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boyd, d. Choose Your Own Ethnography: In Search of (Un)Mediated Life 2007 Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) Annual Conference   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BD-2007002,
  author = {boyd, danah},
  title = {Choose Your Own Ethnography: In Search of (Un)Mediated Life},
  booktitle = {Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) Annual Conference},
  year = {2007}
}
Abbott, A. Sequence analysis: New methods for old ideas 1995 Annual Review of Sociology   article  
Abstract: A wide variety of work in social science concerns sequences of events or phenomena. This essay reviews concepts of sequence and methods for analyzing sequences. After a brief definitional discussion, I consider sequence literatures from various areas. I then discuss recent methodologies for sequence analysis. I review stepwise approaches like Markovian and event history analysis as well as whole sequence approaches resting on new developments in biology and other fields.
BibTeX:
@article{Abbot1995,
  author = {Abbott, Andrew},
  title = {Sequence analysis: New methods for old ideas},
  journal = {Annual Review of Sociology},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {21},
  pages = {93--113}
}
Abbott, A. A primer on sequence methods 1990 Organization science   article  
Abstract: This paper considers the technical problem of analyzing sequences of social events. Examples of such sequences from organizational behavior include organizational life cycles, patterns of innovation development, and career tracks of individuals. The methods considered here enable the analyst to find characteristic patterns in such sequences. Forces shaping those patterns can then be found by more conventional methods. After a brief definitional section, the paper begins by discussing three types of sequence questions: (1) questions about whether a typical sequence or sequences exist, (2) questions about why such patterns might exist, and (3) questions about the consequences of such patterns. The theoretical foundations of the first type of question, which is in fact the most important, are then considered. Having established the legitimacy of the approach here taken, the paper then introduces two exemplary datasets with which to focus discussion. These raise the issue of conceptualization and measurement of sequence data. Illustrative cases are presented to show the importance of extreme care in conceiving a sequence to measure and then choosing indicators for it. The paper then turns to methods proper, considering them in several categories. It first briefly mentions methods not employing "distance measures" between events: permutational techniques, stochastic (e.g., Markov) models, and durational methods. Most of these do not directly address sequence questions but can be used to do so if necessary. Turning to the methods based on event distance, the paper first considers the problem of measuring distance between events (1) in terms of elapsed time, (2) in terms of categories of events, and (3) in terms of observed successions. It then considers methods for unique event sequences (sequences in which no events repeat), proposing the use of multidimensional scaling and illustrating it with an analysis of data on medical organizations. For the separate case of repeating event sequences, the paper discusses optimal matching methods, which count the number of individual transformations required to change one sequence into another. These methods are illustrated by an analysis of data on musicians' careers. The paper then briefly considers the problem of finding subsequences common to several longer sequences (or repeated in one longer sequence). It closes with a discussion of assumptions made and caveats required when these types of methods are used. (METHODOLOGY; SEQUENCES; CAREERS; LIFE CYCLE)
BibTeX:
@article{Abbot1990,
  author = {Abbott, Andrew},
  title = {A primer on sequence methods},
  journal = {Organization science},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {1},
  number = {4},
  pages = {375--392}
}
Abbott, A. & Tsay, A. Sequence analysis and optimal matching methods in sociology: Review and prospect 2000 Sociological methods research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{AbbotTsay2000,
  author = {Abbott, Andrew and Tsay, Angela},
  title = {Sequence analysis and optimal matching methods in sociology: Review and prospect},
  journal = {Sociological methods research},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {29},
  number = {3},
  pages = {3--33}
}
Abdallah, S. Unravelling methodologies: a theory building approach 2005 School: Curtin University of Technology   phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{AS-2005001,
  author = {Abdallah, Salam},
  title = {Unravelling methodologies: a theory building approach},
  school = {Curtin University of Technology},
  year = {2005}
}
Adler, P. A. & Adler, P. OF RHETORIC AND REPRESENTATION: The Four Faces of Ethnography 2008 The Sociological Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Influenced by the new literary movement and postmodernism, in the 1990s sociologists began to reflexively examine their writings as texts, looking critically at the way they shape reality and articulate their descriptions and conceptualizations. Advancing this thread, in our presidential address we offer an overarching analysis of ethnographic writing, identifying four current genres and deconstructing their rhetoric: classical, mainstream, postmodern, and public ethnography. We focus on the differences in their epistemological, organizational, locational, and stylistic self-presentations with an eye toward better understanding how these speak to their intended audiences, both within and outside of the discipline.
BibTeX:
@article{APA2008001,
  author = {Adler, Patricia A. and Adler, Peter},
  title = {OF RHETORIC AND REPRESENTATION: The Four Faces of Ethnography},
  journal = {The Sociological Quarterly},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {49},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--30}
}
Agnew, N. M. & Pyke, S. W. The Science Game: an Introduction to Research in the Behavioral Sciences 1978   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Agnew1978,
  author = {Agnew, Neil Mck and Pyke, Sandra W},
  title = {The Science Game: an Introduction to Research in the Behavioral Sciences},
  publisher = {Prentice-Hall},
  year = {1978},
  pages = {237}
}
Agnew, N. M. & Pyke, S. W. The Science Game; an Introduction to Research in the Behavioral Sciences 1969   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Agnew1969,
  author = {Agnew, Neil Mck and Pyke, Sandra W},
  title = {The Science Game; an Introduction to Research in the Behavioral Sciences},
  publisher = {Prentice-Hall},
  year = {1969},
  pages = {188}
}
Antonacopoulos, A. & Hu, J. Web document analysis: Challenges and opportunities 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Antonacopoulos2003,
  author = {Antonacopoulos, Apoltolos and Hu, Jianying},
  title = {Web document analysis: Challenges and opportunities},
  publisher = {World Scientific},
  year = {2003}
}
Babbie, E. R. The practice of social research 1995   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Babbie1995,
  author = {Babbie, Earl R.},
  title = {The practice of social research},
  publisher = {Wadsworth Pub. Co},
  year = {1995},
  edition = {7th ed}
}
Bagley, C. & Cancienne, M. B. Dancing the data 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Bagley2002,
  author = {Bagley, Carl and Cancienne, Mary Beth},
  title = {Dancing the data},
  publisher = {P. Lang},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {202}
}
Bannister, D. & Fransella, F. Inquiring man : the psychology of personal constructs 1986   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Bannister1986,
  author = {Bannister, Donald and Fransella, Fay},
  title = {Inquiring man : the psychology of personal constructs},
  publisher = {Croom Helm},
  year = {1986},
  pages = {194},
  edition = {3rd ed}
}
Barab?si, A. Linked: The new science of networks 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Barab?si2002,
  author = {Barab?si, Albert-Lasl?},
  title = {Linked: The new science of networks},
  publisher = {Perseus},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {280}
}
Barry, C. A. Choosing qualitative data analysis software: Atlas/ti and Nudist compared 1998 Sociological research online   article URL  
Abstract: Choosing between Nudist and Atlas/ti, the main qualitative data analysis software packages can be difficult. To assist researchers in making this choice, I have conceptualised their differences along two dimensions, related to the qualities of the software and of the research project. The software dimension is structural design, and the project dimension is complexity. Software structure is dichotomised between structured, sequential, verbal versus visual, spatial, interconnected modes of operation. Projects are dichotomised between homogeneous sample, short timeframe, single data-type, single data analyst; versus multiple samples, longitudinal data, multiple data types and team data analysis. First I review the CAQDAS literature. Then I outline the different personalities and strengths of Atlas/ti and Nudist, and show how they match these dimensions. I offer suggestions as to how to choose, and whether to use in tandem with complementary conceptual network software. CAQDAS; Chaos Theory; Computer Software; Conceptual Network Software; Hypertext; Qualitative Research
BibTeX:
@article{Barry1998,
  author = {Barry, Christine A.},
  title = {Choosing qualitative data analysis software: Atlas/ti and Nudist compared},
  journal = {Sociological research online},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {3},
  number = {3},
  pages = {n.p.},
  url = {http://www.socresonline.org.uk/3/3/4.html}
}
Barry, C. A. The Research Activity Timeline: a Qualitative Tool for Information Research 1997 Library & Information Science Research   article  
Abstract: The Research Activity Timeline, a qualitative data collection and analysis technique, was developed to investigate traditional and electronic information-seeking activity. The guiding principles behind the technique are to: contextualize information activity and the use of information technology by producing real-life examples set within the context of everyday work; facilitate detailed recall of implicit and forgotten information activities; and investigate change in individuals' information behavior. The seven stages of the technique are outlined in detail and their use demonstrated through the results of the Information Access Project. A number of methodological issues are discussed: macro versus micro levels of study; the use of real life examples; interplay between data and analysis; using quantitative analysis in qualitative research; and the importance of investigating behavior and attitudes. Suggestions are made for possible developments of the technique.
BibTeX:
@article{BCA1997001,
  author = {Barry, Christine A.},
  title = {The Research Activity Timeline: a Qualitative Tool for Information Research},
  journal = {Library & Information Science Research},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {19},
  number = {2},
  pages = {153--179}
}
Bates, J. A. Use of narrative interviewing in everyday information behavior research 2004 Library & Information Science Research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{BAJ2004001,
  author = {Bates, Jessica A.},
  title = {Use of narrative interviewing in everyday information behavior research},
  journal = {Library & Information Science Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {26},
  number = {1},
  pages = {15--28}
}
Becker, H. S. Tricks of the trade: How to think about your research while you're doing it 1998   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Becker1998,
  author = {Becker, Howard S.},
  title = {Tricks of the trade: How to think about your research while you're doing it},
  publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
  year = {1998}
}
Bell, R. C. Using SPSS to analyse repertory grid data 1997   techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Bell1997,
  author = {Bell, Richard C.},
  title = {Using SPSS to analyse repertory grid data},
  year = {1997}
}
Bentz, V. M. & Shapiro, J. J. Mindful inquiry in social research 1998   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Bentz1998,
  author = {Bentz, Valerie Malhotra and Shapiro, Jeremy J.},
  title = {Mindful inquiry in social research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {xvi, 216 p. :}
}
Berg, B. L. Qualitative research methods for the social sciences 2001   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Berg2001,
  author = {Berg, Bruce L.},
  title = {Qualitative research methods for the social sciences},
  publisher = {Allyn and Bacon},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {304},
  edition = {4th ed.}
}
Bleicher, J. Contemporary Hermeneutics: Hermeneutics as method, philosophy and critique 1980   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Bleicher1980,
  author = {Bleicher, J.},
  title = {Contemporary Hermeneutics: Hermeneutics as method, philosophy and critique},
  publisher = {Routledge & Kegan Paul},
  year = {1980}
}
Bloomberg, L. D. & Volpe, M. Completing your qualitative dissertation: A roadmap from beginning to end 2008   book  
BibTeX:
@book{BloombergVolpe2008,
  author = {Bloomberg, Linda Dale and Volpe, Marie},
  title = {Completing your qualitative dissertation: A roadmap from beginning to end},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2008}
}
Blythe, M. & Monk, A. Notes towards an ethnography of domestic technology 2002 Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems, Proceedings of the conference on Designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, and techniques   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BM-2002001,
  author = {Blythe, Mark and Monk, Andrew},
  title = {Notes towards an ethnography of domestic technology},
  booktitle = {Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems, Proceedings of the conference on Designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, and techniques},
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {277--281}
}
Boss, P. Sourcebook of family theories and methods a contextual approach 1993   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Boss1993,
  author = {Boss, Pauline},
  title = {Sourcebook of family theories and methods a contextual approach},
  publisher = {Plenum Press},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {xxvi, 748 p}
}
Bradley, J. Methodological Issues and Practices in Qualitative Research 1993 Library Quarterly   article  
Abstract: This article considers some methodological issues that arise when empirical inquiry is conducted within the framework of qualitative assumptions about the nature of reality and how we as humans can know it. These assumptions posit an empirical reality that is complex, intertwined, best understood as a contextual whole, and inseparable from the individuals-including the researchers-who know that reality. Four primary issues are considered in this article: the researcher as interpreter; the emergent nature of qualitative research; understanding the experience of others; and trustworthiness in qualitative research. Further, the article discusses methodological practices that have arisen in the context of qualitative assumptions and issues. The practices described are drawn from diverse qualitative research traditions, including participant observation, naturalistic inquiry, grounded theory, hermeneutic approaches to the interpretation of texts (and actions as texts), qualitative evaluation, and a body of methodological literature that calls itself generically ''qualitative research.'' The goals of the article are threefold: (1) to present the internal rationale of qualitative research as issues and practices that arise within the context of assumptions about reality and what we can know about it; (2) to encourage researchers to examine the relevance of qualitative assumptions, issues, and practices to their own research problems; and (3) to point readers toward more detailed discussions of qualitative research.
BibTeX:
@article{BJ-1993001,
  author = {Bradley, Jana},
  title = {Methodological Issues and Practices in Qualitative Research},
  journal = {Library Quarterly},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {63},
  number = {4},
  pages = {431--449}
}
Breuer, F. & Schreier, M. Issues in Learning About and Teaching Qualitative Research Methods and Methodology in the Social Sciences 2007 Forum: Qualitative Social Research   article URL  
Abstract: Abstract: For many qualitative researchers in the social sciences, learning about and teaching qualitative research methods and methodology raises a number of questions. This topic was the focus of a symposium held during the Second B erlin Sum - mer School for Qualitative Research Methods in July 2006. In this contribution, some of the issues discussed during the symposium are taken up and extended, and some basic dimensions underlying these issues are summarized. & How qualitative research methods and methodology are taught is closely linked to the ways in which qualitative researchers in the social sciences conceptualize themselves and their discipline. In the following, we distinguish between a paradigmatic and a pragmatic view. From a pragmatic point of view, qualitative research methods are considered research strategies or techniques and can be taught in the sense of recipes with specific steps to be carried out. According to a paradigmatic point of view (strongly inspired by constructivism), qualitative research methods and methodology are conceptualized as a craft to be practiced together by a "master" and an "apprentice." Moreover, the teaching of qualitative research methods also depends heavily on the institutional standing of qualitative compared to quantitative research method. & Based on these considerations, five basic dimensions of learning about and teaching qualitative research methods are suggested: ways of teaching (ranging from the presentation of textbook knowledge to cognitive apprenticeship) and instructors' experience with these; institutional contexts, including their development and the teaching of qualitative research methods in other than university contexts; the "fit" between personality and method, including relevant personal skills and talents; and, as a special type of instructional context that increasingly has gained importance, distance learning and its implications for learning about and teaching qualitative research methods. & Key words: learning about and teaching qualitative methods and methodology, qualitative research styles, quantitative and qualitative methods and methodology, methods and methodology as craft, methods and methodology as research strategy, didactics of research methods and methodology, institutional contexts of instruction and learning, fit between personality and method, transfer of qualitative research skills, learning about and teaching qualitative methods in the context of digital communication 1. Introduction 2. What Are the Key Issues for Qualitative Research Methods in the Social Sciences? 3. Teaching and Learning as Mirrored by 4. The Social Positioning of Qualitative Social Scientists in the Scientific Community 5. Levels of Teaching and Learning About Qualitative Methods 5.1 How to teach and how to learn: didactics 5.2 The institutional contexts of teaching and learning 5.3 The relationship between personality and method 5.4 The role of qualitative competence for social science practice 5.5 Digital forms of teaching and learning 6. First Contributions
BibTeX:
@article{BreuerSchreier2007,
  author = {Breuer, Franz and Schreier, Margrit},
  title = {Issues in Learning About and Teaching Qualitative Research Methods and Methodology in the Social Sciences},
  journal = {Forum: Qualitative Social Research},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {8},
  number = {1},
  pages = {unpaged},
  url = {http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/1-07/07-1-30-e.pdf}
}
Brewer, J. & Hunter, A. Foundations of Multimethod Research: Synthesizing Styles 2006   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Brewer2006,
  author = {Brewer, John and Hunter, Albert},
  title = {Foundations of Multimethod Research: Synthesizing Styles},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {206}
}
Bryant, A. & Charmaz, K. The Sage handbook of Grounded Theory 2007   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Bryant2007,
  author = {Bryant, Antony and Charmaz, Kathy},
