRINTED) 1984 International Classification   article  
BibTeX:
@article{JAJ1984001,
  author = {Judge, A. J. N.},
  title = {FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION .1. (REPRINTED)},
  journal = {International Classification},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {11},
  number = {2},
  pages = {69--76}
}
Judge, A. J. N. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION .2 1984 International Classification   article  
BibTeX:
@article{JAJ1984002,
  author = {Judge, A. J. N.},
  title = {FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION .2},
  journal = {International Classification},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {11},
  number = {3},
  pages = {139--150}
}
Jul, E. Now that we know the answer, what are the questions? 1998 Journal of internet cataloging   article  
BibTeX:
@article{JE-1998001,
  author = {Jul, Erik},
  title = {Now that we know the answer, what are the questions?},
  journal = {Journal of internet cataloging},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {1},
  number = {3},
  pages = {9--14}
}
K?rner, S. Classification theory 1976 International Classification   article  
BibTeX:
@article{KS-1976001,
  author = {K?rner, Stephan},
  title = {Classification theory},
  journal = {International Classification},
  year = {1976},
  volume = {3},
  number = {1},
  pages = {3--6}
}
Kipp, M. E. I. @toread and Cool: tagging for time, task and emotion 2007 Proceedings of the 8th Information Architecture Summit   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kipp2007,
  author = {Kipp, Margaret E. I.},
  title = {@toread and Cool: tagging for time, task and emotion},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 8th Information Architecture Summit},
  year = {2007}
}
Kipp, M. E. I. Tagging for Health Information Organisation and Retrieval 2007 Joint Conference on Digital Libraries   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KME2007001,
  author = {Kipp, Margaret E. I},
  title = {Tagging for Health Information Organisation and Retrieval},
  booktitle = {Joint Conference on Digital Libraries},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/2026/}
}
Kipp, M. E. I. Tagging Practices on Research Oriented Social Bookmarking Sites 2007 Canadian Association for Information Science   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: To what extent do term usage patterns of user tags, author keywords and intermediary descriptors suggest a similar context between users, authors and intermediaries? CiteULike, biology journal articles
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KME2007002,
  author = {Kipp, Margaret E. I},
  title = {Tagging Practices on Research Oriented Social Bookmarking Sites},
  booktitle = {Canadian Association for Information Science},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/2027/}
}
Kipp, M. E. I. Complementary or discrete contexts in online indexing: A comparison of user, creator and intermediary keywords 2006 Proceedings Canadian Association for Information Science   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KME2006001,
  author = {Kipp, Margaret E. I.},
  title = {Complementary or discrete contexts in online indexing: A comparison of user, creator and intermediary keywords},
  booktitle = {Proceedings Canadian Association for Information Science},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {15},
  url = {http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/1533/}
}
Kipp, M. E. I. & Campbell, D. G. Patterns and inconsistencies in collaborative tagging systems: an examination of tagging practices 2006 Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science and Technology   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: This paper analyzes the tagging patterns exhibited by users of del.icio.us, to assess how collaborative tagging supports and enhances traditional ways of classifying and indexing documents. Using frequency data and co-word analysis matrices analyzed by multi-dimensional scaling, the authors discovered that tagging practices to some extent work in ways that are continuous with conventional indexing. Small numbers of tags tend to emerge by unspoken consensus, and inconsistencies follow several predictable patterns that can easily be anticipated. However, the tags also indicated intriguing practices relating to time and task which suggest the presence of an extra dimension in classification and organization, a dimension which conventional systems are unable to facilitate.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KME2006002,
  author = {Kipp, Margaret E. I and Campbell, D. Grant},
  title = {Patterns and inconsistencies in collaborative tagging systems: an examination of tagging practices},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2006 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science and Technology},
  year = {2006},
  url = {http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00008315/}
}
Kirkland, L. N. Resources for catalogers: an annotated bibliography 2005 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Considerable documentation, tools, and manuals are available to aid catalogers, but without some guidance, many have no idea how to use these shelves of reference guides and manuals. This bibliography is intended as a guide to the information and resources available to assist the cataloger in cataloging. The availability of each resource is given (including online availability), along with a brief summary of the type of information that each resource contains. Copies of this article are available for a fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service http: [mailto://docdelivery@haworthpress.com]. (Original abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{KLN2005001,
  author = {Kirkland, Laura N.},
  title = {Resources for catalogers: an annotated bibliography},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {40},
  number = {1},
  pages = {79--99}
}
Kornegay, B., Buchanan, H. & Morgan, H. Amazing, magic searches!: subdivisions combine the precision of the cataloger with the freewheeling style of a Googler 2005 Library Journal   article URL  
BibTeX:
@article{KB-2005001,
  author = {Kornegay, Becky and Buchanan, Heidi and Morgan, Hiddy},
  title = {Amazing, magic searches!: subdivisions combine the precision of the cataloger with the freewheeling style of a Googler},
  journal = {Library Journal},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {44--46},
  url = {http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA6277396.html}
}
Kovacs, B. & Dayton, N. "If I knew then what I know now": UNCG LIS graduates' perspectives on cataloging education 2002 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{KB-2002001,
  author = {Kovacs, Beatrice and Dayton, Nancy},
  title = {"If I knew then what I know now": UNCG LIS graduates' perspectives on cataloging education},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {34},
  number = {1/2},
  pages = {143--162}
}
voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie, R. Iconclass 2007   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Kunsthistorische2007,
  author = {Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie},
  title = {Iconclass},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.iconclass.nl/}
}
Kwasnik, B. H. The use of classification for information retrieval Nov 2005   misc  
BibTeX:
@misc{KBH2005001,
  author = {Kwasnik, Barbara H.},
  title = {The use of classification for information retrieval},
  year = {Nov 2005}
}
Kwasnik, B. H. The role of classification in knowledge representation and discovery 1999 Library Trends   article  
Abstract: Article included in an issue devoted to the theme: Knowledge discovery in bibliographic databases. Explores the link between classification and knowledge. Classification schemes have properties that enable the representation of entities and relationships in structures that reflect knowledge of the domain being classified. The strengths and limitations of four classificatory approaches are described in terms of their ability to reflect, discover, and create new knowledge. These approaches are hierarchies, trees, paradigms, and faceted analysis. Examples are provided of the way in which knowledge and the classification process affect each other.
BibTeX:
@article{KBH1999001,
  author = {Kwasnik, Barbara H.},
  title = {The role of classification in knowledge representation and discovery},
  journal = {Library Trends},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {48},
  number = {1},
  pages = {22--47}
}
Kwasnik, B. H. The Role of Classification Structures in Reflecting and Building Theory 1992 Advances in classification research : proceedings of the ... ASIS SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KBH1992001,
  author = {Kwasnik, Barbara H.},
  title = {The Role of Classification Structures in Reflecting and Building Theory},
  booktitle = {Advances in classification research : proceedings of the ... ASIS SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {63--81}
}
Kwasnik, B. H. The influence of context on classificatory behavior 1989 School: Rutgers University   phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kwasnik1989,
  author = {Kwasnik, Barbara H.},
  title = {The influence of context on classificatory behavior},
  school = {Rutgers University},
  year = {1989}
}
Kwasnik, B. H., Miksa, F. L. & Crabbe, D. Classification across disciplines: The same, only different 2003 Asist 2003: Proceedings of the 66th Asist Annual Meeting, Vol 40, 2003   incollection  
Abstract: This session seeks to bridge the recognized gap between information science understandings of classification and the applications of classification techniques in various disciplines and the corporate world. Classification experts in the information sciences are challenged to look at classification from several perspectives: how do we serve different disciplines in the arts and sciences, whose discourse traditions vary?; what can we learn from the understandings of classification as it is used implicitly and explicitly to organize information in other fields?; and, from a corporate case, on the way an artificial intelligence technology approaches the problem of knowledge representation and classification.
BibTeX:
@incollection{Kwasnik2003,
  author = {Kwasnik, Barbara H. and Miksa, Francis L. and Crabbe, D.},
  title = {Classification across disciplines: The same, only different},
  booktitle = {Asist 2003: Proceedings of the 66th Asist Annual Meeting, Vol 40, 2003},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {493--493}
}
Kwasnik, B. H. & Rubin, V. L. Stretching conceptual structures in classifications across languages and cultures 2004 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: The authors describe the difficulties of translating classifications from a source language and culture to another language and culture. To demonstrate these problems, kinship terms and concepts from native speakers of fourteen languages were collected and analyzed to find differences between their terms and structures and those used in English. Using the representations of kinship terms in the Library of Congress Classification (LCC) and the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) as examples, the authors identified the source of possible lack of mapping between the domain of kinship in the fourteen languages studied and the LCC and DDC. Finally, some preliminary suggestions for how to make translated classifications more linguistically and culturally hospitable are offered. Copies of this article are available for fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service http: [mailto://docdelivery@haworthpress]. (Original abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{KBH2004001,
  author = {Kwasnik, Barbara H. and Rubin, Victoria L.},
  title = {Stretching conceptual structures in classifications across languages and cultures},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {37},
  number = {1/2},
  pages = {33--47}
}
Larsgaard, M. L. Map Librarianship: an Introduction 1998   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Larsgaard1998,
  author = {Larsgaard, Mary Lynette},
  title = {Map Librarianship: an Introduction},
  publisher = {Libraries Unlimited},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {487}
}
Le Boeuf, P. Brave new FRBR world (version 5) 2007 5th IFLA meeting of experts on an international cataloguing code   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{LBP2005001,
  author = {Le Boeuf, Patrick},
  title = {Brave new FRBR world (version 5)},
  booktitle = {5th IFLA meeting of experts on an international cataloguing code},
  publisher = {IFLA},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.imeicc5.com/index.php?content=papers}
}
Letarte, K. M., Turvey, M. R., Borneman, D. & Adams, D. L. Practitioner perspectives on cataloging education for entry-level academic librarians 2002 Library resources & technical services   article  
Abstract: The role of cataloguing education within the library profession is a topic of considerable interest and debate. Reports results of a questionnaire survey involving 55 heads of reference and 65 heads of cataloguing in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) institutions, based on the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services Educational Policy Statement, Appendix: Knowledge and Skills, Intellectual Access and Information Organization, concerning the importance of cataloguing competencies for all entry-level academic librarians. The survey found that practitioners agreed upon a definite set of core cataloguing competencies that all entry level academic librarians should possess. This finding holds larger implications for library education for academic librarians and for the profession as a whole.
BibTeX:
@article{LK-2002001,
  author = {Letarte, Karen M. and Turvey, Michelle R. and Borneman, Dea and Adams, David L.},
  title = {Practitioner perspectives on cataloging education for entry-level academic librarians},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {46},
  number = {1},
  pages = {11--22}
}
of Library Associations, I. F. & (IFLA), I. ISBD(M): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{ISBDM2002,
  author = {International Federation of Library Associations and Insitutions (IFLA)},
  title = {ISBD(M): International Standard Bibliographic Description for Monographic Publications},
  publisher = {IFLA},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {67},
  edition = {2002 Revision}
}
Lopez-Huertas, M. J. Thesaurus structure design: a conceptual approach for improved interaction 1997 Journal of Documentation   article  
Abstract: Explores the possibility of creating a thesaurus from the cognitive viewpoint. This approach is based on a system that organizes its representation of knowledge or its classification as closely as possible to the authors' and users' images of the subject domain with the objective of increasing the interaction between users and texts, and thus the communication in a given information retrieval system. Discourse analysis is used as a main method to identify the categories and its relevance for building such a structure is discussed. Original abstract-amended.
BibTeX:
@article{LHM1997001,
  author = {Lopez-Huertas, Maria J.},
  title = {Thesaurus structure design: a conceptual approach for improved interaction},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {53},
  number = {2},
  pages = {139--177}
}
Losee, R. M. How to study classification systems and their appropriateness for individual institutions 1995 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: Contribution to an issue devoted to Classification: options and opportunities. Answers to questions concerning individual library decisions to adopt classification systems are important in understanding the effectiveness of libraries but are difficult to provide. Discusses measures of classification system performance, as well as different methodologies that may be used to seek answers, ranging from formal or philosophical models to quantitative experimental techniques and qualitative methods. Original abstract-amended.
BibTeX:
@article{Losee1995,
  author = {Losee, Robert M.},
  title = {How to study classification systems and their appropriateness for individual institutions},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {19},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {45--58}
}
Losee, R. M. 7 FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS FOR THE SCIENCE OF LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION 1993 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: For classification to advance to the point where optimal systems may be developed for manual or automated use, it will be necessary for a science of document or library classification to be developed. Seven questions are posed which the author feels must be answered before such optimal systems can be developed. Suggestions are made as to the forms that answers to these questions might take.
BibTeX:
@article{LRM1993001,
  author = {Losee, Robert M.},
  title = {7 FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS FOR THE SCIENCE OF LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {20},
  number = {2},
  pages = {65--70}
}
Losee, R. M. Minimizing information overload: The ranking of electronic messages 1989 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: Electronic message systems can contribute to 'information overload'--the examination of irrelevant messages leading to economic loss. Proposes a model to predict the usefulness of a message based on the available message features which may be useful for ranking messages by expected importance or economic worth. Describes several experiments to evaluate the ability of a computer program consistent with the model to separate relevant from non-relevant messages using software developed from UNIX shell programs and messages from USENET news-groups. 00 Original abstract--amended
BibTeX:
@article{Losee1989,
  author = {Losee, Robert M.},
  title = {Minimizing information overload: The ranking of electronic messages},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {15},
  number = {3},
  pages = {179--189}
}
Luk, A. T. Evaluating bibliographic displays from the users' point of view: a focus group study 1996 School: University of Toronto   mastersthesis URL  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{LAT1996001,
  author = {Luk, Annie T.},
  title = {Evaluating bibliographic displays from the users' point of view: a focus group study},
  school = {University of Toronto},
  year = {1996},
  url = {http://www.fis.utoronto.ca/images/documents/research/projects/luk.pdf}
}
Mai, J. Classification in context: Relativity, reality, and representation 2004 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes. Mai (2004) identifies a shift in classification theory and research. We have moved from viewing bibliographic classification is not the same as scientific and philosophic classification. The universal bibliographic classification schemes that grew out of the late 19th century obsession with taxonomy must be viewed for what they are: representations of specific perspectives on the organization of the world and topics within it, made by specific men, in specific places, at specific times. Any classification is inextricably bound up in the context in which it is created. Understanding this is what has precipitated the shift from attempting to uncover universal truths about classifications, or True Classifications to developing ways to study ways classifications are used in contexts and how understanding contexts can inform the development of classifications that will work in those domains.