  title = {The Sage handbook of Grounded Theory},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {623}
}
Bryman, A. The Research Question in Social Research: What is its Role? 2007 International Journal of Social Research Methodology   article  
Abstract: This paper addresses the role of the research question in social research. It outlines what is taken to be the conventional view in many methodological discussions, namely, that research questions guide decisions about research design and research methods. This position is taken to imply that social researchers typically take the view that research methods need to be tailored to the research questions that guide an investigation. The paper questions how far this position pertains to actual research practice. Drawing on interviews with researchers about their practices in relation to mixed-method research, two discourses were found in the transcripts. A particularistic discourse that reflects the traditional view, whereby mixed-method research is viewed as only appropriate when research questions warrant it, was uncovered. In addition, a universalistic discourse, which sees mixed-method research as more generally superior, was also uncovered. The implications of these viewpoints for understanding the role of research questions are then discussed. QUESTIONNAIRES. METHODOLOGY. QUESTIONING. SOCIAL sciences -- Fieldwork. SOCIAL sciences -- Methodology. SURVEYS
BibTeX:
@article{Bryman2007,
  author = {Bryman, Alan},
  title = {The Research Question in Social Research: What is its Role?},
  journal = {International Journal of Social Research Methodology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {10},
  number = {1},
  pages = {5--20}
}
Bryman, A. Social Research Methods 2004   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Bryman2004,
  author = {Bryman, Alan},
  title = {Social Research Methods},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press, USA},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {608},
  edition = {Second ed.}
}
Bryman, A. & Burgess, R. G. Analyzing Qualitative Data 1994   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Bryman1994,
  author = {Bryman, Alan and Burgess, Robert G.},
  title = {Analyzing Qualitative Data},
  publisher = {Routledge},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {232}
}
Budd, J. M. Phenomenology and Information Studies 2005 Journal of Documentation   article  
Abstract: Purpose - To examine work on phenomenology and determine what information studies can learn and use from that work. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents a literature-based conceptual analysis of pioneering work in phenomenology (including that of Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Paul Ricoeur, and others), application of such ideas as intentionality and being in information studies work, and the potential for greater application of the information seeker as other. Findings - The literature on phenomenology contains thought that is directly relevant to information studies and information work. Close examination of perception, intentionality, and interpretation is integral to individuals' activities related to searching for and retrieving information, determining relevance, and using technology. Essential to the realization of phenomenology's potential is adoption of communication by dialogue so that an information seeker is ab le both to conceptualize need and to articulate that need. Some promising work in information studies demonstrates an openness to the ongoing and continuous perceptual experiences of information seekers and the relation of that process of perceiving to the growth of knowledge. Originality/value - Offers a different way of thinking about human-information relationships and the ways that information professionals can interact with information seekers.
BibTeX:
@article{Budd2005,
  author = {Budd, John M.},
  title = {Phenomenology and Information Studies},
  journal = {Journal of Documentation},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {61},
  number = {1},
  pages = {44--59}
}
Bungay, V. & Keddy, B. C. Experiential Analysis as a Feminist Methodology for Health Professionals 1996 Qualitative Health Research   article  
Abstract: An increasing number of health professional scholars are looking for alternate ways of doing research. In this article, the authors discuss experential analysis as a feminist methodology that could provide new answers to old questions. Rooted in the arena of the sociology of knowledge, experential analysis provides one the opportunity to think about how knowledge is created, the power relations inherent in knowledge, and how to deconstruct this knowledge.
BibTeX:
@article{BV-1996001,
  author = {Bungay, Vicky and Keddy, Barbara Carter},
  title = {Experiential Analysis as a Feminist Methodology for Health Professionals},
  journal = {Qualitative Health Research},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {6},
  number = {3},
  pages = {442--452}
}
Burke, M. A. Personal construct theory as a research tool for analysing user perceptions of photographs 2002 Proceedings of Image and Video Retrieval: International Conference, CIVR 2002   inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper describes a preliminary research project which applies Personal Construct Theory to individual user perceptions of photographs. The background to Personal Construct Theory and to the use of Repertory Grids is presented. The analysis provided by repertory grids is compared with that from various theoretical and practical approaches to indexing visual images, including 'ofness' and 'aboutness', facet analysis, iconology and MPEG7. A high level of consistency is found among the personal constructs which participants use to distinguish between photographs. The research concludes that repertory grids provide a useful method of collecting unbiased data about what users see in visual images and for comparing user perceptions with alternative retrieval vocabularies and methods. Incorporation of a participant's constructs in automatic classification systems for visual images remains a major challenge.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BMA2002001,
  author = {Burke, Mary A.},
  title = {Personal construct theory as a research tool for analysing user perceptions of photographs},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of Image and Video Retrieval: International Conference, CIVR 2002},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {378--385}
}
Burke, M. A. The use of repertory grids to develop a user-driven classification of a collection of digitized photographs 2001 Asist 2001: Proceedings of the 64th Asist Annual Meeting, Vol 38, 2001   inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper describes a preliminary research project which applies Personal Construct Theory to individual user perceptions of photographs. The research has both theoretical and practical objectives, namely: to test the validity of Personal Construct Theory (Kelly's theory and corollaries) for subject content analysis of photographs, and to use Personal Construct Theory and Repertory Grids to enhance retrieval of photographs. The background to Personal Construct Theory and to the use of Repertory Grids is presented and there is an overview of applications of these techniques in library and information science and other disciplines. Research results show a high level of consistency among the personal constructs which participants used to distinguish between photographs. While some problems associated with using Repertory Grids for subject content analysis are identified, the research concludes that they provide a useful method of collecting unbiased data about what users see in visual images and for comparing user perceptions with alternative retrieval vocabularies. Incorporation of a participant's constructs in automatic classification systems for visual images remains a major challenge.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BM-2001001,
  author = {Burke, Mary A.},
  title = {The use of repertory grids to develop a user-driven classification of a collection of digitized photographs},
  booktitle = {Asist 2001: Proceedings of the 64th Asist Annual Meeting, Vol 38, 2001},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {76--92}
}
Butterfield, L. D., Borgen, W. A., Amundson, N. E. & Maglio, A. T. Fifty years of the critical incident technique: 1954--2004 and beyond 2005 Qualitative Research   article  
Abstract: It has now been 50 years since Flanagan (1954) published his classic article on the critical incident technique (CIT) - a qualitative research method that is still widely used today. This article reviews the origin and evolution of the CIT during the past 50 years, discusses CIT's place within the qualitative research tradition, examines the robustness of the method, and offers some recommendations for using the CIT as we look forward to its next 50 years of use. The focus of this article is primarily on the use of the CIT in counselling psychology, although other disciplines are touched upon.
BibTeX:
@article{Butterfield2005,
  author = {Butterfield, Lee D. and Borgen, William A. and Amundson, Norman E. and Maglio, Asa-Sophia T.},
  title = {Fifty years of the critical incident technique: 1954--2004 and beyond},
  journal = {Qualitative Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {5},
  number = {4},
  pages = {475--497}
}
Buzan, T. Mind Mapping 2006   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Buzan2006,
  author = {Buzan, Tony},
  title = {Mind Mapping},
  publisher = {BBC Active},
  year = {2006}
}
Carey, J. W., Morgan, M. & Oxtoby, M. J. Intercoder agreement in analysis of responses to open-ended interview questions: Examples from tuberculosis research 2006 Cultural Anthropology Methods   article URL  
Abstract: A number of researchers have tried to develop systematic methods for analyzing written narratives generated through open-ended surveys or other qualitative data collection techniques (e.g., Bernard 1994; Carey 1994a, 1994b; Gorden 1992; Miles and Huberman 1994; Patton 1990). Skeptics often criticize qualitative data analysis procedures as being overly subjective. A researcher's failure to provide a replicable analysis may jeopardize the scientific credibility of the results. To overcome this difficulty, investigators should take explicit steps to ensure strong intercoder agreement in qualitative data analysis. (2nd paragraph of paper)
BibTeX:
@article{CareyMorganOxtoby2006,
  author = {Carey, James W. and Morgan, Mark and Oxtoby, Margaret J.},
  title = {Intercoder agreement in analysis of responses to open-ended interview questions: Examples from tuberculosis research},
  journal = {Cultural Anthropology Methods},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {8},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1--5},
  url = {http://www.cdc.gov/Hiv/software/pubs/interco1.pdf}
}
Carey, R. F., McKechnie, L. E. F. & McKenzie, P. J. Gaining Access to Everyday Life Information Seeking 2001 Library & Information Science Research   article  
Abstract: The discursive viewpoint adopted by many researchers who study everyday life information seeking allows for a shift in focus away from the individual as a unit of analysis toward a more general understanding of the broader cultural conditions within which individuals operate. However, the data employed by such researchers often consist of the testimony or observed actions of individuals. This paradox provides a point from which to reflect on the process of gaining access or entry to everyday life information seekers as research participants. This article presents the authors' reflections on their experiences of conducting separate library and information science studies of three diverse populations: pregnant women, members of a self-help support group, and preschool children. The article's premise is that theory and research practice are intertwined and that attending to issues of gaining access is essential for the development of both. Access is an emergent process dependent on the characteristics of the researcher, the participants, and the research context.
BibTeX:
@article{CRF2001001,
  author = {Carey, Robert F. and McKechnie, Lynne E. F. and McKenzie, Pamela J.},
  title = {Gaining Access to Everyday Life Information Seeking},
  journal = {Library & Information Science Research},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {23},
  number = {4},
  pages = {319--334}
}
Carmines, E. G. & Zeller, R. A. Reliability and validity assessment 1979   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Carmines1979,
  author = {Carmines, Edward G and Zeller, Richard A},
  title = {Reliability and validity assessment},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {1979},
  pages = {70 p.}
}
Carter, B. 'One expertise among many'---Working appreciatively to make miracles instead of finding problems: Using appreciative inquiry as a way of reframing research 2006 Journal of Research in Nursing   article  
Abstract: Serendipity plays a role in the articles we read and the ways that we chance upon new ideas, and serendipity brought me to appreciative inquiry (AI). AI, at its heart, is about studying, exploring, actively searching out the best and focusing on what is good, strong, already working and being achieved in organisations. It has been utilised and reported as being effective and transformative in many different aspects of organisational change and change management. AI is based on the 4-D cycle which consists of four phases -- discovery (the best of what is or has been), dreaming (what might be), designing (what should be) and destiny (what will be). The cycle starts with the choice of an affirmative topic to study. We used AI successfully within a research study that looked at best practice within multi-agency working with children with complex needs (and their families). Whilst AI is reported, and we experienced it, as an interesting, stimulating and creative way of researching, it is not a panacea and will not provide a cure all' for all the ills of the health, social care, education and voluntary services. It does, however, provide one way forward. At its best AI's non-problem orientation means that researchers study what is already working well (is clinically effective). Acknowledging existing clinical effectiveness provides a platform for envisaging and developing even better nursing, health and social care practices.
BibTeX:
@article{Carter2006,
  author = {Carter, Bernie},
  title = {'One expertise among many'---Working appreciatively to make miracles instead of finding problems: Using appreciative inquiry as a way of reframing research},
  journal = {Journal of Research in Nursing},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {11},
  number = {1},
  pages = {48--63}
}
Case, D. O. How do the experts do it? The use of ethnographic methods as an aid to understanding the cognitive processing and retrieval of large bodies of text 1988 Proceedings of the 11th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval   inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper explores an important problem in information retrieval: that of rapidly increasing amounts of full-text storage that is difficult to file and retrieve effectively. The author suggests that a possible avenue for improving full-text retrieval would include in-depth studies of the ways in which individual users cope with large amounts of written information, stored chiefly on paper in their offices. Relevant literature in cognitive psychology is reviewed and some recent and continuing studies are described that have used anthropological methods to approach this problem. It is argued that historians are a good group to study, due to their reliance on the examination and processing of texts, and the broad scope of their inquiries. Examinations of the ways in which this one group of information workers categorize documents could lead us to a better understanding of human problems in processing and retrieving textual information.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{CDO1988002,
  author = {Case, Donald Owen},
  title = {How do the experts do it? The use of ethnographic methods as an aid to understanding the cognitive processing and retrieval of large bodies of text},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval},
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  year = {1988},
  pages = {127--133}
}
Case, D. O. The use of anthropological methods in studying information management by American historians 1988 Information Technology: planning for the next fifty years. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science   inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper reviews the use of qualitative methods in psychology and sociology. The application of such methods in studying information management is illustrated by an ongoing investigation of American historians.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{CDO1988001,
  author = {Case, Donald Owen},
  title = {The use of anthropological methods in studying information management by American historians},
  booktitle = {Information Technology: planning for the next fifty years. Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science},
  publisher = {Learned Information, Inc, for American Society for Information Science},
  year = {1988},
  pages = {87--93}
}
Cassell, C. & Symon, G. Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research 2004 Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research   book  
BibTeX:
@book{CassellSymon2004,
  author = {Cassell, Catherine and Symon, Gillian},
  title = {Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research},
  booktitle = {Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2004}
}
Cassell, C. & Symon, G. Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research : a practical guide 1998   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Cassell1998,
  author = {Cassell, Catherine and Symon, Gillian},
  title = {Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research : a practical guide},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {xii, 255 p. :}
}
Charmaz, K. Constructing Grounded Theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis 2006   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Charmaz2006,
  author = {Charmaz, Kathy},
  title = {Constructing Grounded Theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2006}
}
Chatman, E. A. Field-Research - Methodological Themes 1984 Library & Information Science Research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{CEA1984001,
  author = {Chatman, Elfreda A.},
  title = {Field-Research - Methodological Themes},
  journal = {Library & Information Science Research},
  year = {1984},
  volume = {6},
  number = {4},
  pages = {425--438}
}
Chell, E. Critical incident technique 2004 Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research   incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Chell2004,
  author = {Chell, Elizabeth},
  title = {Critical incident technique},
  booktitle = {Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {45--60}
}
Chell, E. Critical incident technique 2003 Encyclopedia of social science research methods   incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Chell2003,
  author = {Chell, Elizabeth},
  title = {Critical incident technique},
  booktitle = {Encyclopedia of social science research methods},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2003}
}
Conway, M. The subjective precision of computers: a methodological comparison with human coding in content analysis 2006 Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly   article URL  
Abstract: With the increased sophistication and speed of computers, fewer text content analysis projects utilize traditional human coding. This methodological case study was designed to compare results of human versus computer-assisted coding using the same data set. The two processes yielded significantly different results in a content analysis of newspaper coverage of a political campaign. In computer-assisted coding, several subjective steps must be taken to adapt the content to the program. Those decisions can be arbitrary and fall outside the concept of traditional intercoder reliability. (Author abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{CM-2006002,
  author = {Conway, Mike},
  title = {The subjective precision of computers: a methodological comparison with human coding in content analysis},
  journal = {Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {83},
  number = {1},
  pages = {186--200},
  url = {http://www.aejmc.org/pubs/index.html}
}
Cooperrider, D. L., Whitney, D. & Stavros, J. M. Appreciative inquiry handbook 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Cooperrider2003,
  author = {Cooperrider, David L. and Whitney, Diana and Stavros, Jacqueline M.},
  title = {Appreciative inquiry handbook},
  publisher = {Lakeshore Communications},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {430},
  edition = {1st}
}
Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. L. Basics of qualitative research : techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory 2008   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Corbin2008,
  author = {Corbin, Juliet and Strauss, Anselm L.},
  title = {Basics of qualitative research : techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {379},
  edition = {3rd}
}
Crabtree, A. Designing collaborative systems a practical guide to ethnography 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Crabtree2003,
  author = {Crabtree, Andy},
  title = {Designing collaborative systems a practical guide to ethnography},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {178 p}
}
Creswell, J. W. Research design : qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Creswell2003,
  author = {Creswell, John W.},
  title = {Research design : qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {246 p.},
  edition = {2nd ed}
}
Creswell, J. W. Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Creswell2002,
  author = {Creswell, John W.},
  title = {Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research},
  publisher = {Pearson Education},
  year = {2002}
}
Crouch, M. & McKenzie, H. The logic of small samples in interview-based qualitative research 2006 Social science information   article  
BibTeX:
@article{CrouchMcKenzie2006,
  author = {Crouch, Mira and McKenzie, Heather},
  title = {The logic of small samples in interview-based qualitative research},
  journal = {Social science information},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {45},
  number = {4},
  pages = {483--499}
}
Curtis, S., Gesler, W., Smith, G. & Washburn, S. Approaches to sampling and case selectionn in qualitative research: Examples in the geography of health 2000 Social Science & Medicine   article  
BibTeX:
@article{CurtisEtAl2000,
  author = {Curtis, Sarah and Gesler, Wil and Smith, Glenn and Washburn, Sarah},
  title = {Approaches to sampling and case selectionn in qualitative research: Examples in the geography of health},
  journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {50},
  number = {7--8},
  pages = {1001--1014}
}
Dalton, P. & Dunnett, G. A Psychology for Living: Personal Construct Theory for Professionals and Clients 2005   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Dalton2005,
  author = {Dalton, Peggy and Dunnett, Gavin},
  title = {A Psychology for Living: Personal Construct Theory for Professionals and Clients},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {188},
  edition = {2nd ed.}
}
De Bono, E. Lateral thinking: Creativity step by step 1973   book  
BibTeX:
@book{De1973,
  author = {De Bono, Edward},
  title = {Lateral thinking: Creativity step by step},
  publisher = {Harper & Row},
  year = {1973},
  pages = {300}
}
De Fina, A. & Georgakopoulou, A. Analysing narratives as practices 2008 Qualitative Research   article  
Abstract: Departing from a critique of the conventional paradigm of narrative analysis, inspired by Labov and the narrative turn in social sciences, we propose an alternative framework, recommending combining a focus on the local occasioning of narratives in interaction with the analysis of their participation in a variety of macro-processes, through mobilizing the notions of social practice, genre and community of practice.
BibTeX:
@article{DeFinaGeorgakopoulou2008,
  author = {De Fina, Anna and Georgakopoulou, Alexandra},
  title = {Analysing narratives as practices},
  journal = {Qualitative Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {8},
  number = {3},
  pages = {379--387}
}
Deibel, K., Anderson, R. & Anderson, R. Using edit distance to analyze card sorts 2005 Expert Systems   article  
Abstract: Card sorts are a knowledge elicitation technique in which participants are given a collection of items and are asked to partition them into groups based on their own criteria. Information about the participant's knowledge structure is inferred from the groups formed and the names used to describe the groups through various methods ranging from simple quantitative statistical measures (e.g. co-occurrence frequencies) to complex qualitative methods (e.g. content analysis on the group names). This paper introduces a new technique for analyzing card sort data that uses quantitative measures to discover rich qualitative results. This method is based upon a distance metric between sorts that allows one to measure the similarity of groupings and then look for clusters of closely related sorts across individuals. By using software for computing these clusters, it is possible to identify common concepts across individuals, despite the use of different terminology. (Original abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{DK-2005001,
  author = {Deibel, Katherine and Anderson, Richard and Anderson, Ruth},
  title = {Using edit distance to analyze card sorts},
  journal = {Expert Systems},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3},
  pages = {129--138}
}
Denscombe, M. The length of responses to open-ended questions: A comparison of online and paper questionnaires in terms of a mode effect 2008 Social Science Computer Review   article  
Abstract: The existence of a mode effect is assessed using data from two matched groups of 15- to 16-year-olds (n = 466) who completed a questionnaire either as a Web-based online version or an "optical mark recognition" paper version. This article focuses specifically on the length of answers to four open-ended questions included in the questionnaire. It was found that although the online answers to three of the four questions tended to be slightly longer than those from the paper version, the differences were not statistically significant. Other factors, specifically gender and educational aspirations, appeared to have much more influence on the length of answers to open-ended questions than the mode of delivery per se. The findings do not provide conclusive evidence of any mode effect with respect to the online delivery of questionnaires.
BibTeX:
@article{Denscombe2008,
  author = {Denscombe, Martyn},
  title = {The length of responses to open-ended questions: A comparison of online and paper questionnaires in terms of a mode effect},
  journal = {Social Science Computer Review},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {26},
  number = {3},
  pages = {359-368}
}
Denzin, N. K. The research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods 1989   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Denzin1989,
  author = {Denzin, Norman K.},
  title = {The research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods},
  publisher = {Prentice Hall},
  year = {1989},
  pages = {306}
}
Dervin, B. Sense-Making Methodology Site 2005   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Dervin2005a,
  author = {Dervin, Brenda},
  title = {Sense-Making Methodology Site},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://communication.sbs.ohio-state.edu/sense-making/}
}
Dervin, B. Sense-Making's journey from metatheory to methodology to method: An example using information seeking and use as research focus 1999 Annual meeting of the International Communication Association   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Dervin1999a,
  author = {Dervin, Brenda},
  title = {Sense-Making's journey from metatheory to methodology to method: An example using information seeking and use as research focus},
  booktitle = {Annual meeting of the International Communication Association},
  year = {1999}
}
Dervin, B. Given a context by any other name: Methodological tools for taming the unruly beast 1996 ISIC 96, Conference on information needs, seeking and use in different contexts   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Dervin1996,
  author = {Dervin, Brenda},
  title = {Given a context by any other name: Methodological tools for taming the unruly beast},
  booktitle = {ISIC 96, Conference on information needs, seeking and use in different contexts},
  year = {1996}
}
Dervin, B. An overview of Sense-Making research: Concepts, methods, and results to date 1983 The annual meting of the International Communication Association   inproceedings  
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the Sense-Making approach to research?its assumptions, methods, and results to date (circa 1983). The paper includes sections on: Sense-Making?s roots, core conceptual premises, the Sense-Making model, methods of data collection, Sense-Making variables, practice inventions, and the Methodology?s research agenda. Also included are a series of appendices that present examples, overviews, and discussions of the impact of Sense-Making?s interview style. Despite the thorough nature of this paper, however, no attempt is made to fully document all studies done using the Sense-Making approach or the extensive literature reviews on which development of the approach has been based.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{DB-1983001,
  author = {Dervin, Brenda},
  title = {An overview of Sense-Making research: Concepts, methods, and results to date},
  booktitle = {The annual meting of the International Communication Association},
  year = {1983}
}
Dervin, B., Foreman-Wernet, L. & Lauterbach, E. Sense-Making methodology reader: Selected writings of Brenda Dervin 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Dervin2003,
  author = {Dervin, Brenda and Foreman-Wernet, Lois and Lauterbach, Eric},
  title = {Sense-Making methodology reader: Selected writings of Brenda Dervin},
  publisher = {Hampton Press},
  year = {2003}
}
Dervin, B., Reinhard, C. D., Song, M. & Reed, S. J. Interviewing 2006 Sense-making the information confluence: The whys and hows of college and university user satificing of information needs. Phase II: Sense-making online survey and phone interview study. Report on National Leadership Grant LG-02-03-0062-03, to Institute of Museum and Library Services, Washington, D.C.   incollection URL  
BibTeX:
@incollection{IConfluenceReport2-3,
  author = {Dervin, Brenda and Reinhard, CarrieLynn D. and Song, Mei and Reed, Sandra J.},
  title = {Interviewing},
  booktitle = {Sense-making the information confluence: The whys and hows of college and university user satificing of information needs. Phase II: Sense-making online survey and phone interview study. Report on National Leadership Grant LG-02-03-0062-03, to Institute of Museum and Library Services, Washington, D.C.},
  publisher = {School of Communication, The Ohio State University},
  year = {2006},
  url = {http://imlsproject.comm.ohio-state.edu/imls_reports/PHASE_II/PH_II_CH_III.pdf}
}
Doucet, A. & Mauthner, N. S. What can be known and how? Narrated subjects and the Listening Guide 2008 Qualitative Research   article  
Abstract: This article grapples with the question of `what can be known?' about research subjects and how we can come to know them. Set against a backdrop of theoretical tensions over the concept of subjectivity in feminist theory, our article makes a three-fold argument. First, we argue that theoretical impasses between critical and constructed subjects can be addressed through the evolving concept of a narrated subject. Second, we suggest that this concept needs to be further interrogated by asking what can be known about narrated subjects both inside and outside of narrative. Third, we argue that greater attention must be given to how narrated subjects can be operationalized within research methodology, and we suggest that an emerging interpretive approach, the Listening Guide, provides a multi-layered way of tapping into methodological, theoretical, epistemological, and ontological dimensions of the narrated subject.
BibTeX:
@article{DoucetMauthner2008,
  author = {Doucet, Andrea and Mauthner, Natasha S.},
  title = {What can be known and how? Narrated subjects and the Listening Guide},
  journal = {Qualitative Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {8},
  number = {3},
  pages = {399--409}
}
Easton, K. L., McComish, J. F. & Greenberg, R. Avoiding Common Pitfalls in Qualitative Data Collection and Transcription 2000 Qual Health Res   article DOI  
Abstract: The subjective nature of qualitative research necessitates scrupulous scientific methods to ensure valid results. Although qualitative methods such as grounded theory, phenomenology, and ethnography yield rich data, consumers of research need to be able to trust the findings reported in such studies. Researchers are responsible for establishing the trust worthiness of qualitative research through a variety of ways. Specific challenges faced in the field can seriously threaten the dependability of the data. However, by minimizing potential errors that can occur when doing fieldwork, researchers can increase the trustworthiness of the study. The purpose of this article is to present three of the pitfalls that can occur in qualitative research during data collection and transcription: equipment failure, environmental hazards, and transcription errors. Specific strategies to minimize the risk for avoidable errors will be discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{EastonMcComishFryGreenberg2000,
  author = {Easton, Kristen L. and McComish, Judith Fry and Greenberg, Rivka},
  title = {Avoiding Common Pitfalls in Qualitative Data Collection and Transcription},
  journal = {Qual Health Res},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {10},
  number = {5},
  pages = {703--707},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104973200129118651}
}
Eisenhardt, K. M. Better stories and better constructs: The case for rigor and comparative logic 1991 The Academy of Management Review   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Eisenhardt1991,
  author = {Eisenhardt, Kathleen M.},
  title = {Better stories and better constructs: The case for rigor and comparative logic},
  journal = {The Academy of Management Review},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {16},
  number = {3},
  pages = {620--627}
}
Eisenhardt, K. M. Building theories from case study research 1989 The Academy of Management Review   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Eisenhardt1989,
  author = {Eisenhardt, Kathleen M.},
  title = {Building theories from case study research},
  journal = {The Academy of Management Review},
  year = {1989},
  volume = {14},
  number = {4},
  pages = {532-550}
}
Emerson, R. M. Contemporary field research : perspectives and formulations 2001   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Emerson2001,
  author = {Emerson, Robert M},
  title = {Contemporary field research : perspectives and formulations},
  publisher = {Waveland Press},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {433 p. ;},
  edition = {2nd ed}
}
Engel, J. & Kuzel, A. On the idea of what constitutes good qualitative inquiry 1992 Qualitative health research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Engel1992,
  author = {Engel, J. and Kuzel, A.},
  title = {On the idea of what constitutes good qualitative inquiry},
  journal = {Qualitative health research },
  year = {1992},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {504--510}
}
Fidel, R. Qualitative methods in information retrieval research 1993 Library & information science research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{FR-1993001,
  author = {Fidel, Raya},
  title = {Qualitative methods in information retrieval research},
  journal = {Library & information science research},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {15},
  pages = {219--247}
}
Fidel, R. Qualitative Methods in Information-Retrieval Research 1993 Library & Information Science Research   article  
Abstract: This review of the literature shows that the number of research projects in information retrieval (IR) that employ qualitative methods is on the rise. Although no agreed-upon definition exists for the concept qualitative research, a number of typical characteristics describe its nature. Qualitative research is noncontrolling, holistic and case oriented, about processes, open and flexible, diverse in methods, humanistic, inductive, and scientific. Although these characteristics make qualitative methods the best for exploring human behavior in depth, and thus of great relevance to IR research, only a few studies present all of them. Doctoral students, librarians, and others who are interested in qualitative methods have many sources for gaining support and guidance: methodological writings, textbooks and handbooks, and several departments at academic institutions.
BibTeX:
@article{Fidel1993,
  author = {Fidel, Raya},
  title = {Qualitative Methods in Information-Retrieval Research},
  journal = {Library & Information Science Research},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {15},
  number = {3},
  pages = {219--247}
}
Fielding, N. G. & Fielding, J. L. Linking data 1986   book  
BibTeX:
@book{FieldingFielding1986,
  author = {Fielding, Nigel G. and Fielding, Jane L.},
  title = {Linking data},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {4}
}
Fincher, S. & Tenenberg, J. Making sense of card sorting data 2005 Expert Systems   article  
Abstract: Among the knowledge elicitation techniques card sorting is notable for its simplicity of use, its focus on subjects' terminology (rather than that of external experts) and its ability to elicit semi-tacit knowledge. Card sorting involves categorizing a set of pictures, objects or labelled cards into distinct groups using a single criterion. This paper focuses on the challenges associated with analyzing the data that result from card sorts, especially when large data sets are generated. Traditional semantic analysis methods that require direct researcher interpretation of elicited linguistic terms are distinguished from methods that are purely syntactic, and hence can be automated. Each paper within this special issue is summarized and its contribution to card sorting in general, and data analysis in particular, is highlighted. The set of novel computational techniques presented in several of the papers in this issue is examined. The paper concludes by noting that even large-scale data sets can be meaningfully analysed by combining well-known interpretative methods with the new computational approaches presented within this special issue. (Original abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{FS-2005001,
  author = {Fincher, Sally and Tenenberg, Josh},
  title = {Making sense of card sorting data},
  journal = {Expert Systems},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3},
  pages = {89--93}
}
Fink, A. Conducting research literature reviews : from the Internet to paper 2005   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Fink2005,
  author = {Fink, Arlene},
  title = {Conducting research literature reviews : from the Internet to paper},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {xiii, 245 p. :},
  edition = {2nd ed}
}
Firestone, W. A. Alternative arguments for generalizing from data as applied to qualitative research 1993 Educational researcher   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Firestone1993,
  author = {Firestone, William A.},
  title = {Alternative arguments for generalizing from data as applied to qualitative research},
  journal = {Educational researcher},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {22},
  number = {4},
  pages = {16--23}
}
Flick, U. The episodic interview: Small scale narratives as approach to relevant experiences November 1997   techreport  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Flick1997,
  author = {Flick, Uwe},
  title = {The episodic interview: Small scale narratives as approach to relevant experiences},
  year = {November 1997},
  number = {5}
}
Flick, U. Managing quality in qualitative research 2007   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Flick2007,
  author = {Flick, Uwe},
  title = {Managing quality in qualitative research},
  publisher = {SAGE},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {8}
}
Flick, U. Episodic interviewing 2000 Qualitative researching with text, image and sound: A practical handbook   incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Flick2000,
  author = {Flick, Uwe},
  title = {Episodic interviewing},
  booktitle = {Qualitative researching with text, image and sound: A practical handbook},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {75-92}
}
Flyvbjerg, B. Five misunderstandings about case-study research 2006 Qualitative Inquiry   article URL  
Abstract: This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study