BibTeX:
@article{MJE2004001,
  author = {Mai, Jens-Erik},
  title = {Classification in context: Relativity, reality, and representation},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {31},
  number = {1},
  pages = {39--48}
}
Mandel, C. A. & Wolven, R. Intellectual access to digital documents: Joining proven principles with new technologies 1996 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Considers the relevance of Charles Ami Cutter's principles of bibliographic access to Internet accessible digital materials and explores new methods for applying these principles in the context of new information technologies. Examines the value for retrieval of collecting authors' names, identifying authors' roles, collocating works and versions, and providing subject access through classification and controlled vocabularies for digital resources available through the World Wide Web (WWW). Identifies emerging technologies and techniques that may be used in lieu of or as a supplement to traditional cataloguing to achieve these functions in organizing access to Internet resources.
BibTeX:
@article{Mandel1996,
  author = {Mandel, C. A. and Wolven, R.},
  title = {Intellectual access to digital documents: Joining proven principles with new technologies},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {25--42}
}
Maniez, J. A DECADE OF RESEARCH IN CLASSIFICATION 1991 International Classification   article  
BibTeX:
@article{MJ-1991001,
  author = {Maniez, Jacques},
  title = {A DECADE OF RESEARCH IN CLASSIFICATION},
  journal = {International Classification},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {18},
  number = {2},
  pages = {73--77}
}
Mann, T. The Peloponnesian War and the Future of Reference, Cataloging, and Scholarship in Research Libraries 2007   techreport URL  
BibTeX:
@techreport{MT-2007001,
  author = {Mann, Thomas},
  title = {The Peloponnesian War and the Future of Reference, Cataloging, and Scholarship in Research Libraries},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {41},
  url = {http://www.guild2910.org/Peloponnesian%20War%20June%2013%202007.pdf}
}
Manovich, L. Database as a Symbolic Form 2001   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{ML-2001001,
  author = {Manovich, Lev},
  title = {Database as a Symbolic Form},
  year = {2001},
  url = {http://www.libr.org/Juice/issues/vol7/LJ_7.4.html#2}
}
Marchetti, A., Tesconi, M., Ronzano, F., Rosella, M. & Minutoli, S. SemKey: A semantic collaborative tagging system 2007 WWW2007 Tagging and Metadata for Social Information Organizations   inproceedings  
Abstract: By analysing the current structure and the usage patterns of collaborative tagging systems, we can find out many important aspects which still need to be improved. Problems related to synonymy, polysemy, di erent lexical forms, mispelling errors or alternate spellings, di erent levels of precision and di erent kinds of tag-to-resource association cause inconsistencies and reduce the effciency of content search and the e ectiveness of the tag space structuring and organization. They are mainly caused by the lack of semantic information inclusion in the tagging process. We propose a new way to describe resources: the semantic tagging. It allows user to state semantic assertions: each of them expresses a defined characteristic of a resource associating it with a concept. We present SemKey, a semantic collaborative tagging system, describing its global architecture and functioning along with the most relevant organizational issues faced. We explore the adequacy of the support o ered by the entries of Wikipedia and WordNet in order to access to and reference concepts.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{MA-2007001,
  author = {Marchetti, Andrea and Tesconi, Maurizio and Ronzano, Francesco and Rosella, Marco and Minutoli, Salvatore},
  title = {SemKey: A semantic collaborative tagging system},
  booktitle = {WWW2007 Tagging and Metadata for Social Information Organizations},
  year = {2007}
}
Marco, F. J. G. & Navarro, M. A. E. On some contributions of the cognitive sciences snd epistemology to a theory of classification 1993 Knowledge Organization   article  
BibTeX:
@article{MFJ1993001,
  author = {Marco, Francisco Javier Garcia and Navarro, Miguel Angel Esteban},
  title = {On some contributions of the cognitive sciences snd epistemology to a theory of classification},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {20},
  number = {3},
  pages = {126--132}
}
Marcum, D. B. Response to "On the record: Report of the Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control" 2008   techreport URL  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Marcum2008,
  author = {Marcum, Deanna B.},
  title = {Response to "On the record: Report of the Library of Congress Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control"},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {75},
  url = {http://www.loc.gov/bibliographic-future/news/LCWGRptResponse_DM_053008.pdf}
}
Markey, K. Subject Access to Visual Resources Collections: A Model for Computer Construction of Thematic Catalogs 1986   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Markey1986,
  author = {Markey, Karen},
  title = {Subject Access to Visual Resources Collections: A Model for Computer Construction of Thematic Catalogs},
  publisher = {Greenwood Press},
  year = {1986}
}
Marlow, C., Naaman, M., boyd, d. & Davis, M. HT06, Tagging Paper, Taxonomy, Flickr, Academic Article, ToRead 2006 Proceedings of Hypertext 2006   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{MC-2006001,
  author = {Marlow, Cameron and Naaman, Mor and boyd, danah and Davis, Marc},
  title = {HT06, Tagging Paper, Taxonomy, Flickr, Academic Article, ToRead},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of Hypertext 2006},
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  year = {2006}
}
Mathes, A. Folksonomies - Cooperative classification and communication through shared metadata Dec 2004   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{MA-2004001,
  author = {Mathes, Adam},
  title = {Folksonomies - Cooperative classification and communication through shared metadata},
  year = {Dec 2004},
  url = {http://www.adammathes.com/academic/computer-mediated-communication/folksonomies.pdf}
}
Maxwell, R. L. FRBR: A guide for the perplexed 2008   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Maxwell2008,
  author = {Maxwell, Robert L.},
  title = {FRBR: A guide for the perplexed},
  publisher = {American Library Association},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {151}
}
Maxwell, R. L. Maxwell's Guide to Authority Work 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Maxwell2002,
  author = {Maxwell, Robert L},
  title = {Maxwell's Guide to Authority Work},
  publisher = {American Library Association},
  year = {2002}
}
McAllister-Harper, D. An analysis of courses in cataloging and classification and related areas offered in sixteen graduate library schools and their relationship to present and future trends in cataloging and classification and to cognitive needs of professional academic catalogers 1993 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: Article included in an issue devoted to the proceedings of the 3rd Annette Lewis Phinazee Symposium: Education for the Technical Services: Putting Theory into Practice for the 1990s. Examines what is taught in 16 library schools in the USA. The trends and needs of cataloguing and classification professionals were analyzed from professional literature and compared with course descriptions. Identifies the variety of ways that cataloguing content is covered in education programmes particularly the titles of courses containing cataloguing content and also calls for curriculum experts to be aware of the quantitative and qualitative requirements of the profession. Original abstract-amended.
BibTeX:
@article{MHD1993001,
  author = {McAllister-Harper, Desretta},
  title = {An analysis of courses in cataloging and classification and related areas offered in sixteen graduate library schools and their relationship to present and future trends in cataloging and classification and to cognitive needs of professional academic catalogers},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {16},
  number = {3},
  pages = {99--123}
}
McArthur, R. & Bruza, P. Representing Knowledge in Online Communities 2001 Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Document Computing Symposium   inproceedings  
Abstract: A number of conditions are necessary for the formation of glue to keep an online community together. One condition of the glue is community knowledge. We describe a theoretical basis and a practical representation framework on which community knowledge can be built and used. An illustrative example is given and further work noted.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{MR-2001001,
  author = {McArthur, Robert and Bruza, Peter},
  title = {Representing Knowledge in Online Communities},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Document Computing Symposium },
  year = {2001},
  pages = {91--94}
}
McGuinness, D. L. & van Harmelen, F. OWL Web Ontology Langage Overview 2004   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{McGuinness2004,
  author = {McGuinness, Deborah L. and van Harmelen, Frank},
  title = {OWL Web Ontology Langage Overview},
  year = {2004},
  url = {http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-features/}
}
McQuire, S. Visions of Modernity: Representation, Memory, Time and Space in the Age of the Camera 1998   book  
BibTeX:
@book{McQuire1998,
  author = {McQuire, Scott},
  title = {Visions of Modernity: Representation, Memory, Time and Space in the Age of the Camera},
  publisher = {SAGE Publications},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {279}
}
Medeiros, N. Bibliographic challenges in historical context: looking back to 1982 2007 OCLC Systems & Services   article  
Abstract: Abstract: Purpose ? The purpose of this article is to reflect on the state of bibliographic access. Design/methodology/approach ? The article contrasts today's bibliographic challenges with those of 25 years ago. Findings ? The article suggests many of the inadequacies that existed in the past will persist into the future. Originality/value ? The article provides a means of viewing today's bibliographic environment in historical context.
BibTeX:
@article{Medeiros2007,
  author = {Medeiros, Norm},
  title = {Bibliographic challenges in historical context: looking back to 1982},
  journal = {OCLC Systems & Services},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {23},
  number = {4},
  pages = {332--334}
}
Medeiros, N. Good enough is good enough: cataloging lessons from the University of California Libraries 2007 OCLC Systems & Services   article  
Abstract: Abstract: Purpose ? The purpose of this paper is to seek to inspire discussions about cataloging practices in academic libraries. Design/methodology/approach ? The article reviews the recent University of California Libraries report, Rethinking How We Provide Bibliographic Services for the University of California. Findings ? The UC report is sprinkled with a sufficient and warranted number of alarming statements about the future of libraries. It should serve as a wake-up call. Originality/value ? Readers will be acquainted with a recent, important work, the premises of which are central to the services provided by academic libraries.
BibTeX:
@article{Medeiros2007b,
  author = {Medeiros, Norm},
  title = {Good enough is good enough: cataloging lessons from the University of California Libraries},
  journal = {OCLC Systems & Services},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3},
  pages = {155--158}
}
Medeiros, N. The catalog's last stand 2007 OCLC Systems & Services   article  
Abstract: Abstract: Purpose ? The purpose of this paper is to describe the uncertain future of the online catalog, and the tensions that exist between creating a code that meets user needs while adhering to principles deemed necessary to librarians. Design/methodology/approach ? The paper uses provocative statements from the Taiga Forum to illustrate various points. Findings ? The paper finds that tension will exist for time to come between those who favor RDA's richness and those who claim RDA (1999) is too complex to be adopted by other information communities. Originality/value ? The paper provides thoughtful commentary on troubling issues surrounding cataloging and the future of the online catalog.
BibTeX:
@article{Medeiros2007a,
  author = {Medeiros, Norm},
  title = {The catalog's last stand},
  journal = {OCLC Systems & Services},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {23},
  number = {3},
  pages = {235--237}
}
Menchen, E. Feedback, motivation and collectivity in a social bookmarking system 2005 Kairosnews computers and writing online conference   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{ME-2005001,
  author = {Menchen, Ericka},
  title = {Feedback, motivation and collectivity in a social bookmarking system},
  booktitle = {Kairosnews computers and writing online conference},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://kairosnews.org/node/4338}
}
Meyer, E. A. XFN and FOAF 2004   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Meyer2004,
  author = {Meyer, Eric A.},
  title = {XFN and FOAF},
  year = {2004},
  url = {http://gmpg.org/xfn/xfn-foaf}
}
Miksa, F. L. The cultural legacy of the "modern library" for the future 2007   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: The cultural legacy of the library to contemporary society is examined in order to provide a basis for discussing present changes taking place in the LIS field and in LIS education. By viewing the manifestation of the library over time as an ?era-specific? societal phenomenon, the modern library, which began in the mid-19th century and is still present, will be seen as replacing an earlier era-specific library, but also as currently being challenged by the beginnings of a new library era. The modern library is next contrasted with the library it replaced, after which three significant features of the modern library now being challenged are explored and contrasted with the emerging libraryhow the library is viewed as a social institution; how its normative target public is conceptualized; and what is acceptable as its normative funding. Lastly, speculations are provided as to how LIS education might respond to the challenges and changes that the emerging library is bringing.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{MF-2007001,
  author = {Miksa, Francis L.},
  title = {The cultural legacy of the "modern library" for the future},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~miksa/publications/ModLib_Rev2007_071208.pdf}
}
Miksa, F. L. The DDC Relative Index 2006 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: The ?Relative Index? of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) is investigated over the span of its lifetime in 22 editions of the DDC as to its character as a concept indexing system, its provision of conceptual contexts for the terms it lists, and the way in which the index intersects with special tables of categories used in the system. Striking features of the index that are discussed include how the locater function of an index is expressed in it, its practice of including concepts that have not been given specific notational locations in the system, its two methods of providing conceptual contexts for indexed terms (by means of the notation of the system and by the insertion of enhancement terms that portray conceptual context), and how the index has intersected with three types of special tables of categories in the system. Critical issues raised include the indexing of constructed or synthesized complex concepts, inconsistencies in how enhancement terms are portrayed and the absence of them in some instances, the problem of equating conceptual context with disciplinary context, and problems associated with not indexing one type of special table. Summary and conclusions are extended to problems that arise in studying the index.