research: (a)theoretical knowledgeismorevaluable thanpractical knowledge;

(b) one cannot generalize from a single case, therefore, the single-case study

cannot contribute to scientific development; (c) the case study is most useful

for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for

hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias

toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case stud-

ies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one by one and

concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large

number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic

production of exemplars, and a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective

one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of a greater number

of good case studies.

Keywords: casestudy;caseselection; critical cases;validity incasestudies

BibTeX:
@article{Flyvbjerg2006,
  author = {Flyvbjerg, Bent},
  title = {Five misunderstandings about case-study research},
  journal = {Qualitative Inquiry},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  number = {2},
  pages = {219--245},
  url = {http://flyvbjerg.plan.aau.dk/Publications2006/0604FIVEMISPUBL2006.pdf}
}
Fossum, T. & Haller, S. Measuring card sort orthogonality 2005 Expert Systems   article  
Abstract: Abstract: Card sorts can be used to study the way human subjects acquire and organize conceptual knowledge. Analyses of card sorts often involve subjective examination of criteria or category names or using clustering techniques, neither of which lend themselves well to direct statistical analysis. This paper defines NMST, a quantitative measure of knowledge discrimination based on repeated, single-criterion card sorts that is independent of criteria or category names and that is particularly amenable to statistical analysis. The NMST measure is illustrated by applying it to a particular data set collected in a large multinational card sort study of subjects, where the knowledge area comes from a first-year programming course. Applied to this data set, the NMST measure is shown to distinguish, with statistical significance, between a set of subjects with only an introduction to programming and a set of subjects who have completed the equivalent of a bachelor's degree or higher in a computing-related discipline.
BibTeX:
@article{FT-2005001,
  author = {Fossum, Timothy and Haller, Susan},
  title = {Measuring card sort orthogonality},
  journal = {Expert Systems},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3},
  pages = {139--146}
}
Fransella, F. & Bannister, D. A manual for repertory grid technique 2004   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Fransella2004,
  author = {Fransella, Fay and Bannister, Donald},
  title = {A manual for repertory grid technique},
  publisher = {Wiley},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {266},
  edition = {2nd ed.}
}
Franzosi, R. From Words to Numbers: Narrative, Data, and Social Science 2004   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Franzosi2004,
  author = {Franzosi, Roberto},
  title = {From Words to Numbers: Narrative, Data, and Social Science},
  publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {476}
}
Frohmann, B. Discourse Analysis as a Research Method in Library and Information-Science 1994 Library & Information Science Research   article  
Abstract: The kind of discourse analysis practiced by Michel Foucault and his followers is a useful research method in library and information science (LIS). The method is introduced, some examples of its use are suggested, and several research questions are posed. The method permits analysis of the ways in which information, its uses, and its users are discursively constructed, especially in the theoretical discourses of LIS, such that power over them can be exercised in specific ways.
BibTeX:
@article{Frohmann1994,
  author = {Frohmann, Bernd},
  title = {Discourse Analysis as a Research Method in Library and Information-Science},
  journal = {Library & Information Science Research},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {16},
  number = {2},
  pages = {119--138}
}
Fruchter, R. & Cavallin, H. E. Developing methods to understand discourse and workspace in distributed computer-mediated interaction 2006 AI & Society   article  
Abstract: This paper presents ongoing research towards understanding the discourse and workspace in computer-mediated interactions. We present a series of methods developed to study non-collocated computer-mediated interactions. These methods were developed originally to study interactions involving teams composed of architecture, engineering, and construction management students as part of the AEC Global Teamwork course offered at Stanford University in collaboration with universities worldwide since 1993. The methods stress the value of using ethnographic approaches, particularly the role that both discourse and workspace have in developing the communication processes involved in the interactions. We used the AEC Global Teamwork course as a testbed and focused on issues regarding the nature of the communication act in building design projects when mediated by computers. We successfully tested these new methods and present the preliminary results. Discourse - Workspace - Distributed teamwork - Computer-mediated interaction
BibTeX:
@article{FruchterCavallin2006,
  author = {Fruchter, Renate and Cavallin, Humberto E.},
  title = {Developing methods to understand discourse and workspace in distributed computer-mediated interaction},
  journal = {AI & Society},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {169--188}
}
Garfinkel, H. Studies in ethnomethodology 1967   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Garfinkel1967,
  author = {Garfinkel, Harold},
  title = {Studies in ethnomethodology},
  publisher = {Prentice-Hall},
  year = {1967}
}
Garrison, D. R., Cleveland-Innes, M. & Koole, M. Revisiting methodological issues in transcript analysis: Negotiated coding and reliability 2006 Internet and Higher Education   article  
BibTeX:
@article{GDR2006001,
  author = {Garrison, D. R. and Cleveland-Innes, M. and Koole, Marguerite},
  title = {Revisiting methodological issues in transcript analysis: Negotiated coding and reliability},
  journal = {Internet and Higher Education},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {9},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--8}
}
George, A. L. & Bennett, A. Case studies and theory development in the social sciences 2005   book  
BibTeX:
@book{GeorgeBennett2005,
  author = {George, Alexander L. and Bennett, Andrew},
  title = {Case studies and theory development in the social sciences},
  publisher = {MIT Press},
  year = {2005}
}
Gerbic, P. & Stacey, E. A purposive approach to content analysis: Designing analytical frameworks 2005 Internet and Higher Education   article  
BibTeX:
@article{GP-2005001,
  author = {Gerbic, Philippa and Stacey, Elizabeth},
  title = {A purposive approach to content analysis: Designing analytical frameworks},
  journal = {Internet and Higher Education},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {8},
  number = {1},
  pages = {45--59}
}
Gerrard, S. & Dickinson, J. Women's working wardrobes: a study using card sorts 2005 Expert Systems   article  
Abstract: Abstract: Picture sorts were used to investigate perceptions of women's office clothes, with a sample of ten male and ten female subjects who normally worked in an office environment. The pictures on the cards were taken from catalogues, and showed women's outfits which might be worn in an office. The subjects sorted the cards repeatedly and generated criteria and categories of their own choice. Some of the criteria and categories had not been previously reported in the clothing research literature. Over half of the male subjects, but none of the female subjects, used 'married/unmarried woman' as a sorting criterion, although only one of the images sorted showed a wedding ring. A significantly higher proportion of male than of female subjects used dichotomous categorization (i.e. sorting the cards into two piles for one or more of the criteria). The reasons for this are obscure, but do not appear to be a simple outcome of males not knowing much about female clothing. Previous research into clothing has tended to involve researcher-centred approaches such as semiotics; the results from this study suggest that there would be advantages in wider use of subject-centred approaches such as card sorts, both in this domain and elsewhere. It was concluded that card sorts were a useful method and should be more widely used.
BibTeX:
@article{GS-2005001,
  author = {Gerrard, Sue and Dickinson, Julie},
  title = {Women's working wardrobes: a study using card sorts},
  journal = {Expert Systems},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3},
  pages = {108--114}
}
Given, L. M. & Olson, H. A. Knowledge Organization in Research: a Conceptual Model for Organizing Data 2003 Library & Information Science Research   article  
Abstract: Organizing research data for effective analysis has been insufficiently addressed in the methodological literature. This article proposes that concepts of knowledge organization relating to relevance, precision, recall, coextensiveness, exhaustivity, specificity, and consistency offer a ready-made model that can be applied to research data. The knowledge organization (KO) model is reinterpreted for transferability to quantitative, qualitative, and textual research. In each instance, the model's applicability is illustrated with examples from the authors' research. This exploration demonstrates the model's resiliency in organizing numeric data, coding transcripts, and marking up textual statements. The limitations of the model are noted and compromises are described, providing a valuable approach to meaningful data preparation for researchers, educators, students, and reviewers of research across disciplines. The article concludes that the KO model contributes significantly to the ability of researchers to collect and organize data in a manner most likely to shed light on research problems they address. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Given2003,
  author = {Given, Lisa M. and Olson, Hope A.},
  title = {Knowledge Organization in Research: a Conceptual Model for Organizing Data},
  journal = {Library & Information Science Research},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {25},
  number = {2},
  pages = {157--176}
}
Glaser, B. G. & Holton, J. Remodeling Grounded Theory 2004 Forum: Qualitative Social Research   article URL  
Abstract: This paper outlines my concerns with Qualitative Data Analysis' (QDA) numerous remodelings of Grounded Theory (GT) and the subsequent eroding impact. I cite several examples of the erosion and summarize essential elements of classic GT methodology. It is hoped that the article will clarify my concerns with the continuing enthusiasm but misunderstood embrace of GT by QDA methodologists and serve as a preliminary guide to novice researchers who wish to explore the fundamental principles of GT.
BibTeX:
@article{GBG2004001,
  author = {Glaser, Barney G. and Holton, Judith},
  title = {Remodeling Grounded Theory},
  journal = {Forum: Qualitative Social Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {5},
  number = {2},
  url = {http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/2-04/2-04glaser-e.htm}
}
Glaser, B. G. & Strauss, A. L. The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research 1967   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Glaser1967,
  author = {Glaser, Barney G and Strauss, Anselm L},
  title = {The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research},
  publisher = {Aldine Pub. Co},
  year = {1967},
  pages = {271 p}
}
Goodman, L. A. Statistical magic and/or statistical serendipity: an age of progress in the analysis of categorical data 2007 Annual Review of Sociology   article  
Abstract: This essay describes in simple terms some of the major concepts of categorical data analysis (CDA) that have been and will continue to be useful in the analysis of sociological data, examples of which include data in the area of social stratification and mobility, and in many other areas that make use of survey data and/or panel studies data, and in empirical studies of latent types, latent variables, and latent structures. The exposition does not make use of any mathematical formulas, and the only arithmetic used is very simple multiplication, division, and addition. Simple numerical examples, constructed for expository purposes, are used as an aid in describing the concepts of categorical data analysis that are considered in the essay. These concepts include quasi-independence, quasi-symmetry, symmetric association, uniform association, and other related concepts useful in the analysis of mobility tables, and also other concepts that are useful in other areas of study.
BibTeX:
@article{GAL2007001,
  author = {Goodman, Leo A.},
  title = {Statistical magic and/or statistical serendipity: an age of progress in the analysis of categorical data},
  journal = {Annual Review of Sociology},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {33},
  pages = {1--19}
}
Gubrium, J. F. & Holstein, J. A. Handbook of interview research: Context & method 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Gubrium2002,
  author = {Gubrium, Jaber F. and Holstein, James A.},
  title = {Handbook of interview research: Context & method},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {981}
}
Gummesson, E. Case study research and network theory: Birds of a feather 2007 Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Gummesson2007,
  author = {Gummesson, Evert},
  title = {Case study research and network theory: Birds of a feather},
  journal = {Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {2},
  number = {3},
  pages = {226--248}
}
di Gregorio, S. Using NVIVO for your literature review 2000 Strategies in qualitative research: Issues and results from analysis using QSR NVIVO and NUD*IST   inproceedings URL  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{diGregorio2000,
  author = {di Gregorio, Silvana},
  title = {Using NVIVO for your literature review},
  booktitle = {Strategies in qualitative research: Issues and results from analysis using QSR NVIVO and NUD*IST},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {n.p.},
  url = {http://www.sdgassociates.com/downloads/literature_review.pdf}
}
Hagedorn, M. Hermeneutic photography: An innovative esthetic technique for generating data in nursing research. 1994 Advances in Nursing Science   article  
Abstract: In this article, the use of hermeneutic photography as an esthetic technique to enhance data generation is discussed. When photographs are used as an entree for interviewing participants, they often elicit participants' stories and illustrate themes of experience. A discussion of the uses of hermeneutic photography as a method and suggestions for the use of photographs within nursing research are presented.
BibTeX:
@article{hagedorn1994,
  author = {Hagedorn, Mary},
  title = {Hermeneutic photography: An innovative esthetic technique for generating data in nursing research.},
  journal = {Advances in Nursing Science},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {17},
  number = {1},
  pages = {44--50}
}
Hammersley, M. Whats Wrong With Ethnography - the Myth of Theoretical Description 1990 Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Hammersley1990,
  author = {Hammersley, M.},
  title = {Whats Wrong With Ethnography - the Myth of Theoretical Description},
  journal = {Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {24},
  number = {4},
  pages = {597--615}
}
Harrison, B. Photographic visions and narrative inquiry 2002 Narrative Inquiry   article  
Abstract: This article examines the ways in which photographic images can be used in narrative inquiry. After introducing the renewed interest in visual methodology the first section examines the ways in which researchers have utilised the camera or photographic images in research studies that are broadly similar to forms of narrative inquiry such as auto/biography, photographic journals, video diaries and photovoice. It then draws on the published literature in relation to the author's own empirical research into everyday photography. Here the extent to which the practices which are part of everyday photography can be seen as forms of story-telling and provide access to both narratives and counter-narratives, are explored. Ideas about memory and identity construction are considered. A critical area of argument centres on the relationship of images to other texts, and asks whether it is possible for photographs to narrate independent of written or oral word. It concludes with some remarks about how photographs can be used in research and as a resource for narrative inquiry. This necessitates a understanding of what it is people do with photographs in everyday life.
BibTeX:
@article{HB-2002003,
  author = {Harrison, Barbara},
  title = {Photographic visions and narrative inquiry},
  journal = {Narrative Inquiry},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {12},
  number = {1},
  pages = {87--111}
}
Heron, J. Co-operative inquiry: Research into the human condition 1996   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Heron1996,
  author = {Heron, John},
  title = {Co-operative inquiry: Research into the human condition},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {225}
}
Hicks, A. Qualitative Comparative-Analysis and Analytical Induction - the Case of the Emergence of the Social-Security State 1994 Sociological Methods & Research   article  
Abstract: This article bridges two research traditions, analytical induction (AI) and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in the context of a study of early welfare state formation. First, the article differentiates classical AI from neoanalytical induction (NAI), tracing the latter to the former and identifying some problems with NAI. Next, it outlines QCA and identifies some problems with it. Third, it sketches two bridges, along with solutions that they offer for some limitations of NAI and QCA. One bridge links NAI's method, in essence a logical implementation of the idea of the working hypothesis, to QCA's powerful Boolean technology. The second bridge joins AI's stress on the reformulation of hypotheses in the face of negative evidence to QCA's capacities for complex inductive and logical specifications of the relations of explanatory to dependent variables. Following that, the article summarizes portions of a study of early 20th-century welfare state formation and uses them to illustrate the bridges. It concludes with a discussion of the analytical promise of a variant of QCA that stresses theory building in the Al tradition.
BibTeX:
@article{Hicks1994,
  author = {Hicks, A.},
  title = {Qualitative Comparative-Analysis and Analytical Induction - the Case of the Emergence of the Social-Security State},
  journal = {Sociological Methods & Research},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {23},
  number = {1},
  pages = {86--113}
}
Hine, C. Virtual ethnography 2000   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Hine2000,
  author = {Hine, Christine},
  title = {Virtual ethnography},
  publisher = {SAGE},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {viii, 179 p. :}
}
Hoaglin, D. C., Light, R. J., McPeek, B., Mosteller, F. & Stoto, M. A. Data for decisions: Information strategies for policymakers 1982   book  
BibTeX:
@book{HoaglinEtAl1982,
  author = {Hoaglin, D. C. and Light, R. J. and McPeek, B. and Mosteller, F. and Stoto, M. A.},
  title = {Data for decisions: Information strategies for policymakers},
  publisher = {Abt Books},
  year = {1982}
}
Holsti, O. R. Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities 1969   book  
BibTeX:
@book{HOR1969001,
  author = {Holsti, Ole R.},
  title = {Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities},
  year = {1969},
  pages = {235}
}
Hopkins, W. G. Understanding statistics by using spreadsheets to generate and analyze samples 2007 Sportscience   article  
Abstract: The random number and probability distribution functions in Excel allow the user to easily generate samples that simulate data typical of any kind of biomedical study. The act of generating the samples should provide the user with an implicit understanding of fundamental statistical concepts, including variables, probability, independence, sampling variation, linear modeling, random error, fixed effects, random effects, and individual responses. Analysis of the samples, which is essentially an attempt to recover the formulae that generated the samples, should reinforce these concepts and develop others related to statistical inference, including bias, confidence limits, statistical significance, and chances of benefit and harm. The spreadsheets accompanying this article provide examples of generation and analysis of data for reliability and validity studies and for simple and covariate-adjusted comparisons of group means without and with repeated measurement. An example is also given for generation of a binary variable for data simulating events, such as the occurrence of injuries, but the analysis by generalized linear modeling is currently not available in these spreadsheets. KEYWORDS: confidence limits, data analysis, probability, random number, research design, simulation