BibTeX:
@article{MFL2006001,
  author = {Miksa, Francis L.},
  title = {The DDC Relative Index},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {42},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {65--95}
}
Miksa, F. L. The Concept of the Universe of Knowledge and the Purpose of LIS Classification 1992 Classification research for knowledge representation and organization : proceedings of the 5th International Study Conference on Classification Research   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{MFL1992001,
  author = {Miksa, Francis L.},
  title = {The Concept of the Universe of Knowledge and the Purpose of LIS Classification},
  booktitle = {Classification research for knowledge representation and organization : proceedings of the 5th International Study Conference on Classification Research},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {101--126}
}
Miles, A. & Matthews, B. Inter-Thesaurus Mapping   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Miles,
  author = {Miles, Alistair and Matthews, Brian},
  title = {Inter-Thesaurus Mapping},
  url = {http://www.w3c.rl.ac.uk/SWAD/deliverables/8.4.html}
}
Miles, A. & Perez-Aguera, J. SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization for the Web 2007 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: This article introduces the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS), a Semantic Web language for representing controlled structured vocabularies, including thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading systems and taxonomies. SKOS provides a framework for publishing thesauri, classification schemes, and subject indexes on the Web, and for applying these systems to resource collections that are part of the Semantic Web. Semantic Web applications may harvest and merge SKOS data, to integrate and enhance retrieval service across multiple collections (e.g. libraries). This article also describes some alternatives for integrating Semantic Web services based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SKOS into a distributed enterprise architecture. (Copies of this article are available for a fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service, Haworth Press, Inc. E-Mail: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com, Web site http://www.HaworthPress.com). (Author abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{MA-2007002,
  author = {Miles, Alistair and Perez-Aguera, Jose},
  title = {SKOS: Simple Knowledge Organization for the Web},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {43},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {69--83}
}
Miles, A., Rogers, N. & Beckett, D. SKOS-Core 1.0 Guide   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Milesa,
  author = {Miles, Alistair and Rogers, Nikki and Beckett, Dave},
  title = {SKOS-Core 1.0 Guide},
  url = {http://www.w3c.rl.ac.uk/SWAD/skos/1.0/guide/draft01.html}
}
Mortimer, M. Learn Dewey Decimal Classification (edition 21) 2000   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Mortimer2000,
  author = {Mortimer, Mary},
  title = {Learn Dewey Decimal Classification (edition 21)},
  publisher = {Scarecrow Press in cooperation with DocMatrix Pty. Ltd., Canberra, Australia},
  year = {2000}
}
Naaman, M., Paepcke, A. & Garcia-Molina, H. From where to what: Metadata sharing for digital photographs with geographic coordinates 2003 On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2003: Coopis, Doa, and Odbase   incollection  
Abstract: We describe LOCALE, a system that allows cooperating information systems to share labels for photographs. Participating photographs are enhanced with a geographic location stamp - the latitude and longitude where the photograph was taken. For a photograph with no label, LOCALE can use the shared information to assign a label based on other photographs that were taken in the same area. LOCALE thus allows (i) text search over unlabeled sets of photos, and (ii) automated label suggestions for unlabeled photos. We have implemented a LOCALE prototype where users cooperate in submitting labels and locations, enhancing search quality for all users in the system. We ran an experiment to test the system in centralized and distributed settings. The results show that the system performs search tasks with surprising accuracy, even when searching for specific landmarks.
BibTeX:
@incollection{NM-2003001,
  author = {Naaman, Mor and Paepcke, Andreas and Garcia-Molina, Hector},
  title = {From where to what: Metadata sharing for digital photographs with geographic coordinates},
  booktitle = {On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2003: Coopis, Doa, and Odbase},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {196--217}
}
Neelameghan, A. S. R. Ranganathan's General Theory of Knowledge Classification in designing, indexing and retrieving from specialised databases. 1997 Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies   article  
Abstract: Summarizes some experiences of the application of the principles and postulates of S. R. Ranganathan's General Theory of Knowledge Classification, incorporating the freely faceted approach and analytico synthetic method, to the design and development of specialized databases, including indexing, user interfaces and retrieval. Enumerates some of the earlier instances of the facet method in machine based systems, beginning with Hollerith's punched card system for the data processing of the US Census. Elaborates on Ranganathan's holistic approach to information systems and services provided by his normative principles. Notes similarities between the design of databases and faceted classification systems. Examples from working systems are given to demonstrate the usefulness of selected canons and principles of classification and the analytico synthetic methodology in database design. The examples are mostly operational database systems developed using Unesco's Micro CDS-ISIS software. Original abstract-amended.
BibTeX:
@article{NA-1997001,
  author = {Neelameghan, A.},
  title = {S. R. Ranganathan's General Theory of Knowledge Classification in designing, indexing and retrieving from specialised databases.},
  journal = {Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {34},
  number = {1},
  pages = {3--53}
}
Neelameghan, A. Application of Ranganathan's general theory of knowledge classification in designing specialised databases 1992 Libri   article  
Abstract: Contribution to a thematic issue devoted to an investigation and celebration of the works of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. Discusses and presents examples of some practical applications of the postulates and techniques formulated by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan within the framework of his general theory of knowledge classification, at various stages in the design and development of specialised data bases, such as, in conceptualising, structuring and organising information as perceived by specialist users and preparing data bases therefrom; in preparing field definition tables; and in objectoriented analysis and design.
BibTeX:
@article{NA-1992001,
  author = {Neelameghan, A.},
  title = {Application of Ranganathan's general theory of knowledge classification in designing specialised databases},
  journal = {Libri },
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  number = {3},
  pages = {202--226}
}
Nicolaisen, J. & Hjörland, B. A rejoinder to Beghtol (2004) 2004 Knowledge Organization   article  
BibTeX:
@article{BCL2003001d,
  author = {Nicolaisen, Jeppe and Hjörland, Birger},
  title = {A rejoinder to Beghtol (2004)},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {31},
  number = {3},
  pages = {199--201}
}
Noruzi, A. Folksonomies: (Un)Controlled Vocabulary? 2006 Knowledge Organization   article URL  
Abstract: Folksonomy, a free-form tagging, is a user-generated classification system of web contents that allows users to tag their favorite web resources with their chosen words or phrases selected from natural language. These tags (also called concepts, categories, facets or entities) can be used to classify web resources and to express users' preferences. Folksonomy-based systems allow users to classify web resources through tagging bookmarks, photos or other web resources and saving them to a public web site like Del.icio.us. Thus information about web resources and online articles can be shared in an easy way. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the folksonomy tagging phenomenon (also called social tagging and social bookmarking) and explore some of the reasons why we need controlled vocabularies, discussing the problems associated with folksonomy.
BibTeX:
@article{NA-2006001,
  author = {Noruzi, Alireza},
  title = {Folksonomies: (Un)Controlled Vocabulary?},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {33},
  number = {4},
  pages = {199--203},
  url = {http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00011286/}
}
O'Neill, E. T. & Chan, L. M. FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology): A Simplified LCSH-Based Vocabulary 2003 World Library and Information Congress: 69th IFLA General Conference and Council   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OET2003001,
  author = {O'Neill, Edward T. and Chan, Lois Mai},
  title = {FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology): A Simplified LCSH-Based Vocabulary},
  booktitle = {World Library and Information Congress: 69th IFLA General Conference and Council},
  year = {2003}
}
Ohlgren, T. H. Subject indexing of visual resources: A survey 1980 Visual resources   article  
Abstract: A selective survey of developments in the subject indexing of visual materials, based on the following meetings: Subject access to visual images, College Art Association, New York, Jan 78; International conference on automatic processing of art history data and documents, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Sept 78; 1st international conference on data bases in the humanities and social sciences, Dartmouth College, USA, Aug 79; International conference on computerised inventory standards for works of art, Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Nov 79; 80th annual conference of the Art Libraries Society of North America, New Orleans, Jan 80; and Archival automation: future access to the past, University of Maryland, Apr 80. Concludes that activities must be coordinated, now that communication has begun.
BibTeX:
@article{OTH1980001,
  author = {Ohlgren, Thomas H.},
  title = {Subject indexing of visual resources: A survey},
  journal = {Visual resources},
  year = {1980},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {67--73}
}
Olson, H. A. The power to name: locating the limits of subject representation in libraries 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Olson2002,
  author = {Olson, Hope A.},
  title = {The power to name: locating the limits of subject representation in libraries},
  publisher = {Kluwer},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {261}
}
Olson, H. A. Sameness and difference - A cultural foundation of classification 2001 Library resources & technical services   article  
Abstract: The idea of sameness is used to gather material in classifications. However it is also used to separate what is different. Sameness and difference as guiding principles of classification seem obvious but are actually fundamental characteristics specifically related to Western culture. Sameness is not a singular factor but has the potential to represent multiple characteristics or facets. This article explores the ramifications of which characteristics are used to define classifications and in what order it explains the primacy of division by discipline, its origins in Western philosophy, and the cultural specificity that results. The Dewey Decimal Classification is used as an example throughout.
BibTeX:
@article{OHA2001001,
  author = {Olson, Hope A.},
  title = {Sameness and difference - A cultural foundation of classification},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {45},
  number = {3},
  pages = {115--122}
}
Olson, H. A. Universal models: A history of the organization of knowledge 1994 Advances in knowledge organization   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OHA1994001,
  author = {Olson, Hope A.},
  title = {Universal models: A history of the organization of knowledge},
  booktitle = {Advances in knowledge organization},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {72--80}
}
Oyler, P. G. Teaching classification in the 21st century 2002 International cataloguing and bibliographic control   article  
Abstract: Classification instruction will change markedly because the needs of users have altered, as have information formats. While a theoretical overlay was present in the teaching of classification during the past century, the thrust of the courses was not the organization of information but the organization of books in catalogues and on shelves. The theoretical basis is now more important and the challenge is to educate the classifiers to organize the formats of the future while responding to the continuing need to classify print materials in libraries. Focuses on teaching the organization of information whether in digital form, the World Wide Web, databases, or in printed books on shelves.
BibTeX:
@article{OPG2002001,
  author = {Oyler, Patricia G.},
  title = {Teaching classification in the 21st century},
  journal = {International cataloguing and bibliographic control},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {31},
  number = {1},
  pages = {16--17}
}
Paling, S. Classification, rhetoric, and the classificatory horizon 2004 Library Trends   article  
Abstract: BIBLIOGRAPHY PROVIDES A COMPELLING VANTAGE from which to study the interconnection of classification, rhetoric, and the making of knowledge. Bibliography, and the related activities of classification and retrieval, bears a direct relationship to textual studies and rhetoric. The paper examines this relationship by briefly tracing the development of bibliography forward into issues concomitant with the emergence of classification for retrieval. A striking similarity to problems raised in rhetoric and which spring from common concerns and intellectual sources is demonstrated around Gadamer's notion of intellectual horizon. Classification takes place within a horizon of material conditions and social constraints that are best viewed through a hermeneutic or deconstructive lens, termed the "classificatory horizon".
BibTeX:
@article{PS-2004002,
  author = {Paling, Stephen},
  title = {Classification, rhetoric, and the classificatory horizon},
  journal = {Library Trends},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {52},
  number = {3},
  pages = {588--603}
}
Palomino, N. The Bibliographic Concept of Work in Cataloguing and Its Issues 2003 School: Graduate School of Information, University of Texas   mastersthesis  
Abstract: This report explores the IFLA?s document Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR). It discusses the notion of work in cataloguing as it was built since the 1950s, inasmuch this notion constitutes the conceptual framework for the proposal. Also, the entity-relationship database modeling (ERDM) system is described as far as such model provides to FRBR the operative elements that make it functional. ERDM gives to FRBR a user-centered approach as well. In its third chapter, the report tests the FRBR model through its application to a set of items belonging to the novel Rayuela, by Julio Cort?zar, held at the Benson Latin American Collection of the University of Texas at Austin. Finally, some critical issues are raised along with general conclusions regarding the functionality of the model
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{PN-2003001,
  author = {Palomino, Norma},
  title = {The Bibliographic Concept of Work in Cataloguing and Its Issues},
  school = {Graduate School of Information, University of Texas},
  year = {2003}
}
Parameswaran, M. Chain procedure and Dewey Decimal Classification 1991 Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 1.   inproceedings  
Abstract: Describes the chain indexing procedure for deriving subject index entries for a classified catalogue. The problems involved in deriving subject entries based on Dewey Decimal Classification numbers due to defects in the hierachical structure of the notation and lack of precise terminology are studied and solutions are suggested. Alternative solutions for tackling the problem of synonyms are also discussed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Parameswaran1991,
  author = {Parameswaran, M.},
  title = {Chain procedure and Dewey Decimal Classification},
  booktitle = {Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 1.},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {250--258}
}
Park, J. Hindrances in semantic mapping involving thesauri and metadata: a linguistic perspective 2002 Journal of internet cataloging   article  
Abstract: Optimal success in the organization of heterogeneous networked resources and in the attainment of optimal recall and precision in the harvesting of these resources and exchanging of information depends on how best to deal with the characteristics of natural language in correlation with information technology and with the user's information seeking behaviour. The characteristics of natural languages pose enormous challenges in attaining optimal resource discovery, as well as in exchanging information in the process of semantic mapping involving thesauri and metadata and in developing multilingual metathesauri. Ambiguity caused by polysemy especially hinders the capacity of semantic mapping, making the implementation of crosswalks for resource exchange potentially chaotic. Therefore, disambiguation of the multiple meanings of polysemous terms is absolutely essential for achieving interoperability involving thesauri and metadata.
BibTeX:
@article{Park2002,
  author = {Park, Jung-ran},
  title = {Hindrances in semantic mapping involving thesauri and metadata: a linguistic perspective},
  journal = {Journal of internet cataloging},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {5},
  number = {3},
  pages = {59--77}
}
Pattern, D. Are you happy with your OPAC? 2007 Update   article URL  
BibTeX:
@article{PD-2007001,
  author = {Pattern, Dave},
  title = {Are you happy with your OPAC?},
  journal = {Update},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {6},
  number = {10},
  pages = {32--34},
  url = {http://www.cilip.org.uk/NR/exeres/CC89E0D5-77DF-44E2-989E-98D76B809B77}
}
Pejtersen, A. M. A new approach to design of document retrieval and indexing systems for OPAC users 1993 Online Information 93: Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Online Information Meeting   inproceedings  
Abstract: Paper presented at Online Information 93, the Seventeenth International Online Information Meeting, London, 7-9 December 1993. Describes a new OPAC system called the Book House. Discusses it relevance as a solution to current OPAC developments. It is an interactive, multimedia, system designed to support casual and/or novice end-users in information retrieval. The design is based on a new approach to cognitive analysis of retrieval in libraries. Original abstract-amended.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{PAM1993001,
  author = {Pejtersen, Annelise Mark},
  title = {A new approach to design of document retrieval and indexing systems for OPAC users},
  booktitle = {Online Information 93: Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Online Information Meeting},
  publisher = {Learned Information (Europe) Ltd},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {273--290}
}
Quan, D., Bakshi, K., Huynh, D. & Kargar, D. User interfaces for supporting multiple categorization 2003 Interact 2003   inproceedings  
Abstract: As the amount of information stored on and accessed by computer has increased over the past twenty years, the tools available for organizing and retrieving such information have become outdated. The folder paradigm has dominated existing user interfaces as the primary mechanism for organizing information for day-to-day use. This paradigm encourages many-to-one placement of documents into strictly hierarchical containers. In this paper we examine an alternative organization and navigation mechanism that promotes membership in multiple overlapping categories (as opposed to storage containment). In particular, we explore the user interface consequences of multiple categorization support being made conveniently available from within Web browsers. We have carried out user studies providing evidence that compared to the folder paradigm, multiple categorization not only improves organization and retrieval times but also matches more closely with the way users naturally think about organizing their information.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{QD-2003001,
  author = {Quan, Dennis and Bakshi, Karun and Huynh, David and Kargar, David},
  title = {User interfaces for supporting multiple categorization},
  booktitle = {Interact 2003},
  year = {2003}
}
Quinn, B. RECENT THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN CLASSIFICATION AND INDEXING 1994 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: This article is a selective review of recent studies in classification and indexing theory. A number of important problems are discussed, including subjectivity versus objectivity, theories of indexing, the theoretical role of automation, and theoretical approaches to a universal classification scheme. Interestingly, much of the work appears to have been done outside the United States. After reviewing the theoretical work itself, some possible reasons for the non-American origins of the work are explored.
BibTeX:
@article{QB-1994001,
  author = {Quinn, Brian},
  title = {RECENT THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN CLASSIFICATION AND INDEXING},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {21},
  number = {3},
  pages = {140--147}
}
Rafferty, P. The Representation of Knowledge in Library Classification Schemes 2001 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: This article explores the representation of knowledge through the discursive practice of 'general' or 'universal' classification schemes. These classification schemes were constructed within a philosophical framework which viewed 'man' as the central focus in the universe, which believed in progress through science and research, and which privileged written documentation over other forms. All major classification schemes are built on clearly identifiable systems of knowledge, and all classification schemes, as discursive formations, regulate the ways in which knowledge is made accessible. Of particular interest in determining how knowledge is represented in classification schemes are the following:- Main classes: classification theorists have attempted to 'discipline epistemology' in the sense of imposing main class structures with the view to simplifying access to knowledge in documents for library users.- Notational language: a number of classification theorists were particularly interested in the establishment of symbolic languages through notation.The article considers these aspects of classification theory in relation to: the Dewey Decimal Classification scheme; Otlet and La Fontaine's Universal Bibliographic Classification and the International Institute of Bibliography; Henry Evelyn Bliss's Bibliographic Classification; and S.R. Ranganathan's Colon Classification.
BibTeX:
@article{RP-2001001,
  author = {Rafferty, Pauline},
  title = {The Representation of Knowledge in Library Classification Schemes},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {28},
  number = {4},
  pages = {180--191}
}
Raj, P. Position and organisation of subject content of anaesthesiology in different library classification systems 1991 Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 1.   inproceedings  
Abstract: The organisation and representation of the subject, anaesthesiology, in 5 different classification schemes: Systematik des Sachkatalogues der Universitats-bibliothek, Dusseldorf; Dewey Decimal Classification; National Library of Medicine Classification; UDC; and Colon Classification.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Raj1991,
  author = {Raj, Padmini},
  title = {Position and organisation of subject content of anaesthesiology in different library classification systems},
  booktitle = {Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 1.},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {133--143}
}
Ranganathan, S. R. Prolegomena to library classification 1967   book  
BibTeX:
@book{RSR1967001,
  author = {Ranganathan, S. R.},
  title = {Prolegomena to library classification},
  publisher = {Asia Publishing House},
  year = {1967}
}
Rayward, W. B. Visions of Xanadu - Otlet,Paul (1868-1944) and Hypertext 1994 Journal of the American Society for Information Science   article  
Abstract: The work of the Belgian internationalist and documentalist, Paul Otlet (1868-1944), and his colleagues in Brussels, forms an important and neglected part of the history of information science. They developed a complex of organizations that are similar in important respects functionally to contemporary hypertext/hypermedia systems. These organizations effectively provided for the integration of bibliographic, image, and textual databases. Chunks of text on cards or separate sheets were created according to ''the monographic principle'' and their physical organization managed by the Universal Decimal Classification, created by the Belgians from Melvil Dewey's Decimal Classification. This article, discusses Otlet's concept of the Office of Documentation and, as examples of an approach to actual hypertext systems, several special Offices of Documentation set up in the International Office of Bibliography. In his Traite de Documentation of 1934, one of the first systematic treatises on what today we would call information science, Otlet speculated imaginatively about telecommunications, text-voice conversion, and what is needed in computer workstations, though of course he does not use this terminology. By assessing how the intellectual paradigm of nineteenth century positivism shaped Otlet's thinking, this study suggests how, despite its apparent contemporaneity, what he proposed was in fact conceptually different from the hypertext systems that have been developed or speculated about today. Such as analysis paradoxically also suggests the irony that a ''deconstructionist'' reading of accounts of these systems might find embedded in them the positivist approach to knowledge that the system designers would seem on the face of it explicitly to have repudiated.
BibTeX:
@article{Rayward1994,
  author = {Rayward, W. B.},
  title = {Visions of Xanadu - Otlet,Paul (1868-1944) and Hypertext},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {45},
  number = {4},
  pages = {235--250}
}
Reid, D. Educating library technicians: Training for the workplace 1989 Cataloguing Australia   article  
Abstract: Discusses the role of the Department of Information Studies at the Australian Capital Territory Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE) in the education of cataloguers and the changing role of library and information work and its workers. Argues that the current industry restricting foreshadows a need for different types of education and training to meet the wide range of skills now being required. The challenge lies in matching skills with industry information needs in order to fully utilise an important asset, the cataloguing staff
BibTeX:
@article{RD-1989001,
  author = {Reid, Donna},
  title = {Educating library technicians: Training for the workplace},
  journal = {Cataloguing Australia},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {15},
  number = {4},
  pages = {118--122}
}
Rockmore, M. Facet analysis and thesauri for corporate information retrieval 1991 Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 2.   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RM-1991001,
  author = {Rockmore, Marlene},
  title = {Facet analysis and thesauri for corporate information retrieval},
  booktitle = {Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 2.},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {233--238}
}
Romero, L. An evaluation of classification and subject cataloging in entry-level cataloging copy: implications for access and instruction 1995 Journal of education for library and information science   article  
Abstract: Reports results of a study, involving graduate students in an accredited library school who had completed a course on monographic cataloguing, to determine the entry level errors in subject analysis. Records were analyzed for errors in subject cataloguing and classification and results compiled for percentages of errors in subject analysis. Specific errors studied included: personal name subject headings; topical subject headings; geographical subject headings; MARC tagging; and classification. Addresses the strengths and weaknesses in subject analysis and the use of subject analysis tools. Provides insight into possible reasons for errors and presents recommendations regarding training and education of cataloguers. For the first part of this study see Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 35 (3) Summer 94, 210-26
BibTeX:
@article{RL-1995001,
  author = {Romero, Lisa},
  title = {An evaluation of classification and subject cataloging in entry-level cataloging copy: implications for access and instruction},
  journal = {Journal of education for library and information science},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {36},
  number = {3},
  pages = {217--229}
}
Rowley, J. E. Cat and class in a computer-based environment 1988 Catalogue & index   article  
Abstract: Reports on recent innovations and approaches that underlie the way in which the teaching of cataloguing and classification has evolved into a modern syllabus. The BA(Hons) Library and Information Studies Year 2 syllabus, at Manchester Polytechnic, Department of Library and Information Studies, is described as an example that illustrates the general approach taken in the teaching of information retrieval and cataloguing and classification.
BibTeX:
@article{RJE1988001,
  author = {Rowley, J. E.},
  title = {Cat and class in a computer-based environment},
  journal = {Catalogue & index},
  year = {1988},
  number = {89},
  pages = {5--7}
}
Satija, M. P. Library classification: An essay in terminology 2000 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: Arguing that an established technical terminology is crucial to the development of a discipline, and that classification terminology is neither well settled nor widely used by its exponents, this paper provides an explanation of some of the concepts generally accepted by classification theorists. In particular, the elaborate terminology generated by S.R. Ranganathan is examined. Definitions are provided for numerous concepts, including "classification"; "characteristics" and "attributes"; the genus-species relationship; the types of classes (canonical, systems, special, and environmental main classes); the kinds of subject (basic, compound, complex); as well as concepts such as facets, isolates, arrays, and chains. Comparisons between different classification systems, specifically the Dewey Decimal Classification, Colon Classification, and Library of Congress Classification, are also made.
BibTeX:
@article{SMP2000001,
  author = {Satija, Mohinder Partap},
  title = {Library classification: An essay in terminology},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {27},
  number = {4},
  pages = {221--229}
}
Satija, M. P. Classification: Some fundamentals, some myths, some realities 1998 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: The pervasiveness of classification in all human activities is described. Classification is characterized as being relative, utilitarian, and artificial. The importance of classification in library settings and academic disciplines is documented. Classification is described as an emerging, independent discipline.
BibTeX:
@article{SMP1998001,
  author = {Satija, Mohinder Partap},
  title = {Classification: Some fundamentals, some myths, some realities},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {25},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {32--35}
}
Saye, J. D. 'The Library of Congress Classification System in an online environment': A reaction 1990 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Paper presented at the 2nd Annette Lewis Phinazee Symposium on Classification as an enhancement of intellectual access to information in an online environment, held at the School of Library and Information Sciences, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina. This response to the paper by Dr. Chan, while accepting the merits of call number searching in the theoretical sense, raises questions about its usefulness in typical library situations. Compares searching on-line with call numbers and the use of classified catalogues and shleflists. Asks who is expected to do call number searching. Considers the availability of indexex to the classification scheme, problems created by the provision of only 1 class number per document, and the use of multiple cutter numbers to express the subject of a document.
BibTeX:
@article{SJD1990001,
  author = {Saye, Jerry D.},
  title = {'The Library of Congress Classification System in an online environment': A reaction},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {11},
  number = {1},
  pages = {27--35}
}
Saye, J. D. The cataloguing experience in library and information science education: An educator's perspective 1987 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: Contribution to a thematic issue on education and training for cataloguers and classifiers. Expanded version of a paper presented to the Heads of Cataloging Group, Cataloging and Classification section, Resources and Technical Services Division, at the American Library Association's (ALA) Midwinter Meeting, Jan 86. Describes 1 approach to the teaching of both basic and advanced courses in Cataloguing. Identifies the short and long-term objectives of the basic course for 4 categories of students: cataloguing specialists; general/special librarians; non-cataloguing specialists; non-library information specialists. The instruction emphasises group interaction and making the course enjoyable for the student, thus increasing interest while imparting more information and better preparing students for work. Importance is given to student participation and the use of realistic situations to instruct and evaluate student performance.
BibTeX:
@article{SJD1987001,
  author = {Saye, Jerry D.},
  title = {The cataloguing experience in library and information science education: An educator's perspective},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {7},
  number = {4},
  pages = {27--45}
}
Schmitz, C., Grahl, M., Hotho, A., Stumme, G., Cattuto, C., Baldassarri, A., Loreto, V. & Servedio, V. D. P. Network Properties of Folksonomies 2007 WWW2007 Tagging and Metadata for Social Information Organizations   inproceedings  
Abstract: Social resource sharing systems like YouTube and del.icio.us have acquired a large number of users within the last few years. They provide rich resources for data analysis, information retrieval, and knowledge discovery applications. A first step towards this end is to gain better insights into content and structure of these systems. In this paper, we will analyse the main network characteristics of two of the systems. We consider their underlying data structures socalled folksonomies as tri-partite hypergraphs, and adapt classical network measures like characteristic path length and clustering coecient to them. Subsequently, we introduce a network of tag co-occurrence and investigate some of its statistical properties, focusing on correlations in node connectivity and pointing out features that reflect emergent semantics within the folksonomy. We show that simple statistical indicators unambiguously spot non-social behavior such as spam.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SC-2007001,
  author = {Schmitz, Christoph and Grahl, Miranda and Hotho, Andreas and Stumme, Gerd and Cattuto, Ciro and Baldassarri, Andrea and Loreto, Vittorio and Servedio, Vito D. P.},
  title = {Network Properties of Folksonomies},
  booktitle = {WWW2007 Tagging and Metadata for Social Information Organizations},
  year = {2007}
}
Schmitz, P. Inducing ontology from Flickr tags 2006 WWW2006 Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop   inproceedings  
Abstract: In this paper, we describe some promising initial results in inducing ontology from the Flickr tag vocabulary, using a subsumption-based model. We describe the utility of faceted ontology as a supplement to a tagging system and present our model and results. We propose a revised, probabilistic model using seed ontologies to induce faceted ontology, and describe how the model can integrate into the logistics of tagging communities.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SP-2006001,
  author = {Schmitz, Patrick},
  title = {Inducing ontology from Flickr tags},
  booktitle = {WWW2006 Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop},
  year = {2006}
}
Scott, M. L. Dewey Decimal Classification, 22nd Edition: A Study Manual and Number Building Guide 2005   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Scott2005,
  author = {Scott, Mona L.},
  title = {Dewey Decimal Classification, 22nd Edition: A Study Manual and Number Building Guide},
  publisher = {Libraries Unlimited},
  year = {2005}
}
Sellberg, R. The teaching of cataloging in U.S. library schools 1988 Library resources & technical services   article  
BibTeX:
@article{SR-1988001,
  author = {Sellberg, Roxanne},
  title = {The teaching of cataloging in U.S. library schools},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {1988},
  volume = {32},
  number = {1},
  pages = {30--42}
}
Shapiro, J. J. & Hughes, S. K. The Personal Meaning Scheme as Principle of Information Ordering: Postmodernism, Transdisciplinarity, and the Ontology of Classification 1999 ACH-ALLC'99 International Humanities Computing Conference   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: Standard bibliographic classification schemes and scientific taxonomies are useful devices for bringing a certain order -- at least an external and abstract order -- into the mass of available information and knowledge. But they have two limitations: (1) People do not necessarily or automatically organize information and knowledge in accordance with them. Individuals -- scholars, researchers, knowledge workers, and human beings in general -- seem to organize information, at least in part, in accordance with meaning schemes and cognitive principles of their own individual personalities and lifeworlds, which are shaped by personal (Kelly 1963) and cultural forces (D'Andrade 1995) as well, of course, as by the classification schemes and taxonomies that have become embedded in them. (2) Reality itself is not necessarily or automatically structured in accordance with these schemes. While it is useful, even essential, to learn about them, they are often limited and corrupted by untenable or outmoded ontological and cosmological assumptions. In this world of increasing complexity and perpetual information flooding and, at least in the humanities and social sciences, increasingly decentered and interdisciplinary knowledge, innovation in research often comes from grasping, exploring, and articulating relationships that fall outside of or between the categories of standard schemes and that arise from a combination of interdisciplinary cross-fertilization and personal meaning schemes. Articulating and representing personal meaning schemes and using them to order information can be a valuable method of cognitive organization that can counteract information overload and contribute to intellectual and cultural creativity. And software tools for doing this are now becoming available.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SJJ1999001,
  author = {Shapiro, Jeremy J. and Hughes, Shelley K.},
  title = {The Personal Meaning Scheme as Principle of Information Ordering: Postmodernism, Transdisciplinarity, and the Ontology of Classification},
  booktitle = {ACH-ALLC'99 International Humanities Computing Conference},
  year = {1999},
  url = {http://www.iath.virginia.edu/ach-allc.99/proceedings/shapiro.html}
}
Shatford, S. Analyzing the subject of a picture: A theoretical approach 1986 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{SS-1986001,
  author = {Shatford, Sara},
  title = {Analyzing the subject of a picture: A theoretical approach},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {6},
  number = {3},
  pages = {39--62}
}
Shatford, S. Describing a picture: A thousand words are seldom cost effective 1984 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: Attempts to develop some concepts and objectives to use as a theoretical basis for the descriptive cataloguing of pictures. Suggests that although the basic objectives to be met when describing books and pictures are similar, the means used to achieve these objectives may be different. Maintains that the purpose of developing a theoretical basis for picture cataloguing is to provide the reader with the means of evaluating, adapting, and applying presently existing codes and formats, or for devising new codes and formats. Does not attempt to construct an actual code, nor to present methodical evaluations of present practices.