BibTeX:
@article{HWG2007001,
  author = {Hopkins, Will G.},
  title = {Understanding statistics by using spreadsheets to generate and analyze samples},
  journal = {Sportscience},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {11},
  pages = {23--36}
}
Hughes, J. A. & Sharrock, W. W. The philosophy of social research 1997   book  
BibTeX:
@book{HJA1997001,
  author = {Hughes, J. A and Sharrock, W. W},
  title = {The philosophy of social research},
  publisher = {Longman},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {221 p},
  edition = {3rd ed}
}
Jenkins, T. Fieldwork and the Perception of Everyday Life 1994 Man   article  
Abstract: This article examines the claim that fieldwork is an adequate method for gaining knowledge of everyday life. It points to similarities between the conditions of anthropological knowledge and those of everyday life through a discussion of a single ethnographic example, the buying and selling of cattle in south-west France. Four interrelated themes emerge. First, an exploration of the idea of 'acquiring habits for action' through fieldwork, or apprenticeship, and its congruence with the practices of everyday life, for this has implications that impinge upon discussions of ethnographic method, ethnographic writing and the status of anthropological knowledge. Second, attention is drawn to the effects introduced into ethnographic descriptions and, more generally, into social practice, by the abstracting or 'objectifying' properties of language, that tend to eliminate any trace of temporality and of the acquisition of habits, of context, and of 'lived life'. The third theme, which is organized around the inescapably temporal nature of the experience of everyday life and the potential inadequacy of language to express fully that nature, concerns the complexity of 'social ordering' and the importance of what has been called 'mutual interpretation' in the creation of 'the social'. Experience is structured by the exploration of heteroclite realities that are owned by nobody, but which are functions of everybody's understandings. Lastly, this location of the 'objectivity' of the social emphasizes the matter of constraints to be acknowledged and resources to be exploited, and in particular points to questions of inequality or power, and how these pertain to the field, fieldwork and ethnography.
BibTeX:
@article{JT-1994001,
  author = {Jenkins, T.},
  title = {Fieldwork and the Perception of Everyday Life},
  journal = {Man},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {29},
  number = {2},
  pages = {433--455}
}
Kanstrup, A. M. Picture the practice: using photography to explore use of technology within teachers' work practices 2002 FQS: Forum: Qualitative Social Research   article URL  
Abstract: This article describes photography as a means for data collection and analysis in a workplace study on the use of technology within teachers' work practices. Examples of visual technology applications within workplace studies are outlined and the source of inspiration behind the use of photography in this particular workplace study is described. With a point of departure in stories from the study at hand, the experiences from photography for both data collection and analysis appear. The article concludes with reflections on both the empirical and the methodological results.
BibTeX:
@article{Kanstrup2002,
  author = {Kanstrup, Anne Marie},
  title = {Picture the practice: using photography to explore use of technology within teachers' work practices},
  journal = {FQS: Forum: Qualitative Social Research},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {3},
  number = {2},
  pages = {n.p.},
  url = {http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/viewArticle/856/1860#g3}
}
Kaplan, A. The Conduct of Inquiry: Methodology for Behavioral Science 1964   book  
BibTeX:
@book{KA-1964001,
  author = {Kaplan, Abraham},
  title = {The Conduct of Inquiry: Methodology for Behavioral Science},
  publisher = {Chandler Pub. Co},
  year = {1964},
  pages = {428}
}
Kaplowitz, M. D., Hadlonck, T. D. & Levine, R. A comparison of Web and mail survey rates 2004 Public Opinion Quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{KaplowitzEtAl2004,
  author = {Kaplowitz, Michael D. and Hadlonck, Timothy D. and Levine, Ralph},
  title = {A comparison of Web and mail survey rates},
  journal = {Public Opinion Quarterly},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {68},
  number = {1},
  pages = {94--101}
}
Kassarjian, H. H. Content analysis in consumer research 1977 Journal of Consumer Research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{KHH1977001,
  author = {Kassarjian, Harold H.},
  title = {Content analysis in consumer research},
  journal = {Journal of Consumer Research},
  year = {1977},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {8--18}
}
Kelle, U. Theory building in qualitative research and computer programs for the management of textual data 1997 Sociological Research Online   article URL  
Abstract: This article refers to recent debates about the potential methodological costs and benefits of computer use in qualitative research and about the relationship between methodological approaches (eg. 'Grounded Theory') on the one hand and computer-aided methods of qualitative research on the other. It is argued that the connection between certain computer-aided strategies and methodological approaches is far more loose than is often assumed. Furthermore, the danger of methodological biases and distortion arising from the use of certain software packages is overemphasized in current discussions, as far as basic tasks of textual data management ('coding and retrieval') usually performed by this software are concerned. However, with the development of more advanced and complex coding and retrieval techniques, which are regarded by some authors as tools for 'theory building' in qualitative research, methodological confusion may arise if basic prerequisites of qualitative theory building are not taken into consideration. Therefore, certain aspects of qualitative theory building which are relevant for computer aided methods of textual data management are discussed in the paper.
BibTeX:
@article{Kelle1997,
  author = {Kelle, U.},
  title = {Theory building in qualitative research and computer programs for the management of textual data},
  journal = {Sociological Research Online},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {2},
  number = {2},
  pages = {unpaged},
  url = {http://www.socresonline.org.uk/socresonline/2/2/1.html}
}
Kelly, G. A. The psychology of personal constructs 1955   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Kelly1955,
  author = {Kelly, George Alexander},
  title = {The psychology of personal constructs},
  publisher = {Norton},
  year = {1955},
  pages = {2 v. (1218 p.)},
  edition = {1st ed.}
}
Kincheloe, J. L. On to the Next Level: Continuing the Conceptualization of Bricolage 2005 Qualitative Inquiry   article  
Abstract: The bricolage offers insight into new forms of rigor and complexity in social research. This article explores new forms of complex, multimethodological, multilogical forms of inquiry into the social, cultural, political, psychological, and educational domains. Picking up where his previous Qualitative Inquiry article on the bricolage left off, this article examines not only the epistemological but also the ontological dimensions of multimethodological/multitheoretical research. Focusing on webs of relationships instead of simply things-in-themselves, the bricoleur constructs the object of study in a more complex framework. In this process, attention is directed toward processes, relationships, and interconnections among phenomena. Such analysis leads bricoleurs to multiple dimensions of multilogicality. In this context, the article generates a variety of important categories in which multiple perspectives may be constructed: methodology, theory, interpretation, power relations, and narratology.
BibTeX:
@article{KJL2005001,
  author = {Kincheloe, Joe L.},
  title = {On to the Next Level: Continuing the Conceptualization of Bricolage},
  journal = {Qualitative Inquiry},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {11},
  number = {3},
  pages = {323--350}
}
Kincheloe, J. L. Describing the bricolage: Conceptualizing a new rigor in qualitative research 2001 Qualitative Inquiry   article  
Abstract: Picking up on Norman Denzin?s and YvonnaLincoln?s articulation of the concept of bricolage, the essay describes a critical notion of this research orientation. As an interdisciplinary approach, bricolage avoids both the superficiality of methodological breadth and the parochialism of unidisciplinary approaches. The notion of the bricolage advocated here recognizes the dialectical nature of the disciplinary and interdisciplinary relationship and promotes a synergistic interaction between the two concepts. In this context, the bricolage is concerned not only with divergent methods of inquiry but with diverse theoretical and philosophical understandings of the various elements encountered in the act of research. The insights garnered here move researchers to a better conceptual grasp of the complexity of the research acta cognizance often missed in mainstream versions of qualitative research. In particular, critical bricoleurs employ historiographical, philosophical, and social theoretical lenses to gain a more complex understanding of the intricacies of research design.
BibTeX:
@article{KJL2001001,
  author = {Kincheloe, Joe L.},
  title = {Describing the bricolage: Conceptualizing a new rigor in qualitative research},
  journal = {Qualitative Inquiry},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {7},
  number = {6},
  pages = {679--692}
}
Knapp, W. S. On the Validity of Accounts About Everyday Life 1981 Sociological Review   article  
BibTeX:
@article{KWS1981001,
  author = {Knapp, W. S.},
  title = {On the Validity of Accounts About Everyday Life},
  journal = {Sociological Review},
  year = {1981},
  volume = {29},
  number = {3},
  pages = {543--562}
}
Kolbe, R. H. & Burnett, M. S. Content-analysis research: an examination of applications with directives for improving research reliability and objectivity 1991 Journal of Consumer Research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{KRH1991001,
  author = {Kolbe, Richard H. and Burnett, Melissa S.},
  title = {Content-analysis research: an examination of applications with directives for improving research reliability and objectivity},
  journal = {Journal of Consumer Research},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {18},
  number = {2},
  pages = {243--250}
}
Konop?sek, Z. Making Thinking Visible with Atlas.ti: Computer Assisted Qualitative Analysis as Textual Practices 2008 Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research   article URL  
Abstract: How is a new quality of reading, which we call "sociological understanding", created during the process of qualitative analysis? A methodological (conventional) answer to this question usually speaks of mental processes and conceptual work. This paper suggests a different view???sociological rather than methodological; or more precisely a view inspired by a contemporary sociology of science. It describes qualitative analysis as a set of material practices. Taking grounded theory methodology and the work with the computer programme Atlas.ti as an example, it is argued that thinking is inseparable from doing even in this domain. It is argued that by adopting the suggested perspective we might be better able to speak of otherwise hardly graspable processes of qualitative analysis in more accountable and instructable ways. Further, software packages would be better understood not only as "mere tools" for coding and retrieving, but also as complex virtual environments for embodied and practice-based knowledge making. Finally, grounded theory methodology might appear in a somewhat different light: when described not in terms of methodological or theoretical concepts but rather in terms of what we practically do with the analysed data, it becomes perfectly compatible with the radical constructivist, textualist, or even post-structuralist paradigms of interpretation (from which it has allegedly departed by a long way). URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802124
BibTeX:
@article{Konopasek2008,
  author = {Zden|k Konop?sek},
  title = {Making Thinking Visible with Atlas.ti: Computer Assisted Qualitative Analysis as Textual Practices},
  journal = {Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {9},
  number = {2},
  url = {http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/420/910}
}
Krippendorff, K. Testing the reliability of content analysis data: What is involved and why (forthcoming) 200X The content analysis reader   incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{KrippendorffCAR,
  author = {Krippendorff, Klaus},
  title = {Testing the reliability of content analysis data: What is involved and why (forthcoming)},
  booktitle = {The content analysis reader},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {200X},
  note = {Expanded recommendations from KK-2004001}
}
Krippendorff, K. Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology 2004   book  
BibTeX:
@book{KK-2004002,
  author = {Krippendorff, Klaus},
  title = {Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {413}
}
Krippendorff, K. Reliability in Content Analysis. Some Common Misconceptions and Recommendations 2004 Human Communication Research   article  
Abstract: In a recent article in this journal, Lombard, Snyder-Duch, and Bracken (2002) surveyed 200 content analyses for their reporting of reliability tests, compared the virtues and drawbacks of five popular reliability measures, and proposed guidelines and standards for their use. Their discussion revealed that numerous misconceptions circulate in the content analysis literature regarding how these measures behave and can aid or deceive content analysts in their effort to ensure the reliability of their data. This article proposes three conditions for statistical measures to serve as indices of the reliability of data and examines the mathematical structure and the behavior of the five coefficients discussed by the authors, as well as two others. It compares common beliefs about these coefficients with what they actually do and concludes with alternative recommendations for testing reliability in content analysis and similar data-making efforts.
BibTeX:
@article{KK-2004001,
  author = {Krippendorff, Klaus},
  title = {Reliability in Content Analysis. Some Common Misconceptions and Recommendations},
  journal = {Human Communication Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {30},
  number = {3},
  pages = {411--433}
}
Kruskal, J. B. & Wish, M. Multidimensional scaling 1978   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Kruskal1978,
  author = {Kruskal, Joseph B and Wish, Myron},
  title = {Multidimensional scaling},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {1978},
  pages = {93 p.}
}
Kuzel, A. J. Sampling in qualitative inquiry 1992 Doing qualitative research   incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Kuzel1992,
  author = {Kuzel, A. J.},
  title = {Sampling in qualitative inquiry},
  booktitle = {Doing qualitative research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {31--44}
}
La Pelle, N. Simplifying qualitative data analysis using general purpose software tools 2004 Field Methods   article  
Abstract: This article shows how clever but simple use of word-processing functions can provide many features of special-purpose software designed for analyzing text. For many qualitative research projects, and for students who are learning computerassisted analysis of text, the Microsoft Word functions outlined here may be all that are required. Examples are given showing how Microsoft Word can be used for coding and retrieving, semiautomated coding and inspection, creating hierarchies of code categories via indexing, global editing of theme codes, coding of "face-sheet" data, exploring relationships between face-sheet codes and conceptual codes, quantifying the frequency of code instances, and annotating text. The techniques outlined can be used for analyzing and managing many kinds of data, including key informant interviews, focus groups, document and literature reviews, and open-ended survey questions.
BibTeX:
@article{LaPelle2004,
  author = {La Pelle, Nancy},
  title = {Simplifying qualitative data analysis using general purpose software tools},
  journal = {Field Methods},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {16},
  number = {1},
  pages = {85--108}
}
Law, J. After method: Mess in social science research 2004   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Law2004,
  author = {Law, John},
  title = {After method: Mess in social science research},
  publisher = {Routledge},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {viii, 188 p}
}
Lee, A. S. Integrating positivist and interpretive approaches to organizational research 1991 Organization Science   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Lee1991,
  author = {Lee, Allen S.},
  title = {Integrating positivist and interpretive approaches to organizational research},
  journal = {Organization Science},
  year = {1991},
  volume = {2},
  number = {4},
  pages = {342--365}
}
Leitch, R. Outside the spoon drawer, naked and skinnless in search of my professional esteem: The tale of an "academic pro" 2006 Qualitative Inquiry   article  
BibTeX:
@article{LR-2006001,
  author = {Leitch, Ruth},
  title = {Outside the spoon drawer, naked and skinnless in search of my professional esteem: The tale of an "academic pro"},
  journal = {Qualitative Inquiry},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {12},
  number = {2},
  pages = {353--364}
}
Lesnard, L. Optimal matching and social sciences 2006   techreport URL  
BibTeX:
@techreport{Lesnard2006,
  author = {Lesnard, Laurent},
  title = {Optimal matching and social sciences},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {26},
  url = {http://www.crest.fr/doctravail/document/2006-01.pdf}
}
Lewis, M. W. & Grimes, A. J. Metatriangulation: Building theory from multiple paradigms 1999 The Academy of Management Review   article  
BibTeX:
@article{LewisGrimes1999,
  author = {Lewis, Marrianne W. and Grimes, Andrew J.},
  title = {Metatriangulation: Building theory from multiple paradigms},
  journal = {The Academy of Management Review},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {24},
  number = {4},
  pages = {672--690}
}
Lieblich, A., Zilber, T. B. & Tuval-Mashiach, R. Narrating human actions: The subjective experience of agency, structure, communion, and serendipity 2008 Qualitative Inquiry   article  
Abstract: In this article, the authors offer a model for the exploration of the ways social actors narrate the forces that have driven their lives. They position this exploration in light of the notions of agency, structure, communion, and serendipity, as formulated in various social-science theories of human action, viewed as part of the cultural repertoire of discourses available to narrators. The authors suggest a model for understanding the interrelationships between agency, structure, communion, and serendipity?as worked out in the subjective experience of life-story narrators?and exemplify the model through the analysis of one woman's life story. Key Words: agency ? structure ? communion ? serendipity ? life story ? narrative analysis ? unconventional families
BibTeX:
@article{Lieblichetal2008NarrativeAgencyStructureSerendipty,
  author = {Lieblich, Amia and Zilber, Tammar B. and Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka},
  title = {Narrating human actions: The subjective experience of agency, structure, communion, and serendipity},
  journal = {Qualitative Inquiry},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {14},
  number = {4},
  pages = {613--631}
}
Lincoln, Y. S. & Denzin, N. K. Turning points in qualitative research : Tying knots in a handkerchief 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Lincoln2003,
  author = {Lincoln, Yvonna S. and Denzin, Norman K.},
  title = {Turning points in qualitative research : Tying knots in a handkerchief},
  publisher = {AltaMira Press},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {496}
}
Lombard, M. A Call for Standardization in Content Analysis Reliability 2004 Human Communication Research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{LM-2004001,
  author = {Lombard, Matthew},
  title = {A Call for Standardization in Content Analysis Reliability},
  journal = {Human Communication Research},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {30},
  number = {3},
  pages = {434--437}
}
Lombard, M., Snyder-Duch, J. & Bracken, C. C. Practical resources for assessing and reporting intercoder reliability in content analysis research projects 2005   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{LM-2005001,
  author = {Lombard, Matthew and Snyder-Duch, Jennifer and Bracken, Cheryl Campanella},
  title = {Practical resources for assessing and reporting intercoder reliability in content analysis research projects},
  year = {2005},
  url = {http://www.temple.edu/sct/mmc/reliability/}
}
Lombard, M., Snyder-Duch, J. & Campanella Bracken, C. Content Analysis in Mass Communication 2002 Human Communication Research   article  
Abstract: Studies the application of content analysis in mass communication research. Content analysis and the importance of intercoder reliability; Approaches in measuring intercoder reliability; Application of intercoder reliability in research reports.; Studies the application of content analysis in mass communication research. Content analysis and the importance of intercoder reliability; Approaches in measuring intercoder reliability; Application of intercoder reliability in research reports.
BibTeX:
@article{LM-2002001,
  author = {Lombard, Matthew and Snyder-Duch, Jennifer and Campanella Bracken, Cheryl},
  title = {Content Analysis in Mass Communication},
  journal = {Human Communication Research},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {28},
  number = {4},
  pages = {587}
}
Manfreda, K. L., Bonsnjak, M., Berzelak, J., Haas, I. & Vehovar, V. Web surveys versus other survey modes 2008 International journal of market research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{ManfredaEtAl2008,
  author = {Manfreda, Katja Lozar and Bonsnjak, Michael and Berzelak, Jernej and Haas, Iris and Vehovar, Vasja},
  title = {Web surveys versus other survey modes},
  journal = {International journal of market research},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {50},
  number = {1},
  pages = {79--104}
}
McCauley, R., Murphy, L., Westbrook, S., Haller, S., Zander, C., Fossum, T., Sanders, K., Morrison, B., Richards, B. & Anderson, R. What do successful computer science students know? An integrative analysis using card sort measures and content analysis to evaluate graduating students' knowledge of programming concepts 2005 Expert Systems   article  
Abstract: Abstract: This paper describes a multi-institutional study that used a repeated single-criterion card sort to investigate graduating computer science students' knowledge of programming concepts. The study seeks to improve computer science instruction by gaining insight into how graduating students retain and assimilate introductory programming knowledge into their broader understanding of the discipline. A total of 291 card sorts was elicited from 65 undergraduate students in their final year of study at eight colleges and universities throughout the USA. To fully exploit the rich qualitative and quantitative aspects of the card sort data, an integrative analysis process was used that combined content analysis with two measures, normalized minimum spanning tree and edit distance, both developed specifically to analyze card sort data.
BibTeX:
@article{MR-2005001,
  author = {McCauley, Renee and Murphy, Laurie and Westbrook, Suzanne and Haller, Susan and Zander, Carol and Fossum, Timothy and Sanders, Kate and Morrison, Briana and Richards, Brad and Anderson, Ruth},
  title = {What do successful computer science students know? An integrative analysis using card sort measures and content analysis to evaluate graduating students' knowledge of programming concepts},
  journal = {Expert Systems},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3},
  pages = {147--159}
}
McDonald, S. Studying actions in context: A qualitative shadowing method for organizational research 2005 Qualitative Research   article  
Abstract: Shadowing is a qualitative research technique that has seldom been used and rarely been discussed critically in the social science literature. This article has pulled together all of the studies using shadowing as a research method and through reviewing these studies has developed a threefold classification of different modes of shadowing. This work provides a basis for a qualitative shadowing method to be defined, and its potential for a distinctive contribution to organizational research to be discussed, for the first time.
BibTeX:
@article{McDonald2005,
  author = {McDonald, Seonaidh},
  title = {Studying actions in context: A qualitative shadowing method for organizational research},
  journal = {Qualitative Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {5},
  number = {4},
  pages = {455--473}
}
McMillan, S. J. The Microscope and the Moving Target: the Challenge of Applying Content Analysis to the World Wide Web 2000 Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Presents information on a study which examined the application of content analysis techniques to the World Wide Web. Suggestions for researchers; Methodology; Results and recommendations.; Presents information on a study which examined the application of content analysis techniques to the World Wide Web. Suggestions for researchers; Methodology; Results and recommendations.
BibTeX:
@article{MSJ2000001,
  author = {McMillan, Sally J.},
  title = {The Microscope and the Moving Target: the Challenge of Applying Content Analysis to the World Wide Web},
  journal = {Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {77},
  number = {1},
  pages = {80--98}
}
Michalko, M. Thinkertoys: A handbook of creative-thinking techniques 2006   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Michalko2006,
  author = {Michalko, Michael},
  title = {Thinkertoys: A handbook of creative-thinking techniques},
  publisher = {Ten Speed Press},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {394},
  edition = {2nd}
}
Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. Qualitative data analysis : an expanded sourcebook 1994   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Miles1994,
  author = {Miles, Matthew B. and Huberman, A. Michael},
  title = {Qualitative data analysis : an expanded sourcebook},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {1994},
  edition = {2nd}
}
Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods 1984   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Miles1984,
  author = {Miles, Matthew B. and Huberman, A. Michael},
  title = {Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {1984}
}
Monk, A., Nardi, B. A., Gilbert, N., Mantei, M. & McCarthy, J. Mixing oil and water?: Ethnography versus experimental psychology in the study of computer mediated communication 1993 Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{MA-1993001,
  author = {Monk, Andrew and Nardi, Bonnie A. and Gilbert, Nigel and Mantei, Marilyn and McCarthy, John},
  title = {Mixing oil and water?: Ethnography versus experimental psychology in the study of computer mediated communication},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems},
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {3--6}
}
Morse, J. M. Designing funded qualitative research 1994 Handbook of qualitative research   incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{Morse1994,
  author = {Morse, J. M.},
  title = {Designing funded qualitative research},
  booktitle = {Handbook of qualitative research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {220--235}
}
Morse, J. M. Evaluating qualitative research 1991 Qualitative health research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Morse1991,
  author = {Morse, J. M.},
  title = {Evaluating qualitative research},
  journal = {Qualitative health research },
  year = {1991},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {283--286}
}
Morse, J. M. On the evaluation of qualitative proposals 1991 Qualitative health research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Morse1991a,
  author = {Morse, J. M.},
  title = {On the evaluation of qualitative proposals},
  journal = {Qualitative health research },
  year = {1991},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {147--151}
}
Mottier, V. The interpretive turn: History, memory, and storage in qualitative research 2005 Forum: Qualitative Social Research   article URL  
Abstract: This article reviews the field of qualitative inquiry, identifying three conceptual breaks: the "orthodox consensus" of positivism which conceives the social world as a collection of external facts and attempts to eliminate bias and subjectivity; postpositivist philosophy of science, which concedes that objective observation of pure data is impossible but nevertheless tries to establish criteria of "good" research practice; and the interpretive turn, which rehabilitates subjectivity and views data collection as a mutual construction of meaning where the researcher is engaged in "double hermeneutics" (GIDDENS). The interpretive turn has implications for history, memory, and storage of data. However, while recognizing the interactionist and contextual nature of data collection, the article points out that it is counterproductive to overemphasize its implications, as some postmodern strands of interpretive research do. Drawing on the hermeneutic notions of objectivation and the hermeneutic circle, it is argued that interpretive research data consist of objectivations, and therefore lend themselves to storage and future revision, newly emerging questions, and (re-) interpretation. Furthermore, data storage allows for data access by non-specialists, including the subjects of the research. Archiving consequently potentially contributes to empowerment, feedback and dialogue. Key words: interpretive turn, qualitative data, history, memory, archiving, hermeneutics, dialogue, empowerment 1. Conceptual Breaks within Qualitative Research 2. The Turn towards Interpretation 3. History, Memory, Storage
BibTeX:
@article{Mottier2005,
  author = {Mottier, V?ronique},
  title = {The interpretive turn: History, memory, and storage in qualitative research},
  journal = {Forum: Qualitative Social Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {6},
  number = {2},
  pages = {Article 33, unpaged},
  url = {http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/2-05/05-2-33-e.pdf}
}
Nersessian, N. J. The cognitive-cultural systems of the research laboratory 2006 Organization Studies   article  
Abstract: A central challenge for science studies researchers in developing accounts of knowledge construction in science and engineering is to integrate the cognitive, social, cultural, and material dimensions of practice. Within science studies there is a perceived divide between cognitive practices, on the one hand, and cultural practices, on the other. Any such divide, though at times analytically useful, is artificial. Producing scientific knowledge requires the kind of sophisticated cognition that only rich social, cultural, and material environments can enable. This paper aims to move in the direction of an integrative account of these dimensions of practice. It discusses model-based reasoning practices in biomedical engineering research laboratories construed as 'evolving cognitive-cultural systems'.
BibTeX:
@article{NNJ2006001,
  author = {Nersessian, Nancy J.},
  title = {The cognitive-cultural systems of the research laboratory},
  journal = {Organization Studies},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {27},
  number = {1},
  pages = {125--145}
}
Netemeyer, R. G., Bearden, W. O. & Sharma, S. Scaling procedures: Issues and applications 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{NetemeyerBeardenSharma2003,
  author = {Netemeyer, Richard G. and Bearden, William O. and Sharma, Subhash},
  title = {Scaling procedures: Issues and applications},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2003}
}
Neuendorf, K. A. The content analysis guidebook 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Neuendorf2002,
  author = {Neuendorf, Kimberly A.},
  title = {The content analysis guidebook},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {301 p.}
}
Nicolini, D. Comparing methods for mapping organizational cognition 1999 Organization Studies   article  
Abstract: This paper presents a field study exploring the differences between two methods of mapping organizational cognition - social representation and causal mapping. After introducing the two methods and describing the mapping procedures in detail, the paper discusses the different outcomes yielded by the two methodologies. Conditions of use and intrinsic limitations of each method art then examined in the light of the results. The paper concludes with some reflections on the notion and practice of mapping organizational cognition.
BibTeX:
@article{ND-1999001,
  author = {Nicolini, Davide},
  title = {Comparing methods for mapping organizational cognition},
  journal = {Organization Studies},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {20},
  number = {5},
  pages = {833--860}
}
Nilan, M. S., Peek, R. P. & Snyder, H. W. A Methodology for Tapping User Evaluation Behaviors - an Exploration of Users Strategy, Source and Information Evaluating 1988 Proceedings of the Asis Annual Meeting   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{NMS1988001,
  author = {Nilan, Michael S. and Peek, Robin P. and Snyder, Herbert W.},
  title = {A Methodology for Tapping User Evaluation Behaviors - an Exploration of Users Strategy, Source and Information Evaluating},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Asis Annual Meeting},
  year = {1988},
  pages = {152--159}
}
Northcutt, N. & Mccoy, D. Interactive qualitative analysis: A systems method for qualitative research 2004   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Northcutt2004,
  author = {Northcutt, Norvell and Mccoy, Danny},
  title = {Interactive qualitative analysis: A systems method for qualitative research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {441}
}
Onwuegbuzie, A. & Leech, N. A Call for Qualitative Power Analyses 2007 Quality and Quantity   article  
Abstract: Abstract  The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of sampling and sample size considerations in all qualitative research. Such considerations would help qualitative researchers to select sample sizes and sampling designs that are most compatible with their research purposes. First, we discuss the importance of sampling in qualitative research. Next, we outline 24 designs for selecting a sample in qualitative research. We then discuss the importance of selecting a sample size that yields data that have a realistic chance of reaching data saturation, theoretical saturation, or informational redundancy. Based on the literature, we then provide sample size guidelines for several qualitative research designs. As such, we provide a framework for making sampling and sample size considerations in interpretive research.
BibTeX:
@article{OnwuegbuzieLeech2007,
  author = {Onwuegbuzie, Anthony and Leech, Nancy},
  title = {A Call for Qualitative Power Analyses},
  journal = {Quality and Quantity},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {41},
  number = {1},
  pages = {105--121}
}
Onwuegbuzie, A. J. & Dickinson, W. B. Mixed methods analysis and information visualization: Graphical display for effective communication of research results 2008 The Qualitative Report   article URL  
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce various graphical methods that can be used to represent data in mixed research. First, we present a broad taxonomy of visual representation. Next, we use this taxonomy to provide an overview of visual techniques for quantitative data display and qualitative data display. Then, we propose what we call crossover visual extensions to summarize and integrate both qualitative and quantitative results within the same framework. We provide several examples of crossover (mixed research) graphical displays that illustrate this natural extension. In so doing, we contend that the use of crossover (mixed research) graphical displays enhances researchers understanding (i.e., increased Verstehen) of social and behavioral phenomena in general and the meaning that underlies these phenomena in particular. Key Words: Graphic Methods, Visual Techniques, Graphical Displays, Crossover Graphical Displays, and Mixed Research
BibTeX:
@article{OnwueDickin2008,
  author = {Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. and Dickinson, Wendy B.},
  title = {Mixed methods analysis and information visualization: Graphical display for effective communication of research results},
  journal = {The Qualitative Report},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {13},
  number = {2},
  pages = {204--225},
  url = {http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR13-2/onwuegbuzie.pdf}
}
Opdenakker, R. Advantages and Disadvantages of Four Interview Techniques in Qualitative Research 2006 Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research   article  
Abstract: Face-to-face interviews have long been the dominant interview technique in the field of qualitative research. In the last two decades, telephone interviewing became more and more common. Due to the explosive growth of new communication forms, such as computer mediated communication (for example e-mail and chat boxes), other interview techniques can be introduced and used within the field of qualitative research. For a study in the domain of virtual teams, I used various communication possibilities to interview informants as well as face-to-face interviews. In this article a comparison will be made concerning the advantages and disadvantages of face-to-face, telephone, e-mail and MSN messenger interviews. By including telephone and MSN messenger interviews in the comparison, the scope of this article is broader than the article of BAMPTON and COWTON (2002). URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604118
BibTeX:
@article{Opdenakker2006,
  author = {Opdenakker, Raymond},
  title = {Advantages and Disadvantages of Four Interview Techniques in Qualitative Research},
  journal = {Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {7},
  number = {4}
}
Parkhe, A. "Messy" research, methodological predispositions, and theory development in international joint ventures 1993 The Academy of Management Review   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Parkhe1993,
  author = {Parkhe, Arvind},
  title = {"Messy" research, methodological predispositions, and theory development in international joint ventures},
  journal = {The Academy of Management Review},
  year = {1993},
  volume = {18},
  number = {2},
  pages = {227--268}
}
Patton, M. Q. Qualitative research and evaluation methods 2002   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Patton2002,
  author = {Patton, Michael Quinn},
  title = {Qualitative research and evaluation methods},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2002},
  edition = {3rd ed}
}
Phelps, R., Fisher, K. & Ellis, A. Organizing and Managing Your Research: A Practical Guide for Postgraduates 2007   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Phelps2007,
  author = {Phelps, Renata and Fisher, Kath and Ellis, Allan},
  title = {Organizing and Managing Your Research: A Practical Guide for Postgraduates},
  publisher = {SAGE},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {290}
}
Piantanida, M. & Garman, N. B. The qualitative dissertation : a guide for students and faculty 1999   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Piantanida1999,
  author = {Piantanida, Maria and Garman, Noreen B.},
  title = {The qualitative dissertation : a guide for students and faculty},
  publisher = {Corwin Press},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {273}
}
Potter, W. J. & Levine-Donnerstein, D. Rethinking validity and reliability in content analysis 1999 Journal of Applied Communication Research   article  
Abstract: Demonstrates that content analysts face with need to make a case for the reliability and validity of coded data should begin the task of analysis design by considering the nature of content and the role theory. Importance of making a distinction between manifest and latent content; Steps in the process of establishing reliability and validity.; Demonstrates that content analysts face with need to make a case for the reliability and validity of coded data should begin the task of analysis design by considering the nature of content and the role theory. Importance of making a distinction between manifest and latent content; Steps in the process of establishing reliability and validity.
BibTeX:
@article{PWJ1999001,
  author = {Potter, W. James and Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah},
  title = {Rethinking validity and reliability in content analysis},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Communication Research},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {27},
  number = {3},
  pages = {258}
}
Prosser, J. Image-Based Research: A Sourcebook for Qualitative Researchers 1998   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Prosser1998,
  author = {Prosser, Jon},
  title = {Image-Based Research: A Sourcebook for Qualitative Researchers},
  publisher = {Falmer Press},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {318}
}
Prosser, J. Personal reflections on the use of photography in an ethnographic case study 1992 British Educationional Research Journal   article  