BibTeX:
@article{LSS1984001,
  author = {Shatford, Sara},
  title = {Describing a picture: A thousand words are seldom cost effective},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {4},
  number = {4},
  pages = {13--30}
}
Shiri, A. A. & Revie, C. Thesauri on the web: current developments and trends 2000 Online information review   article  
Abstract: Reviews recent developments in the application of thesauri in information organization and retrieval on the World Wide Web. Describes some recent thesaurus projects undertaken to facilitate resource description and discovery and access to wide-ranging information resources on the Internet. Types of thesauri available on the Web, thesauri integrated in databases and information retrieval systems and multiple-thesaurus systems for cross-database searching are also discussed. Collective efforts and events in addressing the standardisation and novel applications of thesauri are briefly reviewed.
BibTeX:
@article{SAA2000001,
  author = {Shiri, Ali Asghar and Revie, Crawford},
  title = {Thesauri on the web: current developments and trends},
  journal = {Online information review},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {24},
  number = {4},
  pages = {273--279}
}
Shiri, A. A., Revie, C. & Chowdhury, G. Thesaurus assisted search term selection and query expansion: a review of user centred studies 2002 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: Provides a review of the literature related to the application of domain specific thesauri in the search and retrieval process. Focusing on studies that adopt a user centred approach, presents a survey of the methodologies and results from empirical studies undertaken on the use of thesauri as sources of term selection for query formulation and expansion during the search process. Summarizes the ways in which domain specific thesauri from different disciplines have been used by various types of users and how these tools aid users in the selection of search terms. (Original abstract - amended)
BibTeX:
@article{SAA2002001,
  author = {Shiri, Ali Asghar and Revie, Crawford and Chowdhury, Gobinda},
  title = {Thesaurus assisted search term selection and query expansion: a review of user centred studies},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--19}
}
Shirky, C. Ontology is overrated: categories, links, and tags 2005   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{SC-2005001,
  author = {Shirky, Clay},
  title = {Ontology is overrated: categories, links, and tags},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://www.shirky.com/writings/ontology_overrated.html}
}
Simone, C. & Sarini, M. Adaptability of classification schemes in cooperation: what does it mean? 2001 ECSCW 2001: Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SC-2001002,
  author = {Simone, Carla and Sarini, Marcello},
  title = {Adaptability of classification schemes in cooperation: what does it mean?},
  booktitle = {ECSCW 2001: Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work},
  publisher = {Kluwer},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {19--38}
}
Simpson, B. Collections define cataloging's future 2007 The Journal of Academic Librarianship   article  
Abstract: The role of catalogers within academic libraries is evolving to meet new demands and cultivating a broader understanding of cataloging--one that focuses on collections, not the catalog, and applies cataloger expertise across metadata activities. Working collaboratively as never before, catalogers are reinventing their place within the library.
BibTeX:
@article{Simpson2007,
  author = {Simpson, Betsy},
  title = {Collections define cataloging's future},
  journal = {The Journal of Academic Librarianship},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {33},
  number = {4},
  pages = {507--511}
}
Slavic, A. Teaching classification to fit a modern and sustainable LIS curriculum: The case of Croatia 2002 International cataloguing and bibliographic control   article  
Abstract: Library classification in the Croatian library school at the department of information sciences, University of Zagreb, has an important place in the curriculum, because classification is the most important indexing language in Croatian libraries, documentation centres and services, and its role has not been undermined by automation as is the case elsewhere. The course Classification and Classification Systems has undergone many changes since the school was established in 1975. Important objectives are to teach content analysis and classification as a process and demonstrate how to adapt and use classification for different purposes and different environments. The current syllabus embraces the use of classification in information organization and for book and non-book materials, information resources on the Internet and, even more importantly, the course covers the application of classification in information retrieval and discovery.
BibTeX:
@article{SA-2002001,
  author = {Slavic, Aida},
  title = {Teaching classification to fit a modern and sustainable LIS curriculum: The case of Croatia},
  journal = {International cataloguing and bibliographic control},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {31},
  number = {1},
  pages = {13--15}
}
Slavic, A., Cordeiro, M. I. & Riesthuis, G. Maintenance of the Universal Decimal Classification: overview of the past and preparations for the future 2008 International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control   article URL  
Abstract: The paper highlights some aspects of the UDC management policy for 2007 and onwards. Following an overview of the long history of modernization of the classification, which started in the 1960s and has influenced the scheme's revision and development since 1990, major changes and policies from the recent history of the UDC revision are summarized. The perspective of the new editorial team, established in 2007, is presented. The new policy focuses on the improved organization and efficiency of editorial work and the improvement of UDC products.
BibTeX:
@article{Slavic2008,
  author = {Slavic, Aida and Cordeiro, Maria Ines and Riesthuis, Gerhard},
  title = {Maintenance of the Universal Decimal Classification: overview of the past and preparations for the future},
  journal = {International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {37},
  number = {2},
  pages = {23-29},
  url = {http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/2388/}
}
Slone, D. J. Encounters With the Opac: on-Line Searching in Public Libraries 2000 Journal of the American Society for Information Science   article  
Abstract: This article reports on a qualitative study exploring: (1) strategies and behaviors of public library users during interaction with an on-line public access catalog; and (2) users' confidence in finding needed information on-line. Questionnaires, interviews, and observations were employed to gather data from 32 public library users. The results found search behaviors, confidence, and other feelings varied, based on three types of searches: unknown-item searches, area searches, and known-item searches. Term generation was the most important factor in unknown-item search strategies. Speed and convenience played a role in area searches, and simplicity characterized known-item searches. Of the three types, unknown-item searchers experienced the most frustration and doubt; known-item searchers the most disappointment; and area searchers the most confidence and contentment. Knowledge of these differences may prove helpful for librarians and interface designers.
BibTeX:
@article{SDJ2000001,
  author = {Slone, Debra J.},
  title = {Encounters With the Opac: on-Line Searching in Public Libraries},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {51},
  number = {8},
  pages = {757--773}
}
Smiraglia, R. P. Works as Signs, Symbols, and Canons: the Epistemology of the Work 2001 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: Works are key entities in the universe of recorded knowledge. Works are those deliberate creations (known variously as opera, oeuvres, Werke, etc.) that constitute individual sets of created conceptions that stand as the formal records of knowledge. In the information retrieval domain, the work as opposed to the document, has only recently received focused attention. In this paper, the definition of the work as an entity for information retrieval is examined. A taxonomic definition (that is, a definition built around a taxonomy) is presented. An epistemological perspective aids in understanding the components of the taxonomic definition. Works, thus defined as entities for information retrieval, are seen to constitute sets of varying instantiations of abstract creations. These variant instantiations must be explicitly identified in future systems for documentary information retrieval. An expanded perception of works, such as that presented in this paper, helps us understand the variety of ways in which mechanisms for their control and retrieval might better be shaped in future.
BibTeX:
@article{Smiraglia2001,
  author = {Smiraglia, Richard P.},
  title = {Works as Signs, Symbols, and Canons: the Epistemology of the Work},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {28},
  number = {4},
  pages = {192--202}
}
Smiraglia, Richard P., e. Special issue on metadata 2005 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Smiraglia2005,
  author = {Smiraglia, Richard P., editor},
  title = {Special issue on metadata},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {40},
  number = {3/4}
}
Smith, T. Cataloging and You: Measuring the Efficacy of a Folksonomy for Subject Analysis 2007 Proceedings 18th Workshop of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Special Interest Group in Classification Research   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: Folksonomies, or user-created taxonomies, are currently used as collaborative tools to describe images, films, hyperlinks, and other objects and documents. LibraryThing is a website that lets users catalog their own book collections through the use of Library of Congress Subject Headings and social tagging. This paper records the results of exploratory research focusing on the connection between folksonomies and controlled vocabulary and utilizing LibraryThing as a possible benchmark to measure tagging?s efficacy and accuracy as an instrument for subject analysis.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{ST-2007001,
  author = {Smith, Tiffany},
  title = {Cataloging and You: Measuring the Efficacy of a Folksonomy for Subject Analysis},
  booktitle = {Proceedings 18th Workshop of the American Society for Information Science and Technology Special Interest Group in Classification Research},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://dlist.sir.arizona.edu/2061/}
}
Soergel, D. The rise of ontologies or the reinvention of classification 1999 Journal of the American Society for Information Science   article  
Abstract: Classifications/ontologies, thesauri, and dictionaries serve many functions, which are summarized in this note. As a result of this multiplicity of functions, classifications-often called ontologies-are developed in many communities of research and practice. Unfortunately, there is little communication and mutual learning; thus, efforts are fragmented, resulting in considerable reinvention and less than optimal products.
BibTeX:
@article{SD-1999001,
  author = {Soergel, Dagobert},
  title = {The rise of ontologies or the reinvention of classification},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {50},
  number = {12},
  pages = {1119--1120}
}
Solomon, P. User-based methods for classification development 1991 Advances in classification research: Proceedings of the 2nd ASIS SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SP-1991001,
  author = {Solomon, Paul},
  title = {User-based methods for classification development},
  booktitle = {Advances in classification research: Proceedings of the 2nd ASIS SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop},
  publisher = {Learned Information},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {163--170}
}
Sowa, J. F. Ontology, Metadata, and Semiotics 2000 ICCS 2000 : international conference on conceptual structures, no. 8: logical, linguistic, and computational issues   inproceedings  
Abstract: The Internet is a giant semiotic system. It is a massive collection of Peirce's three kinds of signs: icons, which show the form of something indices, which point to something,, and symbols, which represent something according to some convention. But current proposals for ontologies and metadata have overlooked some of the most important features of signs. A sign has three aspects: it is (1) an entity that represents (2) another entity to (3) an agent. By looking only at the signs themselves, some metadata proposals have lost sight of the entities they represent and the agents - human, animal, or robot - which interpret them. With its three branches of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, semiotics provides guidelines for organizing and using signs to represent something to someone for some purpose. Besides representation, semiotics also supports methods for translating patterns of signs intended for one purpose to other patterns intended for different but related purposes. This article shows how the fundamental semiotic primitives axe represented in semantically equivalent notations for logic, including controlled natural languages and various computer languages.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sowa2000,
  author = {Sowa, John F.},
  title = {Ontology, Metadata, and Semiotics},
  booktitle = {ICCS 2000 : international conference on conceptual structures, no. 8: logical, linguistic, and computational issues},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {55--81}
}
Sparck-Jones, K. Some thoughts on classification for retrieval 1970 Journal of Documentation   article  
BibTeX:
@article{SJK2005001,
  author = {Sparck-Jones, Karen},
  title = {Some thoughts on classification for retrieval},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {1970},
  volume = {26},
  number = {2},
  pages = {89--101}
}
Spiteri, L. F. Structure and form of folksonomy tags: the road to the public library catalogue 2007 Webology   article  
Abstract: Folksonomies have the potential to add much value to public library catalogues by enabling clients to: store, maintain, and organize items of interest in the catalogue using their own tags. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the tags that constitute folksonomies are structured. Tags were acquired over a thirty-day period from the daily tag logs of three folksonomy sites, Del.icio.us, Furl, and Technorati. The tags were evaluated against section 6 (choice and form of terms) of the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) guidelines for the construction of controlled vocabularies.