Abstract: ABSTRACT In the past photography has been little used in educational research. If it is to play a greater role in the future there will be a need to establish a set of practical and theoretical guidelines. This article describes a practical application of photography to a case study of a newly formed comprehensive school. A broad strategy is presented, giving an outline of photographic techniques and their uses within a qualitative research frame-work. The approach described is not intended to be a definitive model, merely a modus operandi upon which to focus debate.
BibTeX:
@article{Prosser1992,
  author = {Prosser, Jon},
  title = {Personal reflections on the use of photography in an ethnographic case study},
  journal = {British Educationional Research Journal},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {18},
  number = {4},
  pages = {397--411}
}
Ratcliff, D. E. Analytic Induction as a qualitative research method of analysis n.d.   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{RDE0000001,
  author = {Ratcliff, Donald E.},
  title = {Analytic Induction as a qualitative research method of analysis},
  year = {n.d.},
  url = {http://www.vanguard.edu/uploadedFiles/faculty/dratcliff/analytic.html}
}
Reed, J. Appreciative inquiry :|bresearch for change 2007   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Reed2007,
  author = {Reed, Jan},
  title = {Appreciative inquiry :|bresearch for change},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {219}
}
Rettig, K. D., Tam, V. C. W. & Magistad, B. M. Using Pattern Matching and Modified Analytic Induction in Examining Justice Principles in Child Support Guidelines 1996 Marriage and Family Review   article  
Abstract: This paper reports on the design of a study using procedures of modified analytic induction to investigate how courtroom procedures followed or did not follow child support guidelines. Using concepts from principles of procedural fairness and distributive justice, the research team coded transcripts of public hearings on child support guidelines. This paper reports on work in progress and does not report results or conclusions. The coded examples of justice principles demonstrate how procedures of modified analytic induction lead to the refinement of conceptual definitions when tested against lived experiences.
BibTeX:
@article{Rettig1996,
  author = {Rettig, K. D. and Tam, V. C. W. and Magistad, B. M.},
  title = {Using Pattern Matching and Modified Analytic Induction in Examining Justice Principles in Child Support Guidelines},
  journal = {Marriage and Family Review},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {24},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {193--222}
}
Riffe, D., Lacy, S. & Fico, F. Analyzing Media Messages: Using Quantitative Content Analysis in Research 2005   book  
BibTeX:
@book{RD-2005001,
  author = {Riffe, Daniel and Lacy, Stephen and Fico, Frederick},
  title = {Analyzing Media Messages: Using Quantitative Content Analysis in Research},
  publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {242}
}
Rose, G. Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Methods 2007   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Rose2007,
  author = {Rose, Gillian},
  title = {Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to the Interpretation of Visual Methods},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {304}
}
Rugg, G. & McGeorge, P. The sorting techniques: a tutorial paper on card sorts, picture sorts and item sorts 2005 Expert Systems   article  
Abstract: Although sorting techniques (e.g. card sorts) are widely used in knowledge acquisition and requirements acquisition, they have received little formal attention compared to related techniques such as repertory grids and laddering. This paper briefly describes the main sorting techniques, and then provides a detailed tutorial on one variety (repeated single-criterion sorts), using a worked example. Guidelines for choice and sequencing of techniques are given, both in relation to varieties of sorting technique and in relation to other techniques. It is concluded that the sorting techniques are a valuable part of the elicitor's methodological toolkit. (Original abstract)
BibTeX:
@article{Rugg2005,
  author = {Rugg, Gordon and McGeorge, Peter},
  title = {The sorting techniques: a tutorial paper on card sorts, picture sorts and item sorts},
  journal = {Expert Systems},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3},
  pages = {94--107}
}
Rugg, G., McGeorge, P. & Maiden, N. Method fragments 2000 Expert Systems   article  
BibTeX:
@article{RG-2000001,
  author = {Rugg, Gordon and McGeorge, Peter and Maiden, Neil},
  title = {Method fragments},
  journal = {Expert Systems},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {17},
  number = {5},
  pages = {248--257}
}
Rugg, G. & Petre, M. The unwritten rules of PhD research 2004   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Rugg2004,
  author = {Rugg, Gordon and Petre, Marian},
  title = {The unwritten rules of PhD research},
  publisher = {Open University Press},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {xiii, 224 p. ;}
}
Ryan, G. W. & Bernard, H. R. Data management and analysis methods 2000 Handbook of qualitative research   incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{RyanBernard2000,
  author = {Ryan, Gery W. and Bernard, H. Russell},
  title = {Data management and analysis methods},
  booktitle = {Handbook of qualitative research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {769--802},
  edition = {2nd}
}
Sandelowski, M. Meta-jeopardy: The crisis of representation in qualitative metasynthesis 2006 Nursing outlook   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Sandelowski2006,
  author = {Sandelowski, M.},
  title = {Meta-jeopardy: The crisis of representation in qualitative metasynthesis},
  journal = {Nursing outlook},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {54},
  pages = {10--16}
}
Sandelowski, M. & Barroso, J. Creating metasummaries of qualitative findings 2003 Nursing research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Sandelowski2003,
  author = {Sandelowski, M. and Barroso, J.},
  title = {Creating metasummaries of qualitative findings},
  journal = {Nursing research},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {52},
  pages = {226--233}
}
Sandelowski, M. & Barroso, J. Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology project 2003 Qualitative Health Research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{SandelowskiBarroso2003,
  author = {Sandelowski, Margarete and Barroso, Julie},
  title = {Writing the proposal for a qualitative research methodology project},
  journal = {Qualitative Health Research},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {13},
  number = {6},
  pages = {781--820}
}
Sanders, K., Fincher, S., Bouvier, D., Lewandowski, G., Morrison, B., Murphy, L., Petre, M., Richards, B., Tenenberg, J., Thomas, L., Anderson, R., Anderson, R., Fitzgerald, S., Gutschow, A., Haller, S., Lister, R., McCauley, R., McTaggart, J., Prasad, C., Scott, T., Shinners-Kennedy, D., Westbrook, S. & Zander, C. A multi-institutional, multinational study of programming concepts using card sort data 2005 Expert Systems   article  
Abstract: Abstract: This paper presents a case study of the use of a repeated single-criterion card sort with an unusually large, diverse participant group. The study, whose goal was to elicit novice programmers' knowledge of programming concepts, involved over 20 researchers from four continents and 276 participants drawn from 20 different institutions. In this paper we present the design of the study and the unexpected result that there were few discernible systematic differences in the population. The study was one of the activities of the National Science Foundation funded Bootstrapping Research in Computer Science Education project (2003).
BibTeX:
@article{SK-2005001,
  author = {Sanders, Kate and Fincher, Sally and Bouvier, Dennis and Lewandowski, Gary and Morrison, Briana and Murphy, Laurie and Petre, Marian and Richards, Brad and Tenenberg, Josh and Thomas, Lynda and Anderson, Richard and Anderson, Ruth and Fitzgerald, Sue and Gutschow, Alicia and Haller, Susan and Lister, Raymond and McCauley, Renee and McTaggart, John and Prasad, Christine and Scott, Terry and Shinners-Kennedy, Dermot and Westbrook, Suzanne and Zander, Carol},
  title = {A multi-institutional, multinational study of programming concepts using card sort data},
  journal = {Expert Systems},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {22},
  number = {3},
  pages = {121--128}
}
Sandstrom, A. R. & Sandstrom, P. E. The Use and Misuse of Anthropological Methods in Library and Information-Science Research 1995 Library Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Qualitative methodologies are growing in importance for library and information science researchers. In this article, we note an unfortunate antiscientific bias in contemporary writings that proclaim the value of qualitative approaches for studying information problems. We critique such claims in terms of five key methodological concerns: (1) scientific versus nonscientific traditions; (2) the distinction between emic and etic perspectives; (3) the artificial divide between qualitative and quantitative techniques; (4) inductive versus deductive research strategies; and (5) the challenges of portraying real people in scientific reports. After evaluating a selection of published research on reference service performance, we conclude that library and information science investigators should turn to scientific ethnography to escape methodological impasses.
BibTeX:
@article{SAR1995001,
  author = {Sandstrom, Alan R. and Sandstrom, Pamela Effrein},
  title = {The Use and Misuse of Anthropological Methods in Library and Information-Science Research},
  journal = {Library Quarterly},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {65},
  number = {2},
  pages = {161--199}
}
Schmitz, C. LimeSurvey 2008   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Limesurvey,
  author = {Schmitz, Carsten},
  title = {LimeSurvey},
  year = {2008},
  url = {http://www.limesurvey.org/}
}
Schultz, M. & Hatch, M. J. Living with multiple paradigms: The case of paradigm interplay in organizational culture 1996 The Academy of Management Review   article  
BibTeX:
@article{SchultzHatch1996,
  author = {Schultz, Majken and Hatch, Mary Jo},
  title = {Living with multiple paradigms: The case of paradigm interplay in organizational culture},
  journal = {The Academy of Management Review},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {21},
  number = {2},
  pages = {529--557}
}
Scott, W. A. Reliability of Content Analysis: The Case of Nominal Scale Coding 1955 The Public Opinion Quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{SWA1955001,
  author = {Scott, William A.},
  title = {Reliability of Content Analysis: The Case of Nominal Scale Coding},
  journal = {The Public Opinion Quarterly},
  year = {1955},
  volume = {19},
  number = {3},
  pages = {321--325}
}
Seale, C. The quality of qualitative research 1999   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Seale1999,
  author = {Seale, Clive},
  title = {The quality of qualitative research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {1999}
}
Seidman, I. E. Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences 1998   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Seidman1998,
  author = {Seidman, Irving E.},
  title = {Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences},
  publisher = {Teachers College Press},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {143},
  edition = {2nd ed.}
}
Shapiro, D. The limits of ethnography: combining social sciences for CSCW 1994 Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work   inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SD-1994001,
  author = {Shapiro, Dan},
  title = {The limits of ethnography: combining social sciences for CSCW},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work},
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {417--428}
}
Shapiro, G. The future of coders: human judgments in a world of sophisticated software 1997 Text analysis for the social sciences: methods for drawing statistical inferences from texts and transcripts: Sociometric research   incollection  
BibTeX:
@incollection{SG-1997001,
  author = {Shapiro, G.},
  title = {The future of coders: human judgments in a world of sophisticated software},
  booktitle = {Text analysis for the social sciences: methods for drawing statistical inferences from texts and transcripts: Sociometric research},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {225--238}
}
Shkedi, A. Multiple case narrative: A qualitative approach to studying multiple populations 2005   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Shkedi2005,
  author = {Shkedi, Asher},
  title = {Multiple case narrative: A qualitative approach to studying multiple populations},
  publisher = {John Benjamins},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {210}
}
Silverman, D. Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analysing talk, text and interaction 2001   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Silverman2001,
  author = {Silverman, David},
  title = {Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analysing talk, text and interaction},
  publisher = {Sage Publications},
  year = {2001},
  edition = {Second edition}
}
Smagorinsky, P. A Thick Description of Thick Description 2007 Educational Researcher   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Smagorinsky2007,
  author = {Smagorinsky, P.},
  title = {A Thick Description of Thick Description},
  journal = {Educational Researcher},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {36},
  number = {4},
  pages = {199}
}
Smalley, L. M. A Practicable Diary Technique for Time Sampling the Everyday Life of Children 1958 Educational Review   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Smalley1958,
  author = {Smalley, L. M.},
  title = {A Practicable Diary Technique for Time Sampling the Everyday Life of Children},
  journal = {Educational Review},
  year = {1958},
  volume = {10},
  number = {3},
  pages = {233--247}
}
Software, N. Express Scribe Transcription Playback Software n.d.   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Softwaren.d.,
  author = {NCH Software},
  title = {Express Scribe Transcription Playback Software},
  year = {n.d.},
  url = {http://www.nch.com.au/scribe/}
}
van Someren, M., Barnard, Y. & Sandberg, J. The think aloud method: A practical guide to modelling cognitive process 1994   book  
BibTeX:
@book{SomerenBarnardSandberg1994,
  author = {van Someren, M.W. and Barnard, Y.F. and Sandberg, J.A.C},
  title = {The think aloud method: A practical guide to modelling cognitive process},
  publisher = {Academic Press},
  year = {1994}
}
Spradley, J. P. The ethnographic interview 1979   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Spradley1979,
  author = {Spradley, J. P.},
  title = {The ethnographic interview},
  publisher = {Holt, Rinehart & Winston},
  year = {1979}
}
Stake, R. E. Multiple case study analysis 2006   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Stake2006,
  author = {Stake, Robert E.},
  title = {Multiple case study analysis},
  publisher = {Guilford Press},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {342}
}
Stake, R. E. The art of case study research 1995   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Stake1995,
  author = {Stake, Robert E.},
  title = {The art of case study research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {175}
}
Stebbins, R. A. Lifestyle as a generic concept in ethnographic research 1997 Quality and Quantity   article  
Abstract: In effect, one of the primary missions of ethnographic research is to explore the lifestyles of the people falling within its purview. Yet, rare indeed it is to find a study in the several disciplines presently conducting such research where this idea serves as the avowed focus of data collection. The concept of lifestyle is first reviewed, then defined with an eye to establishing a generic conception sufficient for guiding ethnographic exploration in a wide range of areas. Next, lifestyle is located theoretically with reference to the concepts of culture, status, status group, subculture, idioculture, everyday life, and social world. The many different types of lifestyles in modern life are then briefly examined. Finally, we consider certain methodological approaches thought to be especially appropriate for exploring lifestyles.
BibTeX:
@article{SRA1997002,
  author = {Stebbins, Robert A.},
  title = {Lifestyle as a generic concept in ethnographic research},
  journal = {Quality and Quantity},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {31},
  number = {4},
  pages = {347--360}
}
Stewart, K. & Williams, M. Researching online populations: the use of online focus groups for social research 2005 Qualitative Research   article  
Abstract: The survivability of ?traditional? methods within computer-mediated settings is dependent upon their capacity to be utilized and adapted to the technology that mediates human interaction online. This article addresses the established focus group method and evaluates its success in online applications, using as examples two quite different research projects. The first, drawn from research into the employment experiences of inflammatory bowel disease sufferers exemplifies the use of asynchronous online focus groups, identifying key practical issues such as online moderation and the analysis of digital data. In contrast the second study, into deviance within online communities, provides an example of how synchronous forms of online focus groups, held within 3D graphical environments, create further challenges for the researcher, highlighting unique ethical considerations of conducting fieldwork in cyberspace. The article draws together the authors? experiences of applying the method to offer insights into the viability and practicability of online focus groups.
BibTeX:
@article{Stewart2005,
  author = {Stewart, Kate and Williams, Matthew},
  title = {Researching online populations: the use of online focus groups for social research},
  journal = {Qualitative Research},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {5},
  number = {4},
  pages = {395--416}
}
Stewart, V. Business applications of repertory grid   book  
BibTeX:
@book{SV-1980001,
  author = {Stewart, Valerie},
  title = {Business applications of repertory grid}
}
Stoddart, K. The Presentation of Everyday Life - Some Textual Strategies for Adequate Ethnography 1986 Urban Life   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Stoddart1986,
  author = {Stoddart, K.},
  title = {The Presentation of Everyday Life - Some Textual Strategies for Adequate Ethnography},
  journal = {Urban Life},
  year = {1986},
  volume = {15},
  number = {1},
  pages = {103--121}
}
Straub, D., Boudreau, M. & Gefen, D. Validation guidelines for IS positivist research 2004 Communications of the Association for Information Systems   article  
Abstract: The issue of whether IS positivist researchers were validating their instruments sufficiently was initially raised fifteen years ago. Rigor in IS research is still one of the critical scientific issues facing the field. Without solid validation of the instruments that are used to gather data on which findings and interpretations are based, the very scientific basis of the profession is threatened. This study builds on four prior retrospectives of IS research that conclude that IS positivist researchers continue to face major barriers in instrument, statistical, and other forms of validation. It goes beyond these studies by offering analyses of the state-of-the-art of research validities and deriving specific heuristics for research practice in the validities. Some of these heuristics will, no doubt, be controversial. But we believe that it is time for the IS academic profession to bring such issues into the open for community debate. This article is a first step in that direction. Based on our interpretation of the importance of a long list of validities, this paper suggests heuristics for reinvigorating the quest for validation in IS research via content/construct validity, reliability, manipulation validity, and statistical conclusion validity. New guidelines for validation and new research directions are offered.
BibTeX:
@article{StraubEtAl2004,
  author = {Straub, Detmar and Boudreau, Marie-Claude and Gefen, David},
  title = {Validation guidelines for IS positivist research},
  journal = {Communications of the Association for Information Systems},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {13},
  number = {24},
  pages = {380--427}
}
Tan, F. B. & Hunter, M. G. The repertory grid technique: A method for the study of cognition in information systems 2002 MIS Quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{TanHunter2002,
  author = {Tan, Felix B. and Hunter, M. Gordon},
  title = {The repertory grid technique: A method for the study of cognition in information systems},
  journal = {MIS Quarterly},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {26},
  number = {1},