BibTeX:
@article{Spiteri2007,
  author = {Spiteri, Louise F.},
  title = {Structure and form of folksonomy tags: the road to the public library catalogue},
  journal = {Webology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {4},
  number = {2}
}
Spiteri, L. F. The use of facet analysis in information retrieval thesauri: An examination of selected guidelines for thesaurus construction 1997 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: In spite of the growth in the number of faceted thesauri since 1968, there is little consensus among thesaurus designers regarding how the principles of facet analysis are to be used in thesauri. An examination of various national and international guidelines for thesaurus construction reveals that they emphasize primarily the construction of alphabetical thesauri, but provide little guidance in the use of facet analysis in thesauri. (Copies of this article are available for a fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service, Haworth Press, Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamtom, New York, 13904-1580, USA. E-Mail: getinfo@haworth.com). (Original abstract - amended)
BibTeX:
@article{SLF1997001,
  author = {Spiteri, Louise F.},
  title = {The use of facet analysis in information retrieval thesauri: An examination of selected guidelines for thesaurus construction},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {25},
  number = {1},
  pages = {21--37}
}
Spiteri, L. F. The Classification Research Group and the theory of integrative levels 1995 Katharine Sharp Review   article URL  
BibTeX:
@article{SLF1995001,
  author = {Spiteri, Louise F.},
  title = {The Classification Research Group and the theory of integrative levels},
  journal = {Katharine Sharp Review},
  year = {1995},
  number = {1},
  url = {http://mirrored.ukoln.ac.uk/lis-journals/review/review/summer1995/spiteri.pdf}
}
Star, S. L. Got infrastructure? How standards, categories, and other aspects of infrastructure influence communication 2002 2nd Social Study of IT Workshop at the LSE: ICT and Globalization   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{LeighStar2002,
  author = {Star, Susan Leigh},
  title = {Got infrastructure? How standards, categories, and other aspects of infrastructure influence communication},
  booktitle = {2nd Social Study of IT Workshop at the LSE: ICT and Globalization},
  year = {2002},
  url = {http://is2.lse.ac.uk/events/ssit2/LeighStar.pdf}
}
Star, S. L. Invisible work and silenced dialogues in knowledge representation 1991 Women, work, and computerization : understanding and overcoming bias in work and education : proceedings of the IFIP TC9/WG 9.1 Conference on Women, Work, and Computerization   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SSL1991001,
  author = {Star, Susan Leigh},
  title = {Invisible work and silenced dialogues in knowledge representation},
  booktitle = {Women, work, and computerization : understanding and overcoming bias in work and education : proceedings of the IFIP TC9/WG 9.1 Conference on Women, Work, and Computerization},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {81--92}
}
Star, S. L. The structure of ill-structured solutions: Boundary objects and heterogeneous distributed problem solving 1989 Distributed artificial intelligence   incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{SSL1989002,
  author = {Star, Susan Leigh},
  title = {The structure of ill-structured solutions: Boundary objects and heterogeneous distributed problem solving},
  booktitle = {Distributed artificial intelligence},
  publisher = {Pitman},
  year = {1989},
  pages = {37--54}
}
Stoilova, L., Holloway, T., Markines, B., Maguitman, A. G. & Menczer, F. GiveALink: Mining a semantic network of bookmarks for web search and recommendation 2005 LinkKDD'05   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SL-2005001,
  author = {Stoilova, Lubomira and Holloway, Todd and Markines, Ben and Maguitman, Ana G. and Menczer, Filippo},
  title = {GiveALink: Mining a semantic network of bookmarks for web search and recommendation},
  booktitle = {LinkKDD'05},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://www.informatics.indiana.edu/fil/Papers/givealink-linkkdd.pdf}
}
Storey, V. C. Understanding semantic relationships 1993 VLDB Journal   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Storey1993,
  author = {Storey, Veda C.},
  title = {Understanding semantic relationships},
  journal = {VLDB Journal},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {455--488}
}
Studwell, W. E. Half a lifetime in the cataloger's chair: A perspective from a career cataloger 1996 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: The author, a well known cataloguer with over 30 years' experience of cataloguing, reflects on what it means to be a long term professional cataloguer.
BibTeX:
@article{SWE1996001,
  author = {Studwell, William E.},
  title = {Half a lifetime in the cataloger's chair: A perspective from a career cataloger},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {23},
  number = {1},
  pages = {49--52}
}
Sturtz, D. N. Communal categorization: The folksonomy 16 Dec 2004   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{SDN2004001,
  author = {Sturtz, David N.},
  title = {Communal categorization: The folksonomy},
  year = {16 Dec 2004},
  url = {http://www.davidsturtz.com/drexel/622/sturtz-folksonomy.pdf}
}
Svenonius, E. The intellectual foundation of information organization 2000   book  
BibTeX:
@book{SE-2000001,
  author = {Svenonius, Elaine},
  title = {The intellectual foundation of information organization},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  year = {2000}
}
Svenonius, E. Access to nonbook materials: the limits of subject indexing for visual and aural languages 1994 Journal of the American Society for Information Science   article  
BibTeX:
@article{SE-1994001,
  author = {Svenonius, Elaine},
  title = {Access to nonbook materials: the limits of subject indexing for visual and aural languages},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {45},
  number = {8},
  pages = {600--606}
}
Svenonius, E. Ranganathan and classification science 1992 Libri   article  
Abstract: Contribution to a thematic issue devoted to an investigation and celebration of the works of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. Discusses some of Ranganathan's contributions to the productive, practical and theoretical aspects of classification science. These include: a set of design criteria to guide the designing of schemes for knowledge/subject classification; a conceptual framework for organising the universe of subjects; and an understanding of the general principles underlying subject disciplines and classificatory languages. Concludes that Ranganathan has contribued significantly to laying the foundations for a science of subject classification.
BibTeX:
@article{Svenonius1992,
  author = {Svenonius, Elaine},
  title = {Ranganathan and classification science},
  journal = {Libri },
  year = {1992},
  volume = {42},
  number = {3},
  pages = {176--183}
}
Taylor, A. G. Teaching the Dewey Decimal Classification system 2006 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is a logical approach to a hierarchical categorization of recorded knowledge that makes sense to many people. It both illustrates classification theory and provides a practical way to organize information. It is taught in several different settings with content relying upon the purpose of the education or training. With reference to communications from colleagues, the author identifies some problems in teaching DDC, followed by some of the content covered and some methodologies used to overcome the problems. Several examples of teaching tools are included as appendices. (Copies of this article are available for a fee from the Haworth Document Delivery Service, Haworth Press, Inc. E-Mail: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com, Web site http://www.HaworthPress.com). (Author abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{TAG2006001,
  author = {Taylor, Arlene G.},
  title = {Teaching the Dewey Decimal Classification system},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {42},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {97--117}
}
Taylor, C. Metadata's many meanings and uses: briefing paper 2007   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{TC-2007001,
  author = {Taylor, Conrad},
  title = {Metadata's many meanings and uses: briefing paper},
  year = {2007},
  url = {http://www.ideography.co.uk/briefings/pdf/PB_metadata.pdf}
}
Tennis, J. T. Experientialist epistemology and classification theory: Embodied and dimensional classification 2005 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: What theoretical framework can help in building, maintaining and evaluating networked knowledge organization resources? Specifically, what theoretical framework makes sense of the semantic prowess of ontologles and peer-to-peer systems, and by extension aids in their building, maintenance, and evaluation? I posit that a theoretical work that weds both formal and associative (structural and interpretive) aspects of knowledge organization systems provides that framework. Here I lay out the terms and the intellectual constructs that serve as the foundation for investigative work into experientialist classification theory, a theoretical framework of embodied, infrastructural, and relfied knowledge organization. I build on the interpretive work of scholars in information studies, cognitive semantics, sociology, and science studies. With the terms and the framework in place, I then outline classification theory's critiques of classificatory structures. In order to address these critiques with an experientialist approach an experientialist semantics is offered as a design commitment for an example: metadata in peer-to-peer network knowledge organization structures.
BibTeX:
@article{TJT2005001,
  author = {Tennis, Joseph T.},
  title = {Experientialist epistemology and classification theory: Embodied and dimensional classification},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {32},
  number = {2},
  pages = {79--92}
}
Tennis, J. T. Three Spheres of Classification Research: Emergence, Encyclopedism, and Ecology 2002 ASIST SIG-CR   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: Three paths of interdisciplinary work shape the future of classification research. They are emergence, encyclopedism, and ecology. Each of these, in method, approach, and in substantive inquiry outline both the boundaries and the intersections of the many fields that contribute to our overall understanding of classification research. This paper outlines some high level claims of this work, ties it to current research and offers some theoretical applications of these paths.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{TJT2002001,
  author = {Tennis, Joseph T.},
  title = {Three Spheres of Classification Research: Emergence, Encyclopedism, and Ecology},
  booktitle = {ASIST SIG-CR},
  year = {2002},
  url = {http://students.washington.edu/jtennis/Tennis_three_spheres_2002.pdf}
}
Tessier, J. A. Cataloging instruction: Development of a HyperCard implementation of AACR2, Chapter 21 1992 Journal of education for library and information science   article  
Abstract: Describes a hypertext application to the teaching of cataloguing at San Jose State University, Division of Library and Information Science, using a chapter of AACR2 implemented in HyperCard. Hypertext offered two characteristics of cataloguing decisions: the capability of providing multidimensional structure to a multidimensional task, and data richness. Several data structures were developed, including a decision tree to provide an overview and ready access to particular rules or tutorials. The hypertext environment proved successful for structuring and teaching choice of main and added entry. Original abstract-amended.
BibTeX:
@article{TJA1992001,
  author = {Tessier, Judith A.},
  title = {Cataloging instruction: Development of a HyperCard implementation of AACR2, Chapter 21},
  journal = {Journal of education for library and information science},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {33},
  number = {3},
  pages = {195--211}
}
Thellefsen, M. M. The role of special language in relation to knowledge organization 2003 ASIST 2003   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{TM-2003001,
  author = {Thellefsen, Martin M.},
  title = {The role of special language in relation to knowledge organization},
  booktitle = {ASIST 2003},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {206--212}
}
Thellefsen, T. L. Semiotic Knowledge Organization: Theory and Method Development 2002 Semiotica   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Thellefsen2002,
  author = {Thellefsen, Torkild Leo},
  title = {Semiotic Knowledge Organization: Theory and Method Development},
  journal = {Semiotica},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {142},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {71--90}
}
Thellefsen, T. L. & Thellefsen, M. M. Pragmatic semiotics and knowledge organization 2004 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: The present paper presents a philosophical approach to knowledge organization, proposing the pragmatic doctrine of C.S. Peirce as basic analytical framework for knowledge domains. The theoretical framework discussed is related to the qualitative branch of knowledge organization theory i.e. within scope of Hjorland's domain analytical view (Hjorland and Albrechtsen 1995; Hjorland 2002; Hjorland 2004), and promote a general framework for analyzing domain knowledge and concepts. However, the concept of knowledge organization can be viewed in at least two perspectives, one that defines knowledge organization as an activity performed by a human actor e.g. an information specialist, and secondly a view that has the perspective of the inherent self-organizing structure of a knowledge domain the latter being investigated in the paper.
BibTeX:
@article{Thellefsen2004,
  author = {Thellefsen, Torkild Leo and Thellefsen, Martin M.},
  title = {Pragmatic semiotics and knowledge organization},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {31},
  number = {3},
  pages = {177--187}
}
Thomas, A. R. Cataloguing rules in the North American compulsory curriculum 1978 Catalogue & index   article  
Abstract: Results of a survey of the library cataloguing curriculum in American Library Association-accredited schools, giving information about 47 of the 57 schools in existence at the time of the survey. The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules proved to be taught in more schools than was any other code, and was given as a prime choice of course readings by 17 of the 24 schools which recommended it. It was encouraging to see that AA 1908, ALA 1949 and Cutter and the Library of Congress, too, continue to be widely taught which should contribute to a comparative approach and throw clearer light on AACR itself. The present practice of stressing AACR might be profitably replaced by giving more equitable treatment to the other systems involved, and by raising the number covered above the present mean of 3.2 codes. The presentation of a catholic repertory might promote creative scepticism in students, encouraging them to make sounder judgements about cataloguing rules in their subsequent library careers.
BibTeX:
@article{TAR1978001,
  author = {Thomas, Alan R.},
  title = {Cataloguing rules in the North American compulsory curriculum},
  journal = {Catalogue & index},
  year = {1978},
  number = {48},
  pages = {3--5}
}
Thomas, A. R. The influence of S.R. Ranganathan on basic instruction in subject analysis at ALA-accredited library schools 1977 Indian librarian   article  
Abstract: Report of a study of the cataloguing and classification curriculum in ALA-accredited library schools, with emphasis on the influence of S.R. Ranganathan through the teaching of the Colon Classification and facet analysis. 48 schools were studied. 35 include facet theory, but at 28 attention is only slight. 24 teach Colon Classification, but 5 only briefly, and 6 make their students examine the schedules. 2 of the 24 conduct practice exercises. A predilection for the dictionary catalogue in North America may account for the relatively weak position of chain technique in the basic instruction. An analysis of the statistical data is made in the light of this theory.
BibTeX:
@article{TAR1977001,
  author = {Thomas, Alan R.},
  title = {The influence of S.R. Ranganathan on basic instruction in subject analysis at ALA-accredited library schools},
  journal = {Indian librarian},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {32},
  number = {2},
  pages = {51--53}
}
Thomas, D. H. The Effect of Interface Design on Item Selection in an Online Catalog 2001 Library resources & technical services   article  
Abstract: The effect that content and layout of bibliographic displays had on the ability of end-users to process catalog information was tested using a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. Participants were asked to perform two related tasks during the course of the experiment. In the first task, they were asked to select a set of items that they would examine further for a hypothetical paper they must write, using a simulated online catalog to make their assessments of relevance. In the second task, they were asked to examine 20 bibliographic records, decide whether they would choose to examine these items further on the shelf, and identify the data elements that they used to formulate their relevance decision.One group viewed bibliographic records on art interface similar to current online catalogs, one that used data labels and contained data elements commonly found. A second group viewed these records on an interface in which the labels had been removed, but the data elements were the same as those in the first. The third group viewed these records on a labeled display that included enhanced data elements on the brief record display. The final group viewed these records with the same brief record data elements as the third group, but with the labels removed, using ISBD and AACR2 punctuation standards.For the first task, participants using enhanced brief screen interfaces viewed more brief screens and fewer full screens than their counterparts. Screen durations for the second 10 screens were found to have dropped from those of the first 10 screens. Statistical analyses comparing demographic variables to the screen frequencies uncovered many significant differences. Participants using the enhanced-content interfaces made fewer selections from index and full screens, and more selections from brief screens. For the second task, participants who used enhanced-content interfaces were able to make sort of relevance judgment more frequently than those who used standard-content interfaces.