  pages = {39--57}
}
Thatchenkery, T. & Chowdhry, D. Appreciative inquiry and knowledge management : A social constructionist perspective 2007   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Thatchenkery2007,
  author = {Thatchenkery, Tojo and Chowdhry, Dilpreet},
  title = {Appreciative inquiry and knowledge management : A social constructionist perspective},
  publisher = {Edward Elgar},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {163}
}
Thomas, N. P. & Nyce, J. M. Context as category: opportunities for ethnographic analysis in library and information science research 2001 The New Review of Information Behaviour Research   article  
BibTeX:
@article{TNP2001001,
  author = {Thomas, Nancy P. and Nyce, James M.},
  title = {Context as category: opportunities for ethnographic analysis in library and information science research},
  journal = {The New Review of Information Behaviour Research},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {105--118}
}
Tilly, C. Why? What happens when people give reasons ldots and why 2006   book  
Abstract: Why?is a book about the explanations we give and how we give them--a fascinating look at the way the reasons we offer every day are dictated by, and help constitute, social relationships.
BibTeX:
@book{Tilly2006,
  author = {Tilly, Charles},
  title = {Why? What happens when people give reasons ldots and why},
  publisher = {Princeton University Press},
  year = {2006}
}
Torrance, H. Building confidence in qualitative research: Engaging the demands of policy 2008 Qualitative Inquiry   article  
Abstract: The quality of qualitative research has been subject to considerable criticism recently, partly driven by the development of an international movement for "evidence-based policy and practice." In the United States, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are posited by some as the best way of producing reliable research knowledge. Also, responses to criticism of qualitative research is leading to the production of various "standards" and "guidelines" to control the production of qualitative research. This article argues that RCTs do not respond to policy makers' needs and timescales and, furthermore, that producing standards for qualitative research is more likely to restrict quality than enhance it. Rather, what is required of qualitative researchers is to engage with policy makers and research participants to acknowledge the limits of research knowledge while addressing issues of quality collaboratively.
BibTeX:
@article{Torrance2008Qualitativequalityconfidence,
  author = {Torrance, Harry},
  title = {Building confidence in qualitative research: Engaging the demands of policy},
  journal = {Qualitative Inquiry},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {14},
  number = {4},
  pages = {507--527}
}
Trochim, W. M. The research methods knowledge base 2006   misc URL  
BibTeX:
@misc{Trochim2006,
  author = {Trochim, William M.},
  title = {The research methods knowledge base},
  year = {2006},
  url = {http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/}
}
Trosow, S. E. Standpoint Epistemology as an Alternative Methodology for Library and Information Science 2001 Library Quarterly   article  
Abstract: Research traditions in library and information science (LIS) are deeply rooted in Enlightenment notions of Western science. A central element of this tradition is the insistence on neutrality as a prerequisite to objectivity. In LIS, neutrality has also become a guiding practice. Alternative epistemological projects challenge Enlightenment based conceptions and have much to offer research in LIS. Integrating these projects into the conceptual frameworks of LIS research will provide powerful epistemological resources for future work. A metatheoretical framework is reviewed, and the qualitative/quantitative dichotomy, prevalent in LIS, is critiqued. Standpoint epistemology, as a critique of existing power-knowledge relationships, is discussed as a research strategy that can provide a starting point for reconceptualizing LIS research.
BibTeX:
@article{Trosow2001,
  author = {Trosow, S. E.},
  title = {Standpoint Epistemology as an Alternative Methodology for Library and Information Science},
  journal = {Library Quarterly},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {71},
  number = {3},
  pages = {360--382}
}
Van der Meer, C. Diary of a Dissertation Writer: Journals as a Map to a Discipline 2004 Journal of Scholarly Publishing   article  
BibTeX:
@article{VMC2004001,
  author = {Van der Meer, Carolyne},
  title = {Diary of a Dissertation Writer: Journals as a Map to a Discipline},
  journal = {Journal of Scholarly Publishing},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {35},
  number = {3},
  pages = {172--6}
}
Vasishth, S. The foundations of statistics: A simulation-based approach 2006   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Vasishth2006,
  author = {Vasishth, Shravan},
  title = {The foundations of statistics: A simulation-based approach},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {186},
  edition = {proposal ebook}
}
Vaughan, K. Pieced together: Collage as an artist's method for interdisciplinary research 2004 International Journal of Qualitative Methods   article  
Abstract: Abstract: As a visual artist undertaking doctoral studies in education, the author required a research method that integrated her studio practice into her research process, giving equal weight to the visual and the linguistic. Her process of finding such a method is outlined in this article, which touches on arts-based research and practice-led research, and her ultimate approach of choice, collage. Collage, a versatile art form that accommodates multiple texts and visuals in a single work, has been proposed as a model for a ?borderlands epistemology?: one that values multiple distinctive understandings and that deliberately incorporates nondominant modes of knowing, such as visual arts. As such, collage is particularly suited to a feminist, postmodern, postcolonial inquiry. This article offers a preliminary theorizing of collage as a method and is illustrated with images from the author?s research/visual practice.
BibTeX:
@article{Vaughan2005,
  author = {Vaughan, Kathleen},
  title = {Pieced together: Collage as an artist's method for interdisciplinary research},
  journal = {International Journal of Qualitative Methods},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {3}
}
Verschuren, P. J. M. Case study as a research strategy: Some ambiguities and opportunities 2003 International Journal of Social Research Methodology   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Verschuren2003,
  author = {Verschuren, Piet J. M.},
  title = {Case study as a research strategy: Some ambiguities and opportunities},
  journal = {International Journal of Social Research Methodology},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {6},
  number = {2},
  pages = {121--139}
}
Walkerden, G. Researching and developing practice traditions using reflective practice experiments Quality and Quantity   article  
Abstract: Abstract  Building a science on the foundations of practitioners? experimentation was one of Donald Schn?s abiding interests. This paper outlines a method of reflective practice research on which this kind of science can be built. Its basic elements are: (1) A focus on the ?sense? practitioners make of their situations. This allows for a much richer explication of practitioners? understanding. (2) Formally differentiating between kinds of reflective thinking to demonstrate rigorous reliance on our practice, as experienced, as we reflect. (3) Use of a non-standard logic and a distinctive grammar in describing the ?sense? we make of our practice situations, as this enables a much more faithful rendering in models and theories of our sense of orientation. (4) A method of combining these in an experimental practice that enables models of practice traditions to evolve, taking in insights from innovative practice, and experiences from diverse cases.
BibTeX:
@article{Walkerden2008,
  author = {Walkerden, Greg},
  title = {Researching and developing practice traditions using reflective practice experiments},
  journal = {Quality and Quantity}
}
Walsh, J. P., Kiesler, S., Sproull, L. S. & Hesse, B. W. Self-Selected and Randomly Selected Respondents in a Computer Network Survey 1992 Public Opinion Quarterly   article  
BibTeX:
@article{WJP1992001,
  author = {Walsh, John P. and Kiesler, Sara and Sproull, Lee S. and Hesse, Bradford W.},
  title = {Self-Selected and Randomly Selected Respondents in a Computer Network Survey},
  journal = {Public Opinion Quarterly},
  year = {1992},
  volume = {56},
  number = {2},
  pages = {241--244}
}
Weare, C. & Lin, W. Y. Content Analysis of the World Wide Web - Opportunities and Challenges 2000 Social Science Computer Review   article  
Abstract: This article examines methodological issues for content analytic research of the World Wide Web. The outline of content analysis as a systematic and quantitative scientific method for measuring the content of messages have existed for centuries. Nevertheless, its development and diffusion have been primarily spurred by the rise of mass media, newspapers in the 19th century and electronic media in the 20th century. The growth of the Internet promises to induce a similar expansion of its use and refinement of its techniques. The World Wide Web is characterized by its ubiquity, global reach, interactivity decentralized, hyperlinked structure, and multimedia format. All of these characteristics present researchers with opportunities and challenges at each step of a content analysis: sampling, unitization, development of content categories, coding, and analysis. Based on a review of recent content analytic research, this article analyzes these issues and suggests methodological improvements for future research.
BibTeX:
@article{WC-2000002,
  author = {Weare, C. and Lin, W. Y.},
  title = {Content Analysis of the World Wide Web - Opportunities and Challenges},
  journal = {Social Science Computer Review},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {18},
  number = {3},
  pages = {272--292}
}
Weber, R. P. Basic content analysis 1990   book  
BibTeX:
@book{WRP1990001,
  author = {Weber, Robert Philip},
  title = {Basic content analysis},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {1990},
  pages = {96},
  edition = {2nd}
}
Weed, M. A Potential Method for the Interpretive Synthesis of Qualitative Research: Issues in the Development of 'Meta-Interpretation' 2008 International Journal of Social Research Methodology   article  
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to address the interpretive synthesis of qualitative research. The article discusses the potential to develop a 'meta-interpretation' approach which attempts to maintain an interpretive epistemology congruent with the majority of primary qualitative research. The article identifies and discusses a range of issues in the synthesis of interpretive qualitative research (objectivity, evaluation of studies, sampling, context, interpretation and integrity) that emerge from a review of nine research methods involving synthesis and a broader review of the research synthesis literature. Seven fundamental features of meta-interpretation are outlined and the meta-interpretation procedure is presented. In conclusion, the aims of synthesis procedures in general and meta-interpretation in particular are discussed. QUALITATIVE research. PHENOMENOLOGICAL sociology. HERMENEUTICS. KNOWLEDGE, Theory of. OBJECTIVITY. METHODOLOGY
BibTeX:
@article{Weed2008,
  author = {Weed, Mike},
  title = {A Potential Method for the Interpretive Synthesis of Qualitative Research: Issues in the Development of 'Meta-Interpretation'},
  journal = {International Journal of Social Research Methodology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {11},
  number = {1},
  pages = {13--28}
}
Weiss, R. S. Learning from strangers: The art and method of qualitative interview studies 1995   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Weiss1995,
  author = {Weiss, Robert S.},
  title = {Learning from strangers: The art and method of qualitative interview studies},
  publisher = {Free Press},
  year = {1995},
  edition = {1st Free Press paperback}
}
Wells, A. S., Hirshberg, D., Lipton, M. & Oakes, J. Bounding the case within its context: A constructivist approach to study detracking reform 1995 Educational Researcher   article  
BibTeX:
@article{WellsEtAl1995,
  author = {Wells, Amy Stuart and Hirshberg, Diane and Lipton, Martin and Oakes, Jeannie},
  title = {Bounding the case within its context: A constructivist approach to study detracking reform},
  journal = {Educational Researcher},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {24},
  number = {5},
  pages = {18--24}
}
Wengraf, T. Qualitative research interviewing: Biographic narrative and semi-structured methods 2001   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Wengraf2001,
  author = {Wengraf, Tom},
  title = {Qualitative research interviewing: Biographic narrative and semi-structured methods},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2001}
}
West, P. The status and validity of accounts obtained at interview: A contrast between two studies of families with a disabled child 1990 Social science and medicine   article  
BibTeX:
@article{West1990,
  author = {West, P.},
  title = {The status and validity of accounts obtained at interview: A contrast between two studies of families with a disabled child},
  journal = {Social science and medicine},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {1229--1239}
}
White, M. D. & Marsh, E. E. Content Analysis: A Flexible Methodology 2006 Library trends   article  
Abstract: Content analysis is a highly flexible research method that has been widely used in library and information science (LIS) studies with varying research goals and objectives. The research method is applied in qualitative, quantitative, and sometimes mixed modes of research frameworks and employs a wide range of analytical techniques to generate findings and put them into context. This article characterizes content analysis as a systematic, rigorous approach to analyzing documents obtained or generated in the course of research. It briefly describes the steps involved in content analysis, differentiates between quantitative and qualitative content analysis, and shows that content analysis serves the purposes of both quantitative research and qualitative research. The authors draw on selected LIS studies that have used content analysis to illustrate the concepts addressed in the article. The article also serves as a gateway to methodological books and articles that provide more detail about aspects of content analysis discussed only briefly in the article. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
BibTeX:
@article{WMD2006001,
  author = {White, Marilyn Domas and Marsh, Emily E.},
  title = {Content Analysis: A Flexible Methodology},
  journal = {Library trends},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {55},
  number = {1},
  pages = {22--45}
}
Wildemuth, B. M. Effective methods for studying information seeking and use 2002 Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology   article  
BibTeX:
@article{WBM2002001,
  author = {Wildemuth, Barbara M.},
  title = {Effective methods for studying information seeking and use},
  journal = {Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {53},
  number = {14},
  pages = {1218--1222}
}
Wiles, R. Methodological Approaches at PhD and Skills Sought for Research Posts in Academia: A Mismatch? 2008 International Journal of Social Research Methodology   article  
BibTeX:
@article{Wiles2008,
  author = {Wiles, R.},
  title = {Methodological Approaches at PhD and Skills Sought for Research Posts in Academia: A Mismatch?},
  journal = {International Journal of Social Research Methodology},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {11},
  number = {1},
  pages = {1--14}
}
Williams, M. Making sense of social research 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Williams2003,
  author = {Williams, Malcolm},
  title = {Making sense of social research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2003}
}
Williams, M. Interpretivism and Generalisation 2000 Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association   article  
Abstract: This article is concerned with the status of generalisation in interpretive sociology. The case made is that generalisation is inevitable, desirable and possible. It is held that interpretivism must employ a special kind of generalisation, characterised here as moderatum. However, an acknowledgement that such generalisations can be made must bring us to specify the limits of generalisation in interpretive research. These limits are the limits of interpretivism itself and the paper concludes that this implies the adoption of methodological pluralism in order to realise the full potential of the method.
BibTeX:
@article{Williams2000,
  author = {Williams, Malcolm},
  title = {Interpretivism and Generalisation},
  journal = {Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {34},
  number = {2},
  pages = {209--224}
}
Willis, J. W., Jost, M. & Nilakanta, R. Foundations of Qualitative Research: Interpretive and Critical Approaches 2007   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Willis2007,
  author = {Willis, Jerry W. and Jost, Muktha and Nilakanta, Rema},
  title = {Foundations of Qualitative Research: Interpretive and Critical Approaches},
  publisher = {Sage Publications Inc},
  year = {2007}
}
Wilson, T. D. Alfred Schutz, phenomenology and research methodology for information behaviour research 2002 The New Review of Information Behaviour Research   article URL  
Abstract: Explores the phenomenological sociology of Alfred Schutz, with particular reference to his concern to understand the social distribution of knowledge in society. The methodological principles of phenomenology are discussed, with particular reference to 'ideal types'. Schutz's identification of the stratification of knowledge with three key ideal types is elaborated and the implications for information behaviour research are discussed. The relationship between methodology and method is discussed, and a novel typology of social research methods is offered.
BibTeX:
@article{Wilson2002SchutzPhenomenology,
  author = {Wilson, Tom D.},
  title = {Alfred Schutz, phenomenology and research methodology for information behaviour research},
  journal = {The New Review of Information Behaviour Research},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {3},
  pages = {71--81},
  url = {http://informationr.net/tdw/publ/papers/schutz02.html}
}
Wuest, J. Feminist Grounded Theory - an Exploration of the Congruency and Tensions Between 2 Traditions in Knowledge Discovery 1995 Qualitative Health Research   article  
Abstract: The feminist perspective applied to the method of grounded theory offers an approach to knowledge discovery for nursing that incorporates diversity and change. The epistemological congruency of feminist theory and grounded theory is discussed. Tensions created by the application of feminist methodological features to the grounded theory method are explored and reflexivity suggested as a means of ensuring that both traditions are respected.
BibTeX:
@article{WJ-1995001,
  author = {Wuest, Judith},
  title = {Feminist Grounded Theory - an Exploration of the Congruency and Tensions Between 2 Traditions in Knowledge Discovery},
  journal = {Qualitative Health Research},
  year = {1995},
  volume = {5},
  number = {1},
  pages = {125--137}
}
Yin, R. K. Applications of case study research 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Yin2003a,
  author = {Yin, Robert K.},
  title = {Applications of case study research},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {173}
}
Yin, R. K. Case study research: Design and methods 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Yin2003,
  author = {Yin, Robert K.},
  title = {Case study research: Design and methods},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {181},
  edition = {3rd}
}
Znaniecki, F. The method of sociology 1968   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Znaniecki1968,
  author = {Znaniecki, Florian},
  title = {The method of sociology},
  publisher = {Octagon Books},
  year = {1968},
  pages = {338}
}
Reflexivity: A practical guide for researchers in health and social sciences 2003   book  
BibTeX:
@book{FinlayGough2003,,
  title = {Reflexivity: A practical guide for researchers in health and social sciences},
  publisher = {Blackwell Sciences},
  year = {2003}
}
Lessons from the field : Applying appreciative inquiry 2001   book  
BibTeX:
@book{HammondRoyal2001,,
  title = {Lessons from the field : Applying appreciative inquiry},
  publisher = {Thin Book Publishing},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {295},
  edition = {Rev. ed.}
}
Qualitative researching with text, image and sound: A practical handbook 2000   book  
BibTeX:
@book{BauerGaskell2000,,
  title = {Qualitative researching with text, image and sound: A practical handbook},
  publisher = {Sage},
  year = {2000}
}

Created by JabRef on 01/09/2008.