BibTeX:
@article{Thomas2001,
  author = {Thomas, D. H.},
  title = {The Effect of Interface Design on Item Selection in an Online Catalog},
  journal = {Library resources & technical services},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {45},
  number = {1},
  pages = {20--46}
}
Tillett, B. B. A virtual international authority file 2005 3rd IFLA meeting of experts on an international cataloguing code   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{TBB2005001,
  author = {Tillett, Barbara B.},
  title = {A virtual international authority file},
  booktitle = {3rd IFLA meeting of experts on an international cataloguing code},
  publisher = {IFLA},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://www.loc.gov/loc/ifla/imeicc/papers.html}
}
Tillett, B. B. Results of the code comparisons: a summary (Comparison of cataloging codes with the Paris Principles) 2005 3rd IFLA meeting of experts on an international cataloguing code   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{TB-2005001,
  author = {Tillett, Barbara B.},
  title = {Results of the code comparisons: a summary (Comparison of cataloging codes with the Paris Principles)},
  booktitle = {3rd IFLA meeting of experts on an international cataloguing code},
  publisher = {IFLA},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://www.loc.gov/loc/ifla/imeicc/papers.html}
}
Tillett, B. B. FRBR and cataloging for the future 2005 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: SUMMARY. The conceptual model known as FRBR (Functional Re-

quirements for Bibliographic Records) reminds us of the basic elements

in describing materials in the bibliographic universe, the inter-relation-

ships, and the fundamental user tasks that we are trying to address

when we create library catalogs. This model provides a new perspec-

tive on cataloging that should influence the design of future systems,

cataloging codes, and cataloging practices. This paper explores current

activities to utilize the FRBR model within cataloging principles, cata-

loging codes, and cataloging systems, and offers questions, visions,

and suggests some next steps.

BibTeX:
@article{Tillett2005,
  author = {Tillett, Barbara B.},
  title = {FRBR and cataloging for the future},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {39},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {197--205}
}
Tillett, B. B. What is FRBR? A conceptual mode for the bibliographic universe 2003 Technicalities   article URL  
BibTeX:
@article{Tillett2003,
  author = {Tillett, Barbara B.},
  title = {What is FRBR? A conceptual mode for the bibliographic universe},
  journal = {Technicalities},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {25},
  number = {5},
  pages = {n.p.},
  url = {http://www.loc.gov/cds/downloads/FRBR.PDF}
}
Trant, J. & Wyman, B. Investigating social tagging and folksonomy in art museums with steve.museum 2006 WWW2006 Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop   inproceedings  
Abstract: Museums want audiences to engage with their collections and ideas, but recognize that traditional methods of unidirectional on-line and in-gallery communications have limited access and dialog. Supporting social tagging of museum collections, and providing access based on the resulting folksonomy, opens museum collections to new interpretations that reflect visitors? perspectives rather than institutional ones. This co-operation between museums and visitors bridges the gap between the professional language of the curator and the popular language of the museum visitor, and helps individuals see their personal meanings and perspectives in public collections. The steve consortium, a collaboration of museum and museum informatics professionals, is developing tools and techniques and exploring the experience of social tagging and folksonomy in the context of art museums; our research questions, prototypes and findings are also relevant to other domains.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{TJ-2006002,
  author = {Trant, Jennifer and Wyman, Bruce},
  title = {Investigating social tagging and folksonomy in art museums with steve.museum},
  booktitle = {WWW2006 Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop},
  year = {2006}
}
Trust, J. P. G. Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online 2000   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{AAT2000001,
  author = {J. Paul Getty Trust},
  title = {Art and Architecture Thesaurus Online},
  year = {2000},
  url = {http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/aat/}
}
Van Dijick, P. Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion 2003   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Van2003,
  author = {Van Dijick, Peter},
  title = {Themes and metaphors in the semantic web discussion},
  year = {2003},
  url = {http://www.poorbuthappy.com/ease/semantic/}
}
Van Dijick, P. XFML: Hierarchical faceted metadata exchange standard 2002   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Van2002,
  author = {Van Dijick, Peter},
  title = {XFML: Hierarchical faceted metadata exchange standard},
  year = {2002},
  url = {http://xfml.org/}
}
Vellucci, S. L. Cataloging across the curriculum: A syndetic structure for teaching cataloging 1997 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: Examines the necessary competencies for future cataloguers suggested by the cataloguing community. 52 American Library Association (ALA) accredited library school programmes were analyzed to determine the strength of cataloguing within the curriculum and the degree to which the competencies are addressed. Adequate education of future cataloguers requires an expanded view beyond traditional cataloguing courses. Recommends a curricular syndetic structure that identifies relationships among courses and links courses with the concepts and competencies necessary for organizing information.
BibTeX:
@article{VSL1997001,
  author = {Vellucci, Sherry L.},
  title = {Cataloging across the curriculum: A syndetic structure for teaching cataloging},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {24},
  number = {1/2},
  pages = {35--59}
}
Veres, C. The language of folksonomies: What tags reveal about user classification 2006 Natural Language Processing and Information Systems, Proceedings   incollection  
Abstract: Folksonomies are classification schemes that emerge from the collective actions of users who tag resources with an unrestricted set of key terms. There has been a flurry of activity in this domain recently with a number of high profile web sites and search engines adopting the practice. They have sparked a great deal of excitement and debate in the popular and technical literature, accompanied by a number of analyses of the statistical properties of tagging behavior. However, none has addressed the deep nature of folksonomies. What is the nature of a tag? Where does it come from? How is it related to a resource? In this paper we present a study in which the linguistic properties of folksonomies reveal them to contain, on the one hand, tags that are similar to standard categories in taxonomies. But on the other hand, they contain additional tags to describe class properties. The implications of the findings for the relationship between folksonomy and ontology are discussed.
BibTeX:
@incollection{VC-2006001,
  author = {Veres, Csaba},
  title = {The language of folksonomies: What tags reveal about user classification},
  booktitle = {Natural Language Processing and Information Systems, Proceedings},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag Berlin},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {58--69}
}
Vickery, B. Classificatory principles in intelligent interfaces 1991 Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 1.   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{VB-1991001,
  author = {Vickery, Brian},
  title = {Classificatory principles in intelligent interfaces},
  booktitle = {Tools for knowledge organisation and the human interface: Proceedings of the 1st International ISKO Conference. Part 1.},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {14--20}
}
Vidal, N. K. Experimental Image Taxonomy: an inquiry into spontaneous image organization 1995 School: Cornell University   mastersthesis  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{VNK1995001,
  author = {Vidal, Noni Korf},
  title = {Experimental Image Taxonomy: an inquiry into spontaneous image organization},
  school = {Cornell University},
  year = {1995}
}
Voorbij, H. J. Title keywords and subject descriptors: a comparison of subject search entries of books in the humanities and social sciences 1998 Journal of Documentation   article  
BibTeX:
@article{VHJ1998001,
  author = {Voorbij, Henk J.},
  title = {Title keywords and subject descriptors: a comparison of subject search entries of books in the humanities and social sciences},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {54},
  number = {4},
  pages = {466--76}
}
Wang, P. An empirical study of knowledge structures of research topics 1999 Proceedings of the 62nd ASIS Annual Meeting   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WP-1999001,
  author = {Wang, Peiling},
  title = {An empirical study of knowledge structures of research topics},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 62nd ASIS Annual Meeting},
  publisher = {Information Today},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {557--568}
}
Wang, P., Bales, S., Rieger, J. & Zhang, Y. Survey of Learners' Knowledge Structures: Rationales, Methods, and Instruments 2004 Proceedings of the 67th ASIST Annual Meeting   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WP-2004001,
  author = {Wang, Peiling and Bales, Stephen and Rieger, Jason and Zhang, Yan},
  title = {Survey of Learners' Knowledge Structures: Rationales, Methods, and Instruments},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 67th ASIST Annual Meeting},
  publisher = {Information Today},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {218--228}
}
Weinberg, B. H. Indexing advice in publications on paper management 2003 Indexer   article  
Abstract: Based on personal experience, discusses various professional approaches to paper management. Looks at paper management manuals which offer advice on which documents to discard as well as how to organize those that are retained. Guidelines on setting up headings for a filing system relate to the concepts of alphabetico-classed arrangement, specificity and "slanted" indexing. The manuals provide criteria for cross references versus double posting that are similar to those in the indexing literature. Notes that paper management manuals generally have poor indexes. Suggests authors of these manuals should study the indexing literature, and that indexers can contribute to the field of paper management.
BibTeX:
@article{WBH2003001,
  author = {Weinberg, Bella Hass},
  title = {Indexing advice in publications on paper management},
  journal = {Indexer},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {23},
  number = {4},
  pages = {218--223}
}
Weinberg, B. H. Classification schemes and information architecture 2002 Key words: The newsletter of the American Society of Indexers   article  
BibTeX:
@article{WBH2002002,
  author = {Weinberg, Bella Hass},
  title = {Classification schemes and information architecture},
  journal = {Key words: The newsletter of the American Society of Indexers},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {10},
  number = {6},
  pages = {152--155}
}
Weinberg, B. H. Library classification and information retrieval thesauri: Comparison and contrast 1995 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Contribution to an issue devoted to Classification: options and opportunities. Compares thesauri: structured controlled vocabularies designed for information retrieval: with classification schemes developed for the arrangement of library materials and/or bibliographic records. The syndetic structure within the alphabetic sequence of thesauri constitutes a hidden classification, but many thesauri include an explicit hierarchical display; some feature notation. Surveys the various structures and applications of thesauri, with an emphasis on their increasing role in electronic information retrieval. The skills required for thesaurus construction are similar to those for the development of classification schemes. The distinction between these activities is expected to blur in the future.
BibTeX:
@article{Weinberg1995,
  author = {Weinberg, Bella Hass},
  title = {Library classification and information retrieval thesauri: Comparison and contrast},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {19},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {23--44}
}
Weinberger, D. Small pieces loosely joined: a unified theory of the web 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{WD-2002001,
  author = {Weinberger, David},
  title = {Small pieces loosely joined: a unified theory of the web},
  publisher = {Perseus Publishing},
  year = {2002}
}
Weippl, E. R., Klemen, M., Linnert, M., Fenz, S., Goluch, G. & Tjoa, A. M. Semantic Storage: a Report on Performance and Flexibility 2005 DEXA 2005: International conference on database and expert systems applications, no. 16   inproceedings  
Abstract: Desktop search tools are becoming more popular. They have to deal with increasing amounts of locally stored data. Another approach is to analyze the semantic relationship between collected data in order to preprocess the data semantically. The goal is to allow searches based on relationships between various objects instead of focusing on the name of objects. We introduce a database architecture based on an existing software prototype, which is capable of meeting the various demands for a semantic information manager. We describe the use of an association table which stores the relationships between events. It enables adding or removing data items easily without the need for schema modifications. Existing optimization techniques of RDBMS can still be used.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WER2005001,
  author = {Weippl, E. R. and Klemen, M. and Linnert, M. and Fenz, S. and Goluch, G. and Tjoa, A. M.},
  title = {Semantic Storage: a Report on Performance and Flexibility},
  booktitle = {DEXA 2005: International conference on database and expert systems applications, no. 16},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {586--595}
}
Wellisch, H. H. Indexing from A to Z 1995   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Wellisch1995,
  author = {Wellisch, Hans H.},
  title = {Indexing from A to Z},
  publisher = {H.W. Wilson},
  year = {1995},
  edition = {2nd ed., rev.}
}
Wenneker, M., van Selm, M. & Nelissen, P. Role of ICT in processes of knowledge sharing in organizations 2003 Internet Research 03   inproceedings URL  
Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical model, which will be applied in an empirical study on the role of information and communication technology (ICT) in processes of knowledge sharing in organizations. One consequence of organizations? increasing implementation of ICT, is an increased ICT use among organizational members. Although one of the main reasons for ICT implementation in organizations is knowledge sharing, little is known yet about the role of ICT in processes of knowledge sharing. This paper focuses on how ICT contributes to organizational knowledge sharing. ICT and knowledge sharing will be approached from an ICT perspective on the one hand, and a knowledge sharing perspective on the other. From the former perspective a theoretical model of organizational ICT architecture will be presented. This model conceives of an organization?s constellation of ICT applications as a ?shared knowledge work space?. The model discerns content-, communication- and collaboration spaces between which interactions take place. In addition, the ICT perspective emphasizes the salience of the content of information exchanged, as this contributes to an understanding of processes of knowledge sharing. From the knowledge sharing perspective a theoretical model of processes of knowledge sharing on behalf of organizational learning will be presented. The model distinguishes the individual, the group, and the organizational knowledge level between which knowledge conversions take place. We assume the involvement of all three knowledge levels as a condition for optimal knowledge sharing. It is expected that ICT can stimulate and facilitate the various knowledge conversions between the three levels.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WM-2003001,
  author = {Wenneker, Marieke and van Selm, Martine and Nelissen, Paul},
  title = {Role of ICT in processes of knowledge sharing in organizations},
  booktitle = {Internet Research 03},
  year = {2003},
  url = {http://www.aoir.org/members/papers3/Wenneker,VanSelm&Nelissen2.pdf}
}
Williams, R. Keywords: a vocabulary of culture and society 1985   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Williams1985,
  author = {Williams, Raymond},
  title = {Keywords: a vocabulary of culture and society},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {1985},
  pages = {349 p},
  edition = {Rev. ed}
}
Williamson, N. J. Thesauri in the digital age: stability and dynamism in their development and use 2000 Knowledge Organization, Proceedings of the sixth International ISKO Conference   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WNJ2000001,
  author = {Williamson, Nancy J.},
  title = {Thesauri in the digital age: stability and dynamism in their development and use},
  booktitle = {Knowledge Organization, Proceedings of the sixth International ISKO Conference},
  publisher = {Ergon Verlag},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {268--274}
}
Williamson, N. J. An interdisciplinary world and discipline based classification 1998 Structures and relations in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the fifth International ISKO Conference   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WNJ1998001,
  author = {Williamson, Nancy J.},
  title = {An interdisciplinary world and discipline based classification},
  booktitle = {Structures and relations in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the fifth International ISKO Conference},
  publisher = {Ergon Verlag},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {396--401}
}
Williamson, N. J. The role of classification in online systems 1989 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Contribution to a thematic issue devoted to subject control in on-line catalogues. In an examination of the use of classification in on-line data bases, it is revealed that on-line data base providers are inherently conservative about offering search enhancements. Moreover, North American librarians often do not make the necessary distinctions between classification as a subject retrieval tool and the call number as a location device. An enormous potential exists, however, for further development in the retrieval mechanisms used in on-line data bases. There is a role for classification in on-line retrieval such that classification and classificatory structure can operate in concert with other means of access to improve bibliographic and information retrieval in the future.
BibTeX:
@article{Williamson1989,
  author = {Williamson, Nancy J.},
  title = {The role of classification in online systems},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1/2},
  pages = {95--104}
}
Wilson, P. Two Kinds of Power: an Essay on Bibliographical Control 1968   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Wilson1968,
  author = {Wilson, Patrick},
  title = {Two Kinds of Power: an Essay on Bibliographical Control},
  publisher = {University of California Press},
  year = {1968},
  pages = {155}
}
Winke, R. C. Discarding the main entry in an online cataloging environment 1993 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{WRC1993001,
  author = {Winke, R. Conrad},
  title = {Discarding the main entry in an online cataloging environment},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {16},
  number = {1},
  pages = {53--70}
}
Wintersgill, D. The view of a recent library school graduate 1989 Catalogue & index   article  
Abstract: Paper presented at the seminar on the teaching of information storage and retrieval, organised by Cataloguing and Indexing Group of the Library Association, 2 Feb 88. Describes the author's experiences during his postgraduate course in librarianship, where the main problem was the unimaginative approach to the practical side of indexing, classifying and descriptive cataloguing, This lack of effectiveness in the teaching could largely be remedied by an imaginative restructuring of the course. Certainly the study of management has developed out of all proportion to its relevance for the majority of assistant librarians and could yield time for teaching more practical aspects. Library schols should not take their proactive role too far by preparing students for a world they would like to exist rather than for the one that does.
BibTeX:
@article{WD-1989001,
  author = {Wintersgill, David},
  title = {The view of a recent library school graduate},
  journal = {Catalogue & index},
  year = {1989},
  number = {92/93},
  pages = {13--15}
}
Wolverton, R. E. Authority control in academic Libraries in the United States: a survey 2005 Cataloging & Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Authority control is an important part of the cataloguing process, but relatively little research has been conducted related to its practice in academic libraries. In addition, few studies have been conducted regarding staffing and training issues related to authority control. To examine these issues, a survey was developed and e-mailed to academic libraries at 258 institutions designated by the year 2000 Carnegie Classification as either Doctoral/Research Extensive or Intensive level. The survey consisted of questions relating to authority control practices and staffing and training issues related to authority control. One hundred ninety-three institutions responded for a return rate of 75 percent. The survey results indicate that authority control was practiced and highly valued by the vast majority of respondents and that many would like additional time, funding, and personnel to do more authority control work in their libraries. (Original abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{WRE2005001,
  author = {Wolverton, Robert E.},
  title = {Authority control in academic Libraries in the United States: a survey},
  journal = {Cataloging & Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {41},
  number = {1},
  pages = {111--131}
}
Wu, H., Gordon, M. D. & DeMaagd, K. Document co-organization in an online knowledge community 2004 CHI 2004   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WH-2004001,
  author = {Wu, Harris and Gordon, Michael D. and DeMaagd, Kurt},
  title = {Document co-organization in an online knowledge community},
  booktitle = {CHI 2004},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {1211--1214}
}
Xu, Z., Fu, Y., Mao, J. & Su, D. Towards the Semantic Web: Collaborative tag suggestions 2006 WWW2006 Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop   inproceedings  
Abstract: Content organization over the Internet went through several interesting phases of evolution: from structured directories to unstructured Web search engines and more recently, to tagging as a way for aggregating information, a step towards the semantic web vision. Tagging allows ranking and data organization to directly utilize inputs from end users, enabling machine processing of Web content. Since tags are created by individual users in a free form, one important problem facing tagging is to identify most appropriate tags, while eliminating noise and spam. For this purpose, we define a set of general criteria for a good tagging system. These criteria include high coverage of multiple facets to ensure good recall, least effort to reduce the cost involved in browsing, and high popularity to ensure tag quality. We propose a collaborative tag suggestion algorithm using these criteria to spot high-quality tags. The proposed algorithm employs a goodness measure for tags derived from collective user authorities to combat spam. The goodness measure is iteratively adjusted by a reward-penalty algorithm, which also incorporates other sources of tags, e.g., content-based auto-generated tags. Our experiments based on My Web 2.0 show that the algorithm is effective.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{XZ-2006001,
  author = {Xu, Zhichen and Fu, Yun and Mao, Jianchang and Su, Difu},
  title = {Towards the Semantic Web: Collaborative tag suggestions},
  booktitle = {WWW2006 Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop},
  year = {2006}
}
Yee, K., Swearingen, K., Li, K. & Hearst, M. Faceted metadata for image search and browsing 2003 Proceedings of the conference on Human factors in computing systems   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{YKP2003001,
  author = {Yee, Ka-Ping and Swearingen, Kirsten and Li, Kevin and Hearst, Marti},
  title = {Faceted metadata for image search and browsing},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the conference on Human factors in computing systems },
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {401--408}
}
Yee, M. M. Cataloging Compared to Descriptive Bibliography, Abstracting and Indexing Services and Metadata 2007 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article URL  
Abstract: Cataloging is compared to descriptive bibliography, to enumerative bibliography and abstracting and indexing services as well as to metadata created by Web search engines or by nonprofessionals at sites such as Amazon.com. These four types of metadata are compared with regard to object of the description, functions, scope, number of copies examined, collective vs. individual creation, standardization, authority control, evidence, amount of descriptive detail, degression, time span the data is intended to last, and degree of evaluation.
BibTeX:
@article{Yee2007CatalogingCompared,
  author = {Yee, Martha M.},
  title = {Cataloging Compared to Descriptive Bibliography, Abstracting and Indexing Services and Metadata},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {44},
  number = {3/4},
  pages = {307--327},
  url = {http://repositories.cdlib.org/postprints/2721/}
}
Yee, M. M. Moving Image Cataloging : How to Create and How to Use a Moving Image Catalog 2007   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Yee2007,
  author = {Yee, Martha M.},
  title = {Moving Image Cataloging : How to Create and How to Use a Moving Image Catalog},
  publisher = {Libraries Unlimited},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {273}
}
Yee, M. M. FRBRization: A model for turning online public finding lists into online public catalogs 2005 Information technology and libraries   article URL  
Abstract: Problems users are having searching for known works in current OPACs are summarized, and it is suggested that a better understanding of AACR2R/MARC 21 authority, bibliographic, and holdings records would allow us to FRBR-ize our current OPACs using existing records. The presence of work and expression identifiers in bibliographic and authority records is analyzed. Recommendations are made concerning better indexing and display of works and expression/manifestations. Questions are raised about the appropriateness for the creation of true catalogs of client-server technology which delivers records over the Internet.
BibTeX:
@article{Yee2005,
  author = {Yee, Martha M.},
  title = {FRBRization: A model for turning online public finding lists into online public catalogs},
  journal = {Information technology and libraries},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {24},
  number = {3},
  pages = {77--95},
  url = {http://repositories.cdlib.org/postprints/715}
}
Yee, M. M. Lubetzky's work principle 2000 The future of cataloging: Insights from the Lubetzky Symposium, April 18, 1998, University of California, Los Angeles   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Yee2000,
  author = {Yee, Martha M.},
  title = {Lubetzky's work principle},
  booktitle = {The future of cataloging: Insights from the Lubetzky Symposium, April 18, 1998, University of California, Los Angeles},
  publisher = {American Library Association},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {72-104},
  url = {http://repositories.cdlib.org/postprints/3083}
}
Yee, M. M. The future of cataloging: Insights from the Lubetzky Symposium, April 18, 1998, University of California, Los Angeles 2000 The future of cataloging: Insights from the Lubetzky Symposium, April 18, 1998, University of California, Los Angeles   proceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@proceedings{LubetzkySymposium2000,
  author = {Yee, Martha M.},
  title = {The future of cataloging: Insights from the Lubetzky Symposium, April 18, 1998, University of California, Los Angeles},
  booktitle = {The future of cataloging: Insights from the Lubetzky Symposium, April 18, 1998, University of California, Los Angeles},
  publisher = {American Library Association},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {184},
  url = {http://webcat.lib.unc.edu/record=b4322560}
}
Yee, M. M. What is a Work? Part 3, The Anglo-American Cataloging Codes, Continued 1995 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Anglo-American codes are examined to determine the implicit or acting concept of work in each, in order to trace the development of our current implicit concept of work, as embodied in AACR2R. The following conditions are examined, using comparison tables: 1) same work with different appendages (illustrated works, music with text, texts with commentary and/or biographical/critical material, scholia); 2) separately published parts of a work produced by the exercise of several different functions; 3) appendages to a work published separately (commentaries without text, concordances, continuations, indexes, sequels, supplements); 4) change in title of a work. A trend away from the collocation of the editions of a work called for by the second objective of the catalog is identified. It is suggested that this tendency stems from failure to take advantage of newer technologies for building catalogs.
BibTeX:
@article{Yee1994WhatIsWork3,
  author = {Yee, Martha M.},
  title = {What is a Work? Part 3, The Anglo-American Cataloging Codes, Continued},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {20},
  number = {1},
  pages = {25--45}
}
Yee, M. M. What is a Work? Part 4, Cataloging Theorists and a Definition 1995 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Various criteria suggested by cataloging theorists as methods for identifying a work are examined, including criteria of creativity and/or single personal authorship, criterion of content, criterion of text or symbol strings, criterion of medium, work as product, criteria of identity and representation, criterion of interchangeability or preferability, and a definition of work is suggested.
BibTeX:
@article{Yee1994WhatIsWork4,
  author = {Yee, Martha M.},
  title = {What is a Work? Part 4, Cataloging Theorists and a Definition},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {20},
  number = {2},
  pages = {3--23}
}
Yee, M. M. What is a Work? Part 1, The User and the Objects of the Catalog 1994 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: The objects of the catalog, adopted internationally in 1961, assume that it is useful to display to users all the editions of a sought work, in order to enable the user to choose the best edition for his or her needs. No user study has ever divided so-called known item searchers into two groups: 1) those who benefit from the first objective alone; and 2) those who benefit from the second objective. Logic and common sense lead one to suspect that most users benefit from the second objective, and that multiple-edition works by prolific authors, those requiring the most cataloger effort to achieve collocation, are probably also the most frequently sought works.
BibTeX:
@article{Yee1994WhatIsWork1,
  author = {Yee, Martha M.},
  title = {What is a Work? Part 1, The User and the Objects of the Catalog},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {19},
  number = {1},
  pages = {9--28}
}
Yee, M. M. What is a Work? Part 2, The Anglo-American Cataloging Codes 1994 Cataloging and Classification Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Anglo-American codes are examined to determine the implicit or acting concept of work in each, in order to trace the development of our current implicit concept of work, as embodied in AACR2R. The following conditions are examined, using comparison tables: 1) contraction of a work (abridgements, condensations, digests, epitomes, outlines, chrestomathies, excerpts, extracts, selections); and 2) change in substance of a work (adaptations, dramatizations, free translations, novelizations, paraphrases, versifications, films or filmstrips of a text, musical arrangements, musical amplifications, musical settings, musical simplifications, musical transcriptions, musical versions, parodies, imitations, performances, reproductions of art works, revisions, editing, enlargements, expansion, updating, translation.)
BibTeX:
@article{Yee1994WhatIsWork2,
  author = {Yee, Martha M.},
  title = {What is a Work? Part 2, The Anglo-American Cataloging Codes},
  journal = {Cataloging and Classification Quarterly},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {19},
  number = {2},
  pages = {5--22}
}
Young, J. B. The teaching of cataloging: education or training 1987 Cataloging and classification quarterly   article  
Abstract: Contribution to a thematic issue on education and training for cataloguers and classifiers. Expanded version of a paper presented to the Heads of Cataloging Group, Cataloging and Classification section, Resources and Technical Services Division, at the American Library Association's (ALA) Midwinter Meeting, Jan 86. Describes 1 approach to the teaching of both basic and advanced courses in Cataloguing. Identifies the short and long-term objectives of the basic course for 4 categories of students: cataloguing specialists; general/special librarians; non-cataloguing specialists; non-library information specialists. The instruction emphasises group interaction and making the course enjoyable for the student, thus increasing interest while imparting more information and better preparing students for work. Importance is given to student participation and the use of realistic situations to instruct and evaluate student performance.
BibTeX:
@article{YJB1987001,
  author = {Young, J. Bradford},
  title = {The teaching of cataloging: education or training},
  journal = {Cataloging and classification quarterly},
  year = {1987},
  volume = {7},
  number = {4},
  pages = {149--163}
}
Zins, C. Models for classifying Internet resources 2002 Knowledge Organization   article  
Abstract: Focuses on the design of systematic access to Internet resources. A critical analysis of classification schemes used in major portals and Web classified directories exposes inconsistencies in the way they classify Internet resources. The inconsistencies indicate that the developers fail to differentiate the various classificatory models, and are unaware of their different rationales. Establishes eight classificatory models for resources available to Internet users. Internet resources can be classified by subjects, objects, applications, users, locations, reference sources, media, and languages. Identifies and formulates the eight classificatory models, analyzes their rationales, and discusses alternative ways to combine them in a faceted integrated classification scheme. (Original abstract - amended)
BibTeX:
@article{ZC-2002001,
  author = {Zins, Chaim},
  title = {Models for classifying Internet resources},
  journal = {Knowledge Organization},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  pages = {20--28}
}
Zollers, A. Emerging motivations for tagging: Expression, performance, and activism 2007 WWW2007 Tagging and Metadata for Social Information Organizations   inproceedings  
Abstract: Social tagging systems have generally been designed and used for personal information organization and retrieval. People use a variety of sites to tag photos, websites, blogs, and videos. Recently, commercial websites such as Amazon.com, have also implemented tagging on their websites. This type of tagging is not only social, where users can view other?s tags and resources, but collective or collaborative, where any user can tag any resource. By analyzing the tags of two sites that implement free-for-all tagging - Amazon.com and Last.fm - this paper describes emergent social motivations for tagging. The motivations that were found in the systems include expression, performance, and activism.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{ZA-2007001,
  author = {Zollers, Alla},
  title = {Emerging motivations for tagging: Expression, performance, and activism},
  booktitle = {WWW2007 Tagging and Metadata for Social Information Organizations},
  year = {2007}
}
Vocabularies 1995 Classificatory Structures: Concepts, Relations and Representation   incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{IH-1995001,,
  title = {Vocabularies},
  booktitle = {Classificatory Structures: Concepts, Relations and Representation},
  publisher = {Indeks Verlag},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {60--87}
}

